Getting Started with Security Rules

With Cloud Firestore Security Rules, you can focus on building a great user experience without having to manage infrastructure or write server-side authentication and authorization code.

Security rules provide access control and data validation in a simple yet expressive format. To build user-based and role-based access systems that keep your users' data safe, you need to use Firebase Authentication with Cloud Firestore Security Rules.

Writing rules

All Cloud Firestore Security Rules consist of match statements, which identify documents in your database, and allow expressions, which control access to those documents:

service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{database}/documents {
    match /<some_path>/ {
      allow read, write: if <some_condition>;
    }
  }
}

Every database request from a Cloud Firestore mobile/web client library is evaluated against your security rules before reading or writing any data. If the rules deny access to any of the specified document paths, the entire request fails.

Below are some examples of basic rule sets. While these rules are valid, they are not recommended for production applications:

Auth required

// Allow read/write access on all documents to any user signed in to the application
service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{database}/documents {
    match /{document=**} {
      allow read, write: if request.auth.uid != null;
    }
  }
}

Deny all

// Deny read/write access to all users under any conditions
service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{database}/documents {
    match /{document=**} {
      allow read, write: if false;
    }
  }
}

Allow all

// Allow read/write access to all users under any conditions
// Warning: **NEVER** use this rule set in production; it allows
// anyone to overwrite your entire database.
service cloud.firestore {
  match /databases/{database}/documents {
    match /{document=**} {
      allow read, write: if true;
    }
  }
}

The {document=**} path used in the examples above matches any document in the entire database. Continue on to the guide for structuring security rules to learn how to match specific data paths and work with hierarchical data.

Testing rules

Cloud Firestore provides a rules simulator that you can use to test your ruleset. You can access the simulator from the Rules tab in the Cloud Firestore section of the Firebase console.

The rules simulator lets you simulate authenticated and unauthenticated reads, writes, and deletes. When you simulate an authenticated request, you can build and preview authentication tokens from various providers. Simulated requests run against the ruleset in your editor, not your currently deployed ruleset.

Deploying rules

Before you can start using Cloud Firestore from your mobile app, you will need to deploy security rules. You can deploy rules in the Firebase console or using the Firebase CLI.

Use the Firebase console

To set up and deploy your first set of rules, open the Rules tab in the Cloud Firestore section of the Firebase console.

Write your rules in the online editor, then click Publish.

Use the Firebase CLI

You can also deploy rules using the Firebase CLI. Using the CLI allows you to keep your rules under version control with your application code and deploy rules as part of your existing deployment process.

// Set up Firestore in your project directory, creates a .rules file
firebase init firestore

// Edit the generated .rules file to your desired security rules
// ...

// Deploy your .rules file
firebase deploy --only firestore:rules

Next steps

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