Source code for google.appengine.api.urlfetch

#!/usr/bin/env python
#
# Copyright 2007 Google Inc.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
#




"""URL downloading API."""










import httplib
import os
import StringIO
import threading
import UserDict
import urllib2
import urlparse

from google.appengine.api import apiproxy_stub_map
from google.appengine.api import urlfetch_service_pb
from google.appengine.api.urlfetch_errors import *
from google.appengine.runtime import apiproxy_errors



MAX_REDIRECTS = 5


GET = 1
POST = 2
HEAD = 3
PUT = 4
DELETE = 5
PATCH = 6

_URL_STRING_MAP = {
    'GET': GET,
    'POST': POST,
    'HEAD': HEAD,
    'PUT': PUT,
    'DELETE': DELETE,
    'PATCH': PATCH,
}

_VALID_METHODS = frozenset(_URL_STRING_MAP.values())

_thread_local_settings = threading.local()


class _CaselessDict(UserDict.IterableUserDict):
  """Case insensitive dictionary.

  This class was lifted from os.py and slightly modified.
  """

  def __init__(self, dict=None, **kwargs):
    self.caseless_keys = {}
    UserDict.IterableUserDict.__init__(self, dict, **kwargs)

  def __setitem__(self, key, item):
    """Sets dictionary item.

    Args:
      key: Key of new item. Key is case insensitive, so `d['Key'] = value`
          will replace previous values set by `d['key'] = old_value`.
      item: Item to store.
    """
    caseless_key = key.lower()

    if caseless_key in self.caseless_keys:
      del self.data[self.caseless_keys[caseless_key]]
    self.caseless_keys[caseless_key] = key
    self.data[key] = item

  def __getitem__(self, key):
    """Gets dictionary item.

    Args:
      key: Key of item to get. Key is case insensitive, so `d['Key']` is the
          same as `d['key']`.

    Returns:
      Item associated with key.

    Raises:
      KeyError: If the key is not found.
    """
    return self.data[self.caseless_keys[key.lower()]]

  def __delitem__(self, key):
    """Removes item from dictionary.

    Args:
      key: Key of item to remove.  Key is case insensitive, so `del d['Key']` is
          the same as `del d['key']`
    """
    caseless_key = key.lower()
    del self.data[self.caseless_keys[caseless_key]]
    del self.caseless_keys[caseless_key]

  def has_key(self, key):
    """Determines if the dictionary has an item with a specific key.

    Args:
      key: Key to check for presence. Key is case insensitive, so
          `d.has_key('Key')` evaluates to the same value as `d.has_key('key')`.

    Returns:
      True if dictionary contains the specified key, else False.
    """
    return key.lower() in self.caseless_keys

  def __contains__(self, key):
    """Same as `has_key`, but used for `in` operator."""
    return self.has_key(key)

  def get(self, key, failobj=None):
    """Gets dictionary item, defaulting to another value if it does not exist.

    Args:
      key: Key of item to get. Key is case insensitive, so `d['Key']` is the
          same as `d['key']`.
      failobj: Value to return if key not in dictionary.

    Returns:
      A dictionary item.
    """
    try:
      cased_key = self.caseless_keys[key.lower()]
    except KeyError:
      return failobj
    return self.data[cased_key]

  def update(self, dict=None, **kwargs):
    """Updates the dictionary using values from another dictionary and keywords.

    Args:
      dict: Dictionary to update from.
      **kwargs: Keyword arguments to update from.
    """
    if dict:
      try:
        keys = dict.keys()
      except AttributeError:

        for k, v in dict:
          self[k] = v
      else:



        for k in keys:
          self[k] = dict[k]
    if kwargs:
      self.update(kwargs)

  def copy(self):
    """Makes a shallow, case-sensitive copy of `self`.

    Returns:
      A dictionary copy of `self`.
    """
    return dict(self)


def _is_fetching_self(url, method):
  """Checks if the fetch is for the same URL from which it originated.

  Args:
    url: str; the URL being fetched.
    method: Value from `_VALID_METHODS`.

  Returns:
    Boolean indicating whether or not it seems that the app is trying to fetch
        itself.
  """
  if (method != GET or
      "HTTP_HOST" not in os.environ or
      "PATH_INFO" not in os.environ):
    return False

  _, host_port, path, _, _ = urlparse.urlsplit(url)

  if host_port == os.environ['HTTP_HOST']:
    current_path = urllib2.unquote(os.environ['PATH_INFO'])
    desired_path = urllib2.unquote(path)

    if (current_path == desired_path or
        (current_path in ('', '/') and desired_path in ('', '/'))):
      return True

  return False


[docs]def create_rpc(deadline=None, callback=None): """Creates an RPC object for use with the urlfetch API. Args: deadline: Optional deadline in seconds for the operation; the default is a system-specific deadline (typically 5 seconds). callback: Optional callable to invoke on completion. Returns: An `apiproxy_stub_map.UserRPC` object specialized for this service. """ if deadline is None: deadline = get_default_fetch_deadline() return apiproxy_stub_map.UserRPC('urlfetch', deadline, callback)
[docs]def fetch(url, payload=None, method=GET, headers={}, allow_truncated=False, follow_redirects=True, deadline=None, validate_certificate=None): """Fetches the given HTTP URL, blocking until the result is returned. URLs are fetched using one of the following HTTP methods: - GET - POST - HEAD - PUT - DELETE - PATCH To fetch the result, a HTTP/1.1-compliant proxy is used. Args: method: The constants `GET`, `POST`, `HEAD`, `PUT`, `DELETE`, or `PATCH` or the same HTTP methods as strings. payload: `POST`, `PUT`, or `PATCH` payload (implies method is not `GET`, `HEAD`, or `DELETE`). This argument is ignored if the method is not `POST`, `PUT`, or `PATCH`. headers: Dictionary of HTTP headers to send with the request. allow_truncated: If set to `True`, truncates large responses and returns them without raising an error. Otherwise, a `ResponseTooLargeError` is raised when a response is truncated. follow_redirects: If set to `True` (the default), redirects are transparently followed, and the response (if less than 5 redirects) contains the final destination's payload; the response status is 200. You lose, however, the redirect chain information. If set to `False`, you see the HTTP response yourself, including the 'Location' header, and redirects are not followed. deadline: Deadline in seconds for the operation. validate_certificate: If set to `True`, requests are not sent to the server unless the certificate is valid, signed by a trusted CA, and the host name matches the certificate. A value of `None` indicates that the behavior will be chosen by the underlying `urlfetch` implementation. Returns: tuple: A tuple containing: - content: A string that contains the response from the server. - status_code: The HTTP status code that was returned by the server. - headers: The dictionary of headers that was returned by the server. Raises: urlfetch_errors.Error: If an error occurs. See the `urlfetch_errors`_ module for more information. Note: HTTP errors are returned as a part of the return structure. HTTP errors like 404 do not result in an exception. .. _urlfetch_errors: http://cloud.google.com/appengine/docs/python/refdocs/google.appengine.api.urlfetch_errors """ rpc = create_rpc(deadline=deadline) make_fetch_call(rpc, url, payload, method, headers, allow_truncated, follow_redirects, validate_certificate) return rpc.get_result()
[docs]def make_fetch_call(rpc, url, payload=None, method=GET, headers={}, allow_truncated=False, follow_redirects=True, validate_certificate=None): """Executes the RPC call to fetch a given HTTP URL. The first argument is a UserRPC instance. See `urlfetch.fetch` for a thorough description of the remaining arguments. Raises: InvalidMethodError: If the requested method is not in `_VALID_METHODS`. ResponseTooLargeError: If the response payload is too large. InvalidURLError: If there are issues with the content or size of the requested URL Returns: The RPC object that was passed into the function. """ assert rpc.service == 'urlfetch', repr(rpc.service) if isinstance(method, basestring): method = method.upper() method = _URL_STRING_MAP.get(method, method) if method not in _VALID_METHODS: raise InvalidMethodError('Invalid method %s.' % str(method)) if _is_fetching_self(url, method): raise InvalidURLError("App cannot fetch the same URL as the one used for " "the request.") request = urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchRequest() response = urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchResponse() if isinstance(url, unicode): url = url.encode('UTF-8') request.set_url(url) if method == GET: request.set_method(urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchRequest.GET) elif method == POST: request.set_method(urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchRequest.POST) elif method == HEAD: request.set_method(urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchRequest.HEAD) elif method == PUT: request.set_method(urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchRequest.PUT) elif method == DELETE: request.set_method(urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchRequest.DELETE) elif method == PATCH: request.set_method(urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchRequest.PATCH) if payload and method in (POST, PUT, PATCH): request.set_payload(payload) for key, value in headers.iteritems(): header_proto = request.add_header() header_proto.set_key(key) header_proto.set_value(str(value)) request.set_followredirects(follow_redirects) if validate_certificate is not None: request.set_mustvalidateservercertificate(validate_certificate) if rpc.deadline is not None: request.set_deadline(rpc.deadline) rpc.make_call('Fetch', request, response, _get_fetch_result, allow_truncated) return rpc
def _get_fetch_result(rpc): """Checks for success, handles exceptions, and returns a converted RPC result. This method waits for the RPC if it has not yet finished and calls the post-call hooks on the first invocation. Args: rpc: A UserRPC object. Raises: InvalidURLError: If the URL was invalid. DownloadError: If there was a problem fetching the URL. PayloadTooLargeError: If the request and its payload was larger than the allowed limit. ResponseTooLargeError: If the response was either truncated (and `allow_truncated=False` was passed to `make_fetch_call()`), or if it was too big for us to download. MalformedReplyError: If an invalid HTTP response was returned. TooManyRedirectsError: If the redirect limit was hit while `follow_rediects` was set to `True`. InternalTransientError: An internal error occurred. Wait a few minutes, then try again. ConnectionClosedError: If the target server prematurely closed the connection. DNSLookupFailedError: If the DNS lookup for the URL failed. DeadlineExceededError: If the deadline was exceeded; occurs when the client-supplied `deadline` is invalid or if the client did not specify a `deadline` and the system default value is invalid. SSLCertificateError: If an invalid server certificate was presented. AssertionError: If the `assert` statement fails. Returns: A `_URLFetchResult` object. """ assert rpc.service == 'urlfetch', repr(rpc.service) assert rpc.method == 'Fetch', repr(rpc.method) url = rpc.request.url() try: rpc.check_success() except apiproxy_errors.RequestTooLargeError, err: raise InvalidURLError( 'Request body too large fetching URL: ' + url) except apiproxy_errors.ApplicationError, err: error_detail = '' if err.error_detail: error_detail = ' Error: ' + err.error_detail if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.INVALID_URL): raise InvalidURLError( 'Invalid request URL: ' + url + error_detail) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.PAYLOAD_TOO_LARGE): raise PayloadTooLargeError( 'Request exceeds 10 MiB limit for URL: ' + url) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.CLOSED): raise ConnectionClosedError( 'Connection closed unexpectedly by server at URL: ' + url) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.TOO_MANY_REDIRECTS): raise TooManyRedirectsError( 'Too many redirects at URL: ' + url + ' with redirect=true') if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.MALFORMED_REPLY): raise MalformedReplyError( 'Malformed HTTP reply received from server at URL: ' + url + error_detail) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.INTERNAL_TRANSIENT_ERROR): raise InternalTransientError( 'Temporary error in fetching URL: ' + url + ', please re-try') if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.DNS_ERROR): raise DNSLookupFailedError('DNS lookup failed for URL: ' + url) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.UNSPECIFIED_ERROR): raise DownloadError('Unspecified error in fetching URL: ' + url + error_detail) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.FETCH_ERROR): raise DownloadError("Unable to fetch URL: " + url + error_detail) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.RESPONSE_TOO_LARGE): raise ResponseTooLargeError('HTTP response too large from URL: ' + url) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.DEADLINE_EXCEEDED): raise DeadlineExceededError( 'Deadline exceeded while waiting for HTTP response from URL: ' + url) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.SSL_CERTIFICATE_ERROR): raise SSLCertificateError( 'Invalid and/or missing SSL certificate for URL: ' + url) if (err.application_error == urlfetch_service_pb.URLFetchServiceError.CONNECTION_ERROR): raise DownloadError('Unable to connect to server at URL: ' + url) raise err response = rpc.response allow_truncated = rpc.user_data result = _URLFetchResult(response) if response.contentwastruncated() and not allow_truncated: raise ResponseTooLargeError(result) return result Fetch = fetch class _URLFetchResult(object): """A Pythonic representation of our fetch response protocol buffer.""" def __init__(self, response_proto): """Constructor. Args: response_proto: The `URLFetchResponse` protocol buffer to wrap. """ self.__pb = response_proto self.content = response_proto.content() self.status_code = response_proto.statuscode() self.content_was_truncated = response_proto.contentwastruncated() self.final_url = response_proto.finalurl() or None self.header_msg = httplib.HTTPMessage( StringIO.StringIO(''.join(['%s: %s\n' % (h.key(), h.value()) for h in response_proto.header_list()] + ['\n']))) self.headers = _CaselessDict(self.header_msg.items())
[docs]def get_default_fetch_deadline(): """Gets the default value for `create_rpc()`'s deadline parameter.""" return getattr(_thread_local_settings, "default_fetch_deadline", None)
[docs]def set_default_fetch_deadline(value): """Sets the default value for `create_rpc()`'s `deadline` parameter. This setting is thread-specific, meaning it that is stored in a thread local. This function doesn't check the type or range of the value. The default value is `None`. See also: `create_rpc()`, `fetch()` Args: value: The default value that you want to use for the `deadline` parameter of `create_rpc()`. """ _thread_local_settings.default_fetch_deadline = value

Send feedback about...

App Engine standard environment for Python