Creating and managing MySQL users

This page describes how to do the following for Cloud SQL instances:

  • Configure the default user account.
  • Create, delete, and update other user accounts.

For information about how users work with Cloud SQL, see MySQL Users.

Before you begin

Before completing the tasks below, create a Cloud SQL instance. For more information, see Creating instances.

If you plan to use your database's administrative client to manage users, you must have configured the default user on the instance. For more information, see Configuring the default account.

Additionally, you must have configured an administrative client connected to your instance. For more information, see Connection Options for External Applications.

Configuring the default user account

When you create a new Cloud SQL instance, you must configure the default user account before you can connect to the instance.

For Cloud SQL for MySQL, the default user is root.

To configure the default user:

Console

  1. Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page in the Google Cloud Console.

    Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page

  2. Click the instance to open its Overview page.
  3. Select Users from the Navigation menu.
  4. Find the root user with a Host value of % (any host) and select Change password from the more actions menu More actions icon..
  5. Provide a strong password that you can remember and click Ok.

gcloud

Set the password for the default user:

gcloud sql users set-password root \
    --host=% --instance=[INSTANCE_NAME] --prompt-for-password

REST

The following request uses the users:update method to update the root user account ('root'@'%').

gcloud auth login
ACCESS_TOKEN="$(gcloud auth print-access-token)"
curl --header "Authorization: Bearer ${ACCESS_TOKEN}" \
     --header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
     --data '{"name": "root", "password": "[PASSWORD]"}' \
     -X PUT \
     'https://www.googleapis.com/sql/v1beta4/projects/[PROJECT-ID]/instances/[INSTANCE_NAME]/users?name=root&host=%25'

Creating a user

To create a user:

Console

  1. Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page in the Google Cloud Console.

    Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page

  2. Select the instance to open its Overview page.
  3. Select Users from the Navigation menu.
  4. Click ADD USER.
  5. In the Add a user account to instance instance_name page, add the following information:
    • A Username.
    • A Password.
    • Optionally, a Host.

      The default is '%', which means that the host list is unrestricted. You can also provide an IP address or IP address range, which means that only users connecting from those addresses will be able to access the database.

  6. Click Create.

Users created using Cloud SQL have the privileges associated with the cloudsqlsuperuser role: CREATEROLE, CREATEDB, and LOGIN. A user created by these users can have database connection privileges, which can prevent the user from being deleted.

Users created using Cloud SQL have all privileges except FILE and SUPER. If you need to change the privileges for a user, use the GRANT or REVOKE command in the mysql client.

gcloud

Create the user:

gcloud sql users create [user_name] \
   --host=[HOST] --instance=[INSTANCE_NAME] --password=[PASSWORD]

Users created using Cloud SQL have the privileges associated with the cloudsqlsuperuser role: CREATEROLE, CREATEDB, and LOGIN. A user created by these users can have database connection privileges, which can prevent the user from being deleted.

Users created using Cloud SQL have all privileges except FILE and SUPER. If you need to change the privileges for a user, use the GRANT or REVOKE command in the mysql client.

User name length limits are the same for Cloud SQL as for on-premises MySQL; 32 characters for MySQL 8.0, 16 characters for earlier versions.

REST

The following request uses the users:insert method to create a user account 'user_name'@'%'.

gcloud auth login
ACCESS_TOKEN="$(gcloud auth print-access-token)"
curl --header "Authorization: Bearer ${ACCESS_TOKEN}" \
     --header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
     --data '{"host": "%", "name": "[USER_NAME]", "password": "[PASSWORD]"}' \
     -X POST \
     https://www.googleapis.com/sql/v1beta4/projects/[PROJECT-ID]/instances/[INSTANCE_NAME]/users

Users created using Cloud SQL have the privileges associated with the cloudsqlsuperuser role: CREATEROLE, CREATEDB, and LOGIN. A user created by these users can have database connection privileges, which can prevent the user from being deleted.

Users created using Cloud SQL have all privileges except FILE and SUPER. If you need to change the privileges for a user, use the GRANT or REVOKE command in the mysql client.

User name length limits are the same for Cloud SQL as for on-premises MySQL; 32 characters for MySQL 8.0, 16 characters for earlier versions.

MySQL Client

  1. At the mysql prompt, create the user:
      CREATE USER '[USER_NAME]'@'%'
         IDENTIFIED BY '[PASSWORD]';
      
  2. You can confirm the user creation by displaying the user table:
    SELECT user, host FROM mysql.user;
    
    For a Second Generation instance, the output looks similar to this example:
    +----------+-----------+
    | user     | host      |
    +----------+-----------+
    | root     | %         |
    | newuser  | %         |
    +----------+-----------+
    1 row in set (0.01 sec)
    
  3. Give the user privileges with the GRANT statement. For more information, see Privileges Provided by MySQL.
  4. Flush the mysql.user table to ensure that the change persists:
      FLUSH TABLES mysql.user;
    

Changing a user password

To change a user password:

Console

  1. Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page in the Google Cloud Console.

    Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page

  2. Select the instance to open its Overview page.
  3. Select Users from the Navigation menu.
  4. Click more actions More actions icon. for the user you want to update.
  5. Select Change password, specify a new password, and click OK.

gcloud

Update the password:

gcloud sql users set-password [USER_NAME] \
   --host=[HOST] --instance=[INSTANCE_NAME] --prompt-for-password

REST

The following request uses the users:update method to update the password for the user account 'user_name'@'%'. If your user has a different host, you must modify the call with the correct host.

gcloud auth login
ACCESS_TOKEN="$(gcloud auth print-access-token)"
curl --header "Authorization: Bearer ${ACCESS_TOKEN}" \
     --header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
     --data '{"name": "[USER_NAME]", "host": "%", "password": "[PASSWORD]"}' \
     -X PUT \
     'https://www.googleapis.com/sql/v1beta4/projects/[PROJECT-ID]/instances/[INSTANCE_NAME]/users?name=[USER_NAME]&host=%25'

MySQL Client

  1. At the mysql prompt, change the password:
    SET PASSWORD FOR [USER] = PASSWORD('auth_string');
    
  2. Flush the mysql.user table to ensure that the change persists:
    FLUSH TABLES mysql.user;
    

Updating users

To update user properties such as host or privileges, you must use the mysql client. For more information, see MySQL User Account Management in the MySQL documentation.

Listing users

To list users:

Console

  1. Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page in the Google Cloud Console.

    Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page

  2. Select the instance to open its Overview page.
  3. Select Users from the Navigation menu.

gcloud

List the users for this instance:

gcloud sql users list --instance=[INSTANCE_NAME]

For a complete list of parameters for this command, see the gcloud sql users list reference page.

REST

The request below uses users:list method to list the users defined for an instance.

gcloud auth login
ACCESS_TOKEN="$(gcloud auth print-access-token)"
curl --header "Authorization: Bearer ${ACCESS_TOKEN}" \
     -X GET \
     https://www.googleapis.com/sql/v1beta4/projects/[PROJECT-ID]/instances/[INSTANCE_NAME]/users

MySQL Client

At the mysql prompt, list the MySQL users:

SELECT user, host FROM mysql.user;

For a Second Generation instance with only the root user account configured, the output looks similar to this example:

+------+-----------+
| user | host      |
+------+-----------+
| root | %         |
+------+-----------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

This example shows the users for an instance where the user'root'@'%' was added. The password field shows the hash of the password.

Deleting users

To delete a user:

Before deleting a user, you must drop all the objects it owns or reassign their ownership, and revoke any privileges the role has been granted on other objects.

Console

  1. Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page in the Google Cloud Console.

    Go to the Cloud SQL Instances page

  2. Select the instance to open its Overview page.
  3. Select Users from the Navigation menu.
  4. Click more actions More actions icon. for the user you want to delete.
  5. Select Delete and click OK.

gcloud

Delete the user:

gcloud sql users delete [USER_NAME] --host=[HOST] --instance=[INSTANCE_NAME]

REST

The following request uses the users:delete method to delete the user account 'user_name'@'%'.

gcloud auth login
ACCESS_TOKEN="$(gcloud auth print-access-token)"
curl --header "Authorization: Bearer ${ACCESS_TOKEN}" \
     --header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
     --data '{"name": "[USER_NAME]", "host": "%"}' \
     -X DELETE \
     'https://www.googleapis.com/sql/v1beta4/projects/[PROJECT-ID]/instances/[INSTANCE_NAME]/users?host=%25&name=[USER_NAME]'

MySQL Client

  1. At the mysql prompt, delete the user:
    DROP USER '[USER_NAME]'@'[HOST_NAME]';
    

    For more information about the DROP USER statement, see the MySQL documentation.

  2. Flush the mysql.user table to ensure that the change persists:
    FLUSH TABLES mysql.user;
    

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