Configure bundled load balancers with BGP

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This document describes how to set up and use bundled load balancers with Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) for Anthos clusters on bare metal. This load-balancing mode supports the advertisement of ServiceType LoadBalancer virtual IP addresses (VIPs) through external Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP) for your clusters. In this scenario, your cluster network is an autonomous system, which interconnects with another autonomous system, an external network, through peering.

The bundled load balancers with BGP capability apply to all cluster types, but admin clusters only support the control plane load-balancing part of this capability.

Using the bundled load balancers with BGP feature provides the following benefits:

  • Uses N-way active/active load-balancing capability, providing faster failover and more efficient use of available bandwidth.
  • Supports Layer 3 protocol that operates with third-party top-of-rack (ToR) switches and routers that are compatible with eBGP.
  • Enables data centers that are running an advanced software-defined networking (SDN) stack to push the Layer 3 boundary all the way to the clusters.

How bundled load balancing with BGP works

The following sections provide a quick summary of how bundled load balancers with BGP work.

BGP peering

The bundled load balancers with BGP feature starts several BGP connections to your infrastructure. BGP has the following technical requirements:

  • Peering sessions are separate for control plane VIP and for service VIPs.
  • Control plane peering sessions are initiated from the IP addresses of the control plane nodes.
  • Service peering sessions are initiated from floating IP addresses that you specify in the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource.
  • Anthos Network Gateway controller manages the floating IP addresses.
  • Bundled BGP-based load balancing supports eBGP peering only.
  • Multi-hop peering is supported by default.
  • MD5 passwords on BGP sessions are not supported.
  • IPv6-based peering sessions are not supported.
  • Routes advertised to any peer are expected to be redistributed throughout the network and reachable from anywhere else in the cluster.
  • Use of BGP ADD-PATH capability in receive mode is recommended for peering sessions.
  • Advertising multiple paths from each peer results in active/active load balancing.
  • Equal-cost multipath routing (ECMP) should be enabled for your network so that multiple paths can be used to spread traffic across a set of load balancer nodes.

Control plane load balancing

Each control plane node in your cluster establishes BGP sessions with one or more peers in your infrastructure. We require that each control plane node has at least one peer. In the cluster configuration file, you can configure which control plane nodes connect to which external peers.

The following diagram shows an example of control plane peering. The cluster has two control plane nodes in one subnet and one in another. There is an external peer (TOR) in each subnet and the Anthos clusters on bare metal control plane nodes peer with their TOR.

Service load balancing with BGP peering

Service load balancing

In addition to the peering sessions that are initiated from each control plane node for the control plane peering, additional peering sessions are initiated for LoadBalancer Services. These peering sessions are not initiated from cluster node IPs directly, but use floating IPs instead.

Services with an externalTrafficPolicy=Local network policy are not supported.

Floating IP addresses

Service load balancing requires you to reserve floating IP addresses in the cluster node subnets to use for BGP peering. At least one floating IP address is required for the cluster, but we recommend you reserve at least two addresses to ensure high availability for BGP sessions. The floating IP addresses are specified in the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource (CR), which can be included in the cluster configuration file.

Floating IP addresses remove the worry about mapping BGP speaker IP addresses to nodes. The Anthos Network Gateway controller takes care of assigning the NetworkGatewayGroup to nodes and also manages the floating IP addresses. If a node goes down, the Anthos Network Gateway controller reassigns floating IP addresses to ensure that external peers have a deterministic IP address to peer with.

External peers

For data plane load balancing, you can use the same external peers that were specified for control plane peering in the loadBalancer.controlPlaneBGP section of the cluster configuration file. Alternatively, you can specify different BGP peers.

If you want to specify different BGP peers for data plane peering, append BGPLoadBalancer and BGPPeer resource specifications to the cluster configuration file. If you don't specify these custom resources, the control plane peers are used automatically for the data plane.

You specify the external peers used for peering sessions with the floating IP addresses in the BGPPeer custom resource, which you add to the cluster configuration file. The BGPPeer resource includes a label for identification by the corresponding BGPLoadBalancer custom resource. You specify the matching label in the peerSelector field in the BGPLoadBalancer custom resource to select the BGPPeer for use.

The Anthos Network Gateway controller attempts to establish sessions (the number of sessions is configurable) to each external peer from the set of reserved floating IP addresses. We recommend that you specify at least two external peers to ensure high availability for BGP sessions. Each external peer designated for Services load balancing must be configured to peer with every floating IP address specified in the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource.

Load balancer nodes

A subset of nodes from the cluster is used for load balancing, which means they are the nodes advertised to be able to accept incoming load-balancing traffic. This set of nodes defaults to the control plane node pool, but you can specify a different node pool in the loadBalancer section of the cluster configuration file. If you specify a node pool, it is used for the load balancer nodes, instead of the control plane node pool.

The floating IP addresses, which function as BGP speakers, may or may not run on the load balancer nodes. The floating IP addresses are assigned to a node in the same subnet and peering is initiated from there, regardless of whether it is a load balancer node. However, next hops advertised over BGP are always the load balancer nodes.

Example peering topology

The following diagram shows an example of Service load balancing with BGP peering. There are two floating IP addresses assigned to nodes in their respective subnets. There are two external peers defined. Each floating IP peers with both external peers.

Service load balancing with BGP peering

Set up the BGP load balancer

The following sections describe how to configure your clusters and your external network to use the bundled load balancer with BGP.

Plan your integration with external infrastructure

In order to use the bundled load balancer with BGP, you must set up the external infrastructure:

  • External infrastructure must be configured to peer with each of the control plane nodes in the cluster to set up the control plane communication. These peering sessions are used to advertise the Kubernetes control plane VIPs.

  • External infrastructure must be configured to peer with a set of reserved floating IP addresses for data plane communication. The floating IP addresses are used for BGP peering for the Service VIPs. We recommend you use two floating IP addresses and two peers to ensure high availability for BGP sessions. The process of reserving floating IP is described as part of configuring your cluster for bundled load balancing with BGP.

When you've configured the infrastructure, add the BGP peering information to the cluster configuration file. The cluster you create can initiate peering sessions with the external infrastructure.

Configure your cluster for bundled load balancing with BGP

You enable and configure bundled load balancing with BGP in the cluster configuration file when you create a cluster. In the cluster configuration file, you enable advanced networking and update the loadBalancer section. You also append specifications for the following three custom resources:

  • NetworkGatewayGroup: specifies floating IP addresses that are used for Services BGP peering sessions.

  • BGPLoadBalancer: specifies with label selectors which peers are used for BGP load balancing.

  • BGPPeer: specifies individual peers, including a label for selection purposes, for BGP peering sessions.

The following instructions describe how to configure your cluster and the three custom resources to set up bundled load balancing with BGP.

  1. Add the advancedNetworking field to the cluster configuration file in the clusterNetwork section and set it to true.

    This field enables advanced networking capability, specifically the Network Gateway Group resource.

    apiVersion: baremetal.cluster.gke.io/v1
    kind: Cluster
    metadata:
      name: bm
      namespace: CLUSTER_NAMESPACE
    spec:
    ...
      clusterNetwork:
        advancedNetworking: true
    

    Replace CLUSTER_NAMESPACE with the namespace for the cluster. By default, the cluster namespaces for Anthos clusters on bare metal are the name of the cluster prefaced with cluster-. For example, if you name your cluster test, the namespace is cluster-test.

  2. In the loadBalancer section of the cluster configuration file, set mode to bundled and add a type field with a value of bgp.

    These field values enable BGP-based bundled load balancing.

    ...
      loadBalancer:
        mode: bundled
    
        # type can be 'bgp' or 'layer2'. If no type is specified, we default to layer2.
        type: bgp
        ...
    
  3. To specify the BGP-peering information for the control plane, add the following fields to the loadBalancer section:

        ...
        # AS number for the cluster
        localASN: CLUSTER_ASN
    
        # List of BGP peers used for the control plane peering sessions.
        bgpPeers:
        - ip: PEER_IP
          asn: PEER_ASN
          # optional; if not specified, all CP nodes connect to all peers.
          controlPlaneNodes:   # optional
          - CP_NODE_IP
    ...
    

    Replace the following:

    • CLUSTER_ASN: the autonomous system number for the cluster being created.
    • PEER_IP: the IP address of the external peer device.
    • PEER_ASN: the autonomous system number for the network that contains the external peer device.
    • CP_NODE_IP: (optional) the IP address of the control plane node that connects to the external peer. If you don't specify any control plane nodes, all control plane nodes can connect to the external peer. If you specify one or more IP addresses, only the nodes specified participate in peering sessions.

    You may specify multiple external peers, bgpPeers takes a list of mappings. We recommend you specify at least two external peers for high availability for BGP sessions. For an example with multiple peers, see Example configurations.

  4. Set the loadBalancer.ports, loadBalancer.vips, and loadBalancer.addressPools fields (default values shown).

    ...
      loadBalancer:
      ...
        # Other existing load balancer options remain the same
        ports:
          controlPlaneLBPort: 443
        # When type=bgp, the VIPs are advertised over BGP
        vips:
          controlPlaneVIP: 10.0.0.8
          ingressVIP: 10.0.0.1
    
        addressPools:
        - name: pool1
          addresses:
          - 10.0.0.1-10.0.0.4
    ...
    
  5. Specify the cluster node to use for load balancing the data plane.

    This step is optional. If you do not uncomment the nodePoolSpec section, the control plane nodes are used for data plane load balancing.

    ...
      # Node pool used for load balancing data plane (nodes where incoming traffic
      # arrives. If not specified, this defaults to the control plane node pool.
      # nodePoolSpec:
      #   nodes:
      #   - address: <Machine 1 IP>
    ...
    
  6. Reserve floating IP addresses by configuring the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource:

    The floating IP addresses are used in peering sessions for data plane load balancing.

    ...
    ---
    apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
    kind: NetworkGatewayGroup
    metadata:
      name: default
      namespace: CLUSTER_NAMESPACE
    spec:
      floatingIPs:
      - FLOATING_IP
    ...
    

    Replace the following:

    • CLUSTER_NAMESPACE: the namespace for the cluster. By default, the cluster namespaces for Anthos clusters on bare metal are the name of the cluster prefaced with cluster-. For example, if you name your cluster test, the namespace is cluster-test.
    • FLOATING_IP: an IP address from one of the cluster's subnets. You must specify at least one IP address, but we recommend you specify at least two IP addresses.

    Ensure the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource is named default and uses the cluster namespace. For an example of how the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource specification might look, see Example configurations.

  7. (Optional) Specify the peers to use for data plane load balancing by configuring the BGPLoadBalancer custom resource:

    ...
    ---
    apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
    kind: BGPLoadBalancer
    metadata:
      name: default
      namespace: CLUSTER_NAMESPACE
    spec:
      peerSelector:
        PEER_LABEL: "true"
    ...
    

    Replace the following:

    • CLUSTER_NAMESPACE: the namespace of the cluster. By default, the cluster namespaces for Anthos clusters on bare metal are the name of the cluster prefaced with cluster-. For example, if you name your cluster test, the namespace is cluster-test.
    • PEER_LABEL: the label used to identify which peers to use for load balancing. Any BGPPeer custom resource with a matching label specifies the details of each peer.

    Ensure the BGPLoadBalancer custom resource is named default and uses the cluster namespace. If you don't specify a BGPLoadBalancer custom resource, the control plane peers are used automatically for data plane load balancing. For comprehensive examples, see Example configurations.

  8. (Optional) Specify the external peers for the data plane by configuring one or more BGPPeer custom resources:

    ...
    ---
    apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
    kind: BGPPeer
    metadata:
      name: BGP_PEER_NAME
      namespace: CLUSTER_NAMESPACE
      labels:
        PEER_LABEL: "true"
    spec:
      localASN: CLUSTER_ASN
      peerASN: PEER_ASN
      peerIP: PEER_IP
      sessions: SESSION_QTY
      ...
    

    Replace the following:

    • BGP_PEER_NAME: the name of the peer.
    • CLUSTER_NAMESPACE: the namespace for the cluster. By default, the cluster namespaces for Anthos clusters on bare metal are the name of the cluster prefaced with cluster-. For example, if you name your cluster test, the namespace is cluster-test.
    • PEER_LABEL: the label used to identify which peers to use for load balancing. This label should correspond with the label specified in the BGPLoadBalancer custom resource.
    • CLUSTER_ASN: the autonomous system number for the cluster being created.
    • PEER_IP: the IP address of the external peer device. We recommend that you specify at least two external peers, but you must specify at least one.
    • PEER_ASN: the autonomous system number for the network that contains the external peer device.
    • SESSION_QTY: the number of sessions to establish for this peer. We recommend that you establish at least two sessions to ensure that you maintain a connection to the peer in case one of your nodes goes down.

    You may specify multiple external peers by creating additional BGPPeer custom resources. We recommend you specify at least two external peers (two custom resources) for high availability for BGP sessions. If you don't specify a BGPPeer custom resource, the control plane peers are used automatically for data plane load balancing.

  9. When you run bmctl cluster create to create your cluster, preflight checks run. Among other checks, the preflight checks validate the BGP peering configuration for the control plane and report any issues directly to the admin workstation before the cluster can be created.

We recommend that you use the BGP ADD-PATH capability for peering sessions as specified in RFC 7911. By default, the BGP protocol allows only a single next hop to be advertised to peers for a single prefix. BGP ADD-PATH enables advertising multiple next hops for the same prefix. When ADD-PATH is used with BGP-based bundled load balancing, the cluster can advertise multiple cluster nodes as frontend nodes (next hops) for a load balancer service (prefix). Enable ECMP in the network so that traffic can be spread over multiple paths. The ability to fan out traffic by advertising multiple cluster nodes as next hops, provides improved scaling of data plane capacity for load balancing.

If your external peer device, such as a top-of-rack (ToR) switch or router, supports BGP ADD-PATH, it is sufficient to turn on the receive extension only. Bundled load balancing with BGP works without the ADD-PATH capability, but the restriction of advertising a single load-balancing node per peering session limits load balancer data plane capacity. Without ADD-PATH, Anthos clusters on bare metal picks nodes to advertise from the load balancer node pool and attempts to spread next hops for different VIPs across different nodes.

Restrict BGP peering to load balancer nodes

Anthos clusters on bare metal automatically assigns floating IP addresses on any node in the same subnet as the floating IP address. BGP sessions are initiated from these IP addresses even if they do not land on the load balancer nodes. This behavior is by design, because we have decoupled the control plane (BGP) from the data plane (LB node pools).

If you want to restrict the set of nodes which can be used for BGP peering, you can designate one subnet to be used only for load balancer nodes. That is, you can configure all nodes in that subnet to be in the load balancer node pool. Then, when you configure floating IP addresses which are used for BGP peering, ensure they are from this same subnet. Anthos clusters on bare metal ensures that the floating IP address assignments and BGP peering take place from load balancer nodes only.

Example configurations

The following sections demonstrate how to configure BGP-based load balancing for different options or behavior.

Configure all nodes use the same peers

As shown in the following diagram, this configuration results in a set of external peers (10.8.0.10 and 10.8.0.11) that are reachable by all nodes. Control plane nodes (10.0.1.10, 10.0.1.11, and 10.0.1.12) and floating IP addresses (10.0.1.100 and 10.0.2.100) assigned to data plane nodes all reach the peers.

The same external peers are both reachable by either of the floating IP addresses (10.0.1.100 or 10.0.2.100) that are reserved for loadBalancer Services peering. The floating IP addresses can be assigned to nodes that are in the same subnet.

BGP load balancing where all nodes use the same peers

As shown in the following cluster configuration sample, you configure the peers for the control plane nodes, bgpPeers, without specifying controlPlaneNodes. When no nodes are specified for peers, then all control plane nodes connect to all peers.

You specify the floating IP addresses to use for Services load-balancing peering sessions in the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource. In this example, since no BGPLoadBalancer is specified, the control plane peers are used automatically for the data plane BGP sessions.

apiVersion: baremetal.cluster.gke.io/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: bm
  namespace: cluster-bm
spec:
...
  loadBalancer:
    mode: bundled

    # type can be 'bgp' or 'layer2'. If no type is specified, we default to layer2.
    type: bgp

    # AS number for the cluster
    localASN: 65001

    bgpPeers:
    - ip: 10.8.0.10
      asn: 65002
    - ip: 10.8.0.11
      asn: 65002

... (other cluster config omitted)
---
apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
kind: NetworkGatewayGroup
metadata:
  name: default
  namespace: cluster-bm
spec:
  floatingIPs:
  - 10.0.1.100
  - 10.0.2.100

Configure specific control plane nodes to peer with specific external peers

As shown in the following diagram, this configuration results in two control plane nodes (10.0.1.10 and 10.0.1.11) peering with one external peer (10.0.1.254). The third control plane node (10.0.2.10) is peering with another external peer (10.0.2.254). This configuration is useful when you don't want all nodes to connect to all peers. For example, you may want control plane nodes to peer with their corresponding top-of-rack (ToR) switches only.

The same external peers are both reachable by either of the floating IP addresses (10.0.1.100 or 10.0.2.100) that are reserved for Services load-balancing peering sessions. The floating IP addresses can be assigned to nodes that are in the same subnet.

BGP load balancing with explicit mapping of control plane nodes to peers

As shown in the following cluster configuration sample, you restrict which control plane nodes can connect to a given peer by specifying their IP addresses in the controlPlaneNodes field for the peer in the bgpPeers section.

You specify the floating IP addresses to use for Services load-balancing peering sessions in the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource. In this example, since no BGPLoadBalancer is specified, the control plane peers are used automatically for the data plane BGP sessions.

apiVersion: baremetal.cluster.gke.io/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: bm
  namespace: cluster-bm
spec:
...
  loadBalancer:
    mode: bundled

    # type can be 'bgp' or 'layer2'. If no type is specified, we default to layer2.
    type: bgp

    # AS number for the cluster
    localASN: 65001

    peers:
    - ip: 10.0.1.254
      asn: 65002
      controlPlaneNodes:
        - 10.0.1.10
        - 10.0.1.11
    - ip: 10.0.2.254
      asn: 65002
      controlPlaneNodes:
        - 10.0.2.10

... (other cluster config omitted)
---
apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
kind: NetworkGatewayGroup
  name: default
  namespace: cluster-bm
spec:
  floatingIPs:
  - 10.0.1.100
  - 10.0.2.100

Configure control plane and data plane separately

As shown in the following diagram, this configuration results in two control plane nodes (10.0.1.10 and 10.0.1.11) peering with one external peer (10.0.1.254) and the third control plane node (10.0.2.10) peering with another external peer (10.0.2.254).

A third external peer (10.0.3.254) is reachable by either of the floating IP addresses (10.0.3.100 or 10.0.3.101) that are reserved for Services load-balancing peering sessions. The floating IP addresses can be assigned to nodes that are in the same subnet.

BGP load balancing with separate configuration for control plane and data plane

As shown in the following cluster configuration sample, you restrict which control plane nodes can connect to a given peer by specifying their IP addresses in the controlPlaneNodes field for the peer in the bgpPeers section.

You specify the floating IP addresses to use for Services load-balancing peering sessions in the NetworkGatewayGroup custom resource.

To configure the data plane load balancing:

  • Specify the external peer for the data plane in the BGPPeer resource and add a label to use for peer selection, such as cluster.baremetal.gke.io/default-peer: "true".

  • Specify the matching label for the peerSelector field in the BGPLoadBalancer resource.

apiVersion: baremetal.cluster.gke.io/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: bm
  namespace: cluster-bm
spec:
...
  loadBalancer:
    mode: bundled

    # type can be 'bgp' or 'layer2'. If no type is specified, we default to layer2.
    type: bgp

    # AS number for the cluster
    localASN: 65001

    peers:
    - ip: 10.0.1.254
      asn: 65002
      controlPlaneNodes:
        - 10.0.1.10
        - 10.0.1.11
    - ip: 10.0.2.254
      asn: 65002
      controlPlaneNodes:
        - 10.0.2.11

... (other cluster config omitted)
---
apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
kind: NetworkGatewayGroup
  name: default
  namespace: cluster-bm
spec:
  floatingIPs:
  - 10.0.3.100
  - 10.0.3.101
---
apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
kind: BGPLoadBalancer
metadata:
  name: default
  namespace: cluster-bm
spec:
  peerSelector:
    cluster.baremetal.gke.io/default-peer: "true"
---
apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1
kind: BGPPeer
metadata:
  name: bgppeer1
  namespace: cluster-bm
  labels:
    cluster.baremetal.gke.io/default-peer: "true"
spec:
  localASN: 65001
  peerASN: 65002
  peerIP: 10.0.3.254
  sessions: 2

Modify your BGP-based load-balancing configuration

After you have created your cluster configured to use bundled load balancing with BGP, some configuration settings can be updated, but some can't be updated after the cluster is created.

Control plane

Control plane BGP-peering information can be updated in the Cluster resource. You may add or remove peers specified in the control plane load balancing section.

The following sections outline the best practices for updating your control plane BGP peering information.

Check peer status before updating

To minimize the risk of misconfiguring peers, check that control plane BGP peering sessions are in the expected state before making changes. For example, if you expect that all BGP peering sessions are currently up, then verify that all bgp-advertiser Pods report ready, indicating that the sessions are up. If the current status doesn't match what you expect, then fix the issue before updating a peer configuration.

For information about retrieving control plane BGP session details, see Control plane BGP sessions.

Update peers in a controlled manner

Update one peer at a time, if possible, to help isolate possible problems:

  1. Add or update a single peer.
  2. Wait for the configuration to reconcile.
  3. Verify that the cluster is able to connect to the new or updated peer.
  4. Remove the old or unneeded peers.

Services

To update address pools and load balancer node settings, edit nodePoolSpec in the Cluster resource.

To modify the BGP peering configuration after your cluster has been created, edit the NetworkGatewayGroup and BGPLoadBalancer custom resources. Any modifications to the peering information in these custom resources are reflected in the configuration of the load-balancing solution in the target cluster.

Make updates in the source resources in the cluster namespace in the admin cluster only. Any modifications made to the resources in the target (user) cluster are overwritten.

Troubleshooting

The following sections describe how to access troubleshooting information for bundled load balancing with BGP.

Control plane BGP sessions

The control plane BGP-peering configuration is validated with preflight checks during cluster creation. The preflight checks attempt to:

  • Establish a BGP connection with each peer.
  • Advertise the control plane VIP.
  • Verify that the control plane node can be reached, using the VIP.

If your cluster creation fails preflight checks, then review the preflight check logs for errors. Datestamped preflight check log files are located in the baremetal/bmctl-workspace/CLUSTER_NAME/log directory.

At runtime, the control plane BGP speakers run as static pods on each control plane node and write event information to logs. These static pods include "bgpadvertiser" in their name, so use the following kubectl get pods command to view the status of the BGP speaker Pods:

kubectl -n kube-system get pods | grep bgpadvertiser

When the Pods are operating properly, the response looks something like the following:

bgpadvertiser-node-01                            1/1     Running   1          167m
bgpadvertiser-node-02                            1/1     Running   1          165m
bgpadvertiser-node-03                            1/1     Running   1          163m

Use the following command to view the logs for the bgpadvertiser-node-01 Pod:

kubectl -n kube-system logs bgpadvertiser-node-01

Services BGP sessions

The BGPSession resource provides information about current BGP sessions. To get session information, first get the current sessions, then retrieve the BGPSession resource for one of the sessions.

Use the following kubectl get command to list the current sessions:

kubectl -n kube-system get bgpsessions

The command returns a list of sessions like the following example:

NAME               LOCAL ASN   PEER ASN   LOCAL IP     PEER IP      STATE            LAST REPORT
bgppeer1-node-03   65500       65000      10.0.1.178   10.0.1.254   Established      2s
bgppeer1-node-05   65500       65000      10.0.3.212   10.0.1.254   Established      2s
bgppeer2-node-03   65500       65000      10.0.1.178   10.0.3.254   Established      2s
bgppeer2-node-05   65500       65000      10.0.3.212   10.0.3.254   Established      2s

Use the following kubectl describe command to get the BGPSession resource for the 10.0.1.254-node-01 BGP session:

kubectl -n kube-system describe bgpsession 10.0.1.254-node-01

The BGPSession resource returned should look something like the following example:

Name:         10.0.1.254-node-01
Namespace:    kube-system
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  networking.gke.io/v1
Kind:         BGPSession
Metadata:
 (omitted)
Spec:
  Floating IP:  10.0.1.178
  Local ASN:    65500
  Local IP:     10.0.1.178
  Node Name:    node-01
  Peer ASN:     65000
  Peer IP:      10.0.1.254
Status:
  Advertised Routes:
    10.0.4.1/32
  Last Report Time:  2021-06-14T22:09:36Z
  State:             Established

Use the kubectl get command to get the BGPAdvertisedRoute resources:

kubectl -n kube-system get bgpadvertisedroutes

The response, which should look similar to the following example, shows the routes currently being advertised:

NAME                                    PREFIX           METRIC
default-default-load-balancer-example   10.1.1.34/32
default-gke-system-istio-ingress        10.1.1.107/32

Use kubectl describe to view details about which next hops each route is advertising.

Recovering access to the control plane VIP for self-managed clusters

To regain access to the control plane VIP on an admin, hybrid, or standalone cluster, you must update the BGP configuration on the cluster. As shown in the following command sample, use SSH to connect to the node, then use kubectl to open the cluster resource for editing.

ssh -i IDENTITY_FILE root@CLUSTER_NODE_IP

kubectl --kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf edit -n CLUSTER_NAMESPACE cluster CLUSTER_NAME

Replace the following:

  • IDENTITY_FILE: the name of the SSH identity file that contains the identity key for public key authentication.
  • CLUSTER_NODE_IP: the IP address for the cluster node.
  • CLUSTER_NAMESPACE: the namespace of the cluster.
  • CLUSTER_NAME: the name of the cluster.

Modify the BGP peering configuration in the cluster object. After saving the new cluster configuration, monitor the health of the bgpadvertiser pods. If the configuration works, then the pods restart and become healthy once they connect to their peers.

Manual BGP verification

This section contains instructions for manually verifying your BGP configuration. The procedure sets up a long-running BGP connection so that you can further debug the BGP configuration with your network team. Use this procedure to verify your configuration before you create a cluster or use it if BGP-related preflight checks fail.

Preflight checks automate the following BGP verification tasks:

  • Set up a BGP connection to a peer.
  • Advertise the control plane VIP.
  • Verify that traffic sent from all other cluster nodes to the VIP reaches the current load balancer node.

These tasks are run for each BGP peer on each control plane node. Passing these checks is critical when creating a cluster. The preflight checks, however, don't create long-running connections, so debugging a failure is difficult.

The following sections provide instructions to set up a BGP connection and advertise a route from a single cluster machine to one peer. To test multiple machines and multiple peers, repeat the instructions again, using a different machine and peer combination.

Remember that BGP connections are established from the control plane nodes, so be sure to test this procedure from one of your planned control plane nodes.

Obtain the BGP test program binary

Run the steps in this section on your admin workstation. These steps get the bgpadvertiser program that is used to test BGP connections and copy it to control plane nodes where you want to test.

  1. Pull the ansible-runner docker image.

    Without Registry Mirror

    If you don't use a registry mirror, run the following commands to pull the ansible-runner docker image:

    gcloud auth login
    gcloud auth configure-docker
    docker pull gcr.io/anthos-baremetal-release/ansible-runner:1.10.0-gke.13
    

    With Registry Mirror

    If you use a registry mirror, run the following commands to pull the ansible-runner docker image:

    docker login REGISTRY_HOST
    docker pull REGISTRY_HOST/anthos-baremetal-release/ansible-runner:1.10.0-gke.13
    

    Replace REGISTRY_HOST with the name of your registry mirror server.

  2. To extract the bgpadvertiser binary.

    Without Registry Mirror

    To extract the bgpadvertiser binary, run the following command:

    docker cp $(docker create gcr.io/anthos-baremetal-release/ansible-runner:1.10.0-gke.13):/bgpadvertiser .
    

    With Registry Mirror

    To extract the bgpadvertiser binary, run the following command:

    docker cp $(docker create REGISTRY_HOST/anthos-baremetal-release/ansible-runner:1.10.0-gke.13):/bgpadvertiser .
    
  3. To copy the bgpadvertiser binary to the control plane node that you want to test with, run the following command:

    scp bgpadvertiser USERNAME>@CP_NODE_IP:/tmp/
    

    Replace the following:

    • USERNAME: the username that you use to access the control plane node.

    • CP_NODE_IP: the IP address of the control plane node.

Set up a BGP connection

Run the steps in this section on a control plane node.

  1. Create a configuration file on the node at /tmp/bgpadvertiser.conf that looks like the following:

    localIP: NODE_IP
    localASN: CLUSTER_ASN
    peers:
    - peerIP: PEER_IP
      peerASN: PEER_ASN
    

    Replace the following:

    • NODE_IP: IP address of the control plane node that you're on.
    • CLUSTER_ASN: the autonomous system number used by the cluster.
    • PEER_IP: the IP address of one of the external peers you want to test.
    • PEER_ASN: the autonomous system number for the network that contains the external peer device.
  2. Run the bgpadvertiser daemon, substituting the control plane VIP in the following command:

    /tmp/bgpadvertiser --config /tmp/bgpadvertiser.conf --advertise-ip CONTROL_PLANE_VIP
    

    Replace CONTROL_PLANE_VIP with the IP address that you're going to use for your control plane VIP. This command causes the BGP advertiser to advertise this address to the peer.

  3. View the program output.

    At this point, the bgpadvertiser daemon starts up, attempts to connect to the peer, and advertises the VIP. The program periodically prints messages (see the following sample output) that include BGP_FSM_ESTABLISHED when the BGP connection is established.

    {"level":"info","ts":1646788815.5588224,"logger":"BGPSpeaker","msg":"GoBGP gRPC debug endpoint disabled","localIP":"21.0.101.64"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1646788815.5596201,"logger":"BGPSpeaker","msg":"Started.","localIP":"21.0.101.64"}
    I0309 01:20:15.559667 1320826 main.go:154] BGP advertiser started.
    I0309 01:20:15.561434 1320826 main.go:170] Health status HTTP server started at "127.0.0.1:8080".
    INFO[0000] Add a peer configuration for:21.0.101.80      Topic=Peer
    {"level":"info","ts":1646788815.5623345,"logger":"BGPSpeaker","msg":"Peer added.","localIP":"21.0.101.64","peer":"21.0.101.80/4273481989"}
    DEBU[0000] IdleHoldTimer expired                         Duration=0 Key=21.0.101.80 Topic=Peer
    I0309 01:20:15.563503 1320826 main.go:187] Peer applied: {4273481989 21.0.101.80}
    DEBU[0000] state changed                                 Key=21.0.101.80 Topic=Peer new=BGP_FSM_ACTIVE old=BGP_FSM_IDLE reason=idle-hold-timer-expired
    DEBU[0000] create Destination                            Nlri=10.0.0.1/32 Topic=Table
    {"level":"info","ts":1646788815.5670514,"logger":"BGPSpeaker","msg":"Route added.","localIP":"21.0.101.64","route":{"ID":0,"Metric":0,"NextHop":"21.0.101.64","Prefix":"10.0.0.1/32","VRF":""}}
    I0309 01:20:15.568029 1320826 main.go:199] Route added: {0 0 21.0.101.64 10.0.0.1/32 }
    I0309 01:20:15.568073 1320826 main.go:201] BGP advertiser serving...
    DEBU[0005] try to connect                                Key=21.0.101.80 Topic=Peer
    DEBU[0005] state changed                                 Key=21.0.101.80 Topic=Peer new=BGP_FSM_OPENSENT old=BGP_FSM_ACTIVE reason=new-connection
    DEBU[0005] state changed                                 Key=21.0.101.80 Topic=Peer new=BGP_FSM_OPENCONFIRM old=BGP_FSM_OPENSENT reason=open-msg-received
    INFO[0005] Peer Up                                       Key=21.0.101.80 State=BGP_FSM_OPENCONFIRM Topic=Peer
    DEBU[0005] state changed                                 Key=21.0.101.80 Topic=Peer new=BGP_FSM_ESTABLISHED old=BGP_FSM_OPENCONFIRM reason=open-msg-negotiated
    DEBU[0005] sent update                                   Key=21.0.101.80 State=BGP_FSM_ESTABLISHED Topic=Peer attributes="[{Origin: i} 4273481990 {Nexthop: 21.0.101.64}]" nlri="[10.0.0.1/32]" withdrawals="[]"
    DEBU[0006] received update                               Key=21.0.101.80 Topic=Peer attributes="[{Origin: i} 4273481989 4273481990 {Nexthop: 21.0.101.64}]" nlri="[10.0.0.1/32]" withdrawals="[]"
    DEBU[0006] create Destination                            Nlri=10.0.0.1/32 Topic=Table
    DEBU[0035] sent                                          Key=21.0.101.80 State=BGP_FSM_ESTABLISHED Topic=Peer data="&{{[] 19 4} 0x166e528}"
    DEBU[0065] sent                                          Key=21.0.101.80 State=BGP_FSM_ESTABLISHED Topic=Peer data="&{{[] 19 4} 0x166e528}"
    

If you do not see these messages, then double-check the BGP configuration parameters in the config file and verify with the network administrator. Now you have a BGP connection set up. You can verify with the network administrator that they see the connection established on their side and that they see the route advertised to them.

Traffic test

To test that the network can forward traffic to the VIP, you must add the VIP to your control plane node that's running bgpadvertiser. Run the following command in a different terminal so you can leave the bgpadvertiser running:

  1. Add the VIP to your control plane node:

    ip addr add CONTROL_PLANE_VIP/32 dev INTF_NAME
    

    Replace the following:

    • CONTROL_PLANE_VIP: the VIP --advertise-ip argument of the bgpadvertiser.
    • INTF_NAME: the Kubernetes interface on the node. That is, the interface that has the IP address that you put in the Anthos clusters on bare metal configuration for loadBalancer.bgpPeers.controlPlaneNodes.
  2. Ping the VIP from a different node:

    ping CONTROL_PLANE_VIP
    

    If the ping does not succeed, then there may be an issue with the BGP configuration on the network device. Work with your network administrator to verify the configuration and resolve the issue.

Clean up

Be sure to follow these steps to reset the node after you've manually verified that BGP is working. If you don't reset the node properly, the manual setup may interfere with the preflight check or subsequent cluster creation.

  1. Remove the VIP from the control plane node if you added it for the traffic test:

    ip addr del CONTROL_PLANE_VIP/32 dev INTF_NAME
    
  2. On the control plane node, press Ctrl+C in the bgpadvertiser terminal to stop the bgpadvertiser.

  3. Verify that no bgpadvertiser processes are running:

    ps -ef | grep bgpadvertiser
    
  4. If you see processes running, then stop them using the kill command.