This page contains a summary of best practices drawn from other pages in the Cloud Storage documentation. You can use the best practices listed here as a quick reference of what to keep in mind when building an application that uses Cloud Storage. Follow these best practices when launching a commercial application.
If you are just starting out with Cloud Storage, this page may not be the best place to start, because it does not teach you the basics of how to use Cloud Storage. If you are a new user, we suggest that you start with Quickstart: Using the Console or Quickstart: Using the gsutil tool.
If you need a lot of buckets, use GUIDs or an equivalent for bucket names, put retry logic in your code to handle name collisions, and keep a list to cross-reference your buckets. Another option is to use domain-named buckets and manage the bucket names as sub-domains.
Don't use user IDs, email addresses, project names, project numbers, or any personally identifiable information (PII) in bucket names because anyone can probe for the existence of a bucket. Similarly, be very careful with putting PII in your object names, because object names appear in URLs for the object.
Avoid using sequential object names such as timestamp-based object names if you are uploading many objects in parallel. Objects with sequential names are stored consecutively, so they are likely to hit the same backend server. When this happens, throughput is constrained. In order to achieve optimal throughput, add the hash of the sequence number as part of the object name to make it non-sequential. For more information, see Request Rate and Access Distribution Guidelines.
Perform a back-of-the-envelope estimation of the amount of traffic that will be sent to Cloud Storage. Specifically, think about:
Operations per second. How many operations per second do you expect, for both buckets and objects, and for create, update, and delete operations.
Bandwidth. How much data will be sent, over what time frame?
Cache control. Specifying the
Cache-Controlmetadata on objects will benefit read latency on hot or frequently accessed objects. See Viewing and Editing Metadata for instructions for setting object metadata, such as
Design your application to minimize spikes in traffic. If there are clients of your application doing updates, spread them out throughout the day.
To improve performance for publicly cacheable objects, proxy data transfers through a Google App Engine application located in the same location as your bucket.
For the best performance when scaling to high request rates, follow the Request Rate and Access Distribution Guidelines.
If you get an error:
Use exponential backoff as part of your retry strategy in order to avoid problems due to large traffic bursts.
Retry using a new connection and possibly re-resolve the domain name. This helps avoid "server stickiness", where a retry attempts to go through the same path and hits the same unhealthy component that the initial request hit.
If your application is latency sensitive, use hedged requests. Hedged requests allow you to retry faster and cut down on tail latency. They do this while not reducing your request deadline, which could cause requests to time out prematurely. For more information, see The Tail at Scale.
Understand the performance level customers expect from your application. This information helps you choose a storage option and region when creating new buckets.
Regions & data storage options
Data that will be served at a high rate with high availability should use the Standard Storage class. This class provides the best availability with the trade-off of a higher price.
Store your data in a region closest to your application's users. For instance, for EU data you might choose an EU bucket, and for US data you might choose a US bucket. For more information, see Bucket Locations.
Keep compliance requirements in mind when choosing a location for user data. Are there legal requirements around the locations that your users will be providing data?
Security, ACLs, and access control
The first and foremost precaution is: Never share your credentials. Each user should have distinct credentials.
When you print out HTTP protocol details, your authentication credentials, such as OAuth 2.0 tokens, are visible in the headers. If you need to post protocol details to a message board or need to supply HTTP protocol details for troubleshooting, make sure that you sanitize or revoke any credentials that appear as part of the output.
Always use TLS (HTTPS) to transport your data when you can. This ensures that your credentials as well as your data are protected as you transport data over the network. For example, to access the Cloud Storage API, you should use https://storage.googleapis.com.
Make sure that you use an HTTPS library that validates server certificates. A lack of server certificate validation makes your application vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks or other attacks. Be aware that HTTPS libraries shipped with certain commonly used implementation languages do not, by default, verify server certificates. For example, Python before version 3.2 has no built-in or complete support for server certificate validation, and you need to use third-party wrapper libraries to ensure your application validates server certificates.
When applications no longer need access to your data, you should revoke their authentication credentials. For Google services and APIs, you can do this by logging into your Google Account Permissions and clicking on the unneeded applications, then clicking Remove Access.
Make sure that you securely store your credentials. This can be done differently depending on your environment and where you store your credentials. For example, if you store your credentials in a configuration file, make sure that you set appropriate permissions on that file to prevent unwanted access. If you are using Google App Engine, consider using
StorageByKeyNameto store your credentials.
Cloud Storage requests refer to buckets and objects by their names. As a result, even though ACLs will prevent unauthorized third parties from operating on buckets or objects, a third party can attempt requests with bucket or object names and determine their existence by observing the error responses. It can then be possible for information in bucket or object names to be leaked. If you are concerned about the privacy of your bucket or object names, you should take appropriate precautions, such as:
Choosing bucket and object names that are difficult to guess. For example, a bucket named
mybucket-gtbytul3is random enough that unauthorized third parties cannot feasibly guess it or enumerate other bucket names from it.
Avoiding use of sensitive information as part of bucket or object names. For example, instead of naming your bucket
mysecretproject-prodbucket, name it
somemeaninglesscodename-prod. In some applications, you may want to keep sensitive metadata in custom Cloud Storage headers such as
x-goog-meta, rather than encoding the metadata in object names.
Use groups in preference to explicitly listing large numbers of users. Not only does it scale better, it also provides a very efficient way to update the access control for a large number of objects all at once. Lastly, it’s cheaper as you don’t need to make a request per-object to change the ACLs.
Before adding objects to a bucket, check that the default object ACLs are set to your requirements first. This could save you a lot of time updating ACLs for individual objects.
Bucket and object ACLs are independent of each other, which means that the ACLs on a bucket do not affect the ACLs on objects inside that bucket. It is possible for a user without permissions for a bucket to have permissions for an object inside the bucket. For example, you can create a bucket such that only GroupA is granted permission to list the objects in the bucket, but then upload an object into that bucket that allows GroupB
READaccess to the object. GroupB will be able to read the object, but will not be able to view the contents of the bucket or perform bucket-related tasks.
The Cloud Storage access control system includes the ability to specify that objects are publicly readable. Make sure you intend for any objects you write with this permission to be public. Once "published", data on the Internet can be copied to many places, so it's effectively impossible to regain read control over an object written with this permission.
The Cloud Storage access control system includes the ability to specify that buckets are publicly writable. While configuring a bucket this way can be convenient for various purposes, we recommend against using this permission - it can be abused for distributing illegal content, viruses, and other malware, and the bucket owner is legally and financially responsible for the content stored in their buckets.
If you need to make content available securely to users who don't have Google accounts we recommend you use signed URLs. For example, with signed URLs you can provide a link to an object and your application's customers do not need to authenticate with Cloud Storage to access the object. When you create a signed URL you control the type (read, write, delete) and duration of access.
If you use XMLHttpRequest (XHR) callbacks to get progress updates, do not close and re-open the connection if you detect that progress has stalled. Doing so creates a bad positive feedback loop during times of network congestion. When the network is congested, XHR callbacks can get backlogged behind the acknowledgement (ACK/NACK) activity from the upload stream, and closing and reopening the connection when this happens uses more network capacity at exactly the time when you can least afford it.
For upload traffic, we recommend setting reasonably long timeouts. For a good end-user experience, you can set a client-side timer that updates the client status window with a message (e.g., "network congestion") when your application hasn't received an XHR callback for a long time. Don't just close the connection and try again when this happens.
If you use Compute Engine instances with processes that
POSTto Cloud Storage to initiate a resumable upload, then you should use Compute Engine instances in the same locations as your Cloud Storage buckets. You can then use a geo IP service to pick the Compute Engine region to which you route customer requests, which helps keep traffic localized to a geo-region.
For resumable uploads, the resumable session should stay in the region in which it was created. Doing so reduces cross-region traffic that arises when reading and writing the session state, improving resumable upload performance.
Avoid breaking a transfer into smaller chunks if possible and instead upload the entire content in a single chunk. Avoiding chunking removes added latency costs from committed offset queries for each chunk and improves throughput, as well as reducing QPS against Cloud Storage. However, you should consider uploading in chunks when:
- Your source data is being generated dynamically and you want to limit how much of it you need to buffer client-side in case the upload fails.
- Your clients have request size limitations, as is the case for many browsers.
If your clients receive an error, they can query the server for the commit offset and resume uploading remaining bytes from that offset.
An easy and convenient way to reduce the bandwidth needed for each request is to enable gzip compression. Although this requires additional CPU time to uncompress the results, the trade-off with network costs usually makes it very worthwhile.
An object that was uploaded in gzip format can generally be served in gzip format as well. However, avoid uploading content that has both
content-encoding: gzipand a
content-typethat is compressed, as this may lead to unexpected behavior.
If you are concerned that your application software or users might erroneously delete or replace objects at some point, Cloud Storage has features that help you protect your data:
Object versioning can be enabled on a bucket in order to retain older versions of objects. When the live version of an object is deleted or replaced, it becomes noncurrent if versioning is enabled on the bucket. If you accidentally delete a live object version, you can restore the noncurrent version of it back to the live version.
Object Versioning increases storage costs, but this can be partially mitigated by configuring Object Lifecycle Management to delete older object versions. For one possible setup, see the lifecycle configuration example for deleting objects.
If you want to bulk delete a hundred thousand or more objects, avoid using gsutil, as the process takes a long time to complete. Instead, use one of the following options:
The Cloud Console can bulk delete up to several million objects and does so in the background. The Cloud Console can also be used to bulk delete only those objects that share a common prefix, which appear as part of a folder when using the Cloud Console.
Object Lifecycle Management can bulk delete any number of objects. To bulk delete objects in your bucket, set a lifecycle configuration rule on your bucket where the condition has
Ageset to 0 days, and the action is set to
Delete. Be aware that during the deletion process, object listing for the affected bucket may be impacted.
Object listing can become temporarily very slow and, as a result, you may
experience an increased rate of
5xx errors after deleting millions of objects
in a bucket. This can happen both when sending the deletion requests yourself or
when deleting through Object Lifecycle Management rules.
This behavior occurs because the deleted records are not purged from the underlying storage system immediately, which means object listing must skip over the deleted records when finding the objects to return. Eventually the deleted records are removed from the underlying storage system, and object listing performance becomes normal again. This typically takes a few hours, but in some cases may take a few days.
You should design your workload to avoid listing an object range with a lot of recent deletions. For example, if you are trying to delete objects from a bucket by repeatedly listing objects and deleting the results of each listing, you should use the page token returned by the object listing response to issue the next listing request, instead of restarting the listing from the beginning for each request. When you restart your listing from the beginning, each request needs to skip over all of the objects that were just deleted, causing each object listing to become progressively slower. If you have deleted a lot of objects under a certain prefix, then try to avoid listing objects under that prefix right after the deletions.
The Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) topic
describes how to allow scripts hosted on other websites to access static
resources stored in a Cloud Storage bucket. The converse scenario is when you
allow scripts hosted in Cloud Storage to access static resources hosted on a
website external to Cloud Storage. In the latter scenario, the website
serves CORS headers so that content on
storage.googleapis.com is allowed
As a best practice, you should dedicate a specific bucket for this data access.
This approach prevents your site from inadvertently over-exposing static
resources to all of
storage.googleapis.com. For example, if you want to
dedicate a bucket named
mybucket for data access, you should have the website
serve the CORS header
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: https://mybucket.storage.googleapis.com instead