Configure SSL certificates for TCP connection by using Go

Configure SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificates for a TCP connection to Cloud SQL for MySQL by using Go's database/sql package.

Code sample

Go

package cloudsql

import (
	"crypto/tls"
	"crypto/x509"
	"database/sql"
	"errors"
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
	"log"
	"os"

	"github.com/go-sql-driver/mysql"
)

// connectTCPSocket initializes a TCP connection pool for a Cloud SQL
// instance of MySQL.
func connectTCPSocket() (*sql.DB, error) {
	mustGetenv := func(k string) string {
		v := os.Getenv(k)
		if v == "" {
			log.Fatalf("Warning: %s environment variable not set.", k)
		}
		return v
	}
	// Note: Saving credentials in environment variables is convenient, but not
	// secure - consider a more secure solution such as
	// Cloud Secret Manager (https://cloud.google.com/secret-manager) to help
	// keep secrets safe.
	var (
		dbUser    = mustGetenv("DB_USER")       // e.g. 'my-db-user'
		dbPwd     = mustGetenv("DB_PASS")       // e.g. 'my-db-password'
		dbName    = mustGetenv("DB_NAME")       // e.g. 'my-database'
		dbPort    = mustGetenv("DB_PORT")       // e.g. '3306'
		dbTCPHost = mustGetenv("INSTANCE_HOST") // e.g. '127.0.0.1' ('172.17.0.1' if deployed to GAE Flex)
	)

	dbURI := fmt.Sprintf("%s:%s@tcp(%s:%s)/%s?parseTime=true",
		dbUser, dbPwd, dbTCPHost, dbPort, dbName)

	// (OPTIONAL) Configure SSL certificates
	// For deployments that connect directly to a Cloud SQL instance without
	// using the Cloud SQL Proxy, configuring SSL certificates will ensure the
	// connection is encrypted.
	if dbRootCert, ok := os.LookupEnv("DB_ROOT_CERT"); ok { // e.g., '/path/to/my/server-ca.pem'
		var (
			dbCert = mustGetenv("DB_CERT") // e.g. '/path/to/my/client-cert.pem'
			dbKey  = mustGetenv("DB_KEY")  // e.g. '/path/to/my/client-key.pem'
		)
		pool := x509.NewCertPool()
		pem, err := ioutil.ReadFile(dbRootCert)
		if err != nil {
			return nil, err
		}
		if ok := pool.AppendCertsFromPEM(pem); !ok {
			return nil, err
		}
		cert, err := tls.LoadX509KeyPair(dbCert, dbKey)
		if err != nil {
			return nil, err
		}
		mysql.RegisterTLSConfig("cloudsql", &tls.Config{
			RootCAs:               pool,
			Certificates:          []tls.Certificate{cert},
			InsecureSkipVerify:    true,
			VerifyPeerCertificate: verifyPeerCertFunc(pool),
		})
		dbURI += "&tls=cloudsql"
	}

	// dbPool is the pool of database connections.
	dbPool, err := sql.Open("mysql", dbURI)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("sql.Open: %v", err)
	}

	// ...

	return dbPool, nil
}

// verifyPeerCertFunc returns a function that verifies the peer certificate is
// in the cert pool.
func verifyPeerCertFunc(pool *x509.CertPool) func([][]byte, [][]*x509.Certificate) error {
	return func(rawCerts [][]byte, _ [][]*x509.Certificate) error {
		if len(rawCerts) == 0 {
			return errors.New("no certificates available to verify")
		}

		cert, err := x509.ParseCertificate(rawCerts[0])
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}

		opts := x509.VerifyOptions{Roots: pool}
		if _, err = cert.Verify(opts); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		return nil
	}
}

What's next

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