Using the Cloud SQL API

Google Cloud SQL provides a REST API for administering your instances programmatically. The REST API is defined by BackupRuns, Databases, Instances, Flags, Operations, SslCerts, Tiers, and Users resources. Each resource supports methods for accessing and working with it. For example, the Instances resource supports methods such as get, insert, and list. For details of all the resources and their methods, see the Google Cloud SQL API Reference.

When you send requests directly to the Google Cloud SQL REST API, you must create the correct form of the request, authorize the request as an authenticated user, and process any responses returned. Many of the tasks in this documentation provide API examples using cURL.

For more examples of using the APIs, see the page for the request in the Google Cloud SQL API Reference. Each page has examples calling the API in several programming languages, as well as a request-specific Explorer to help you see what goes into a well-formed request and what to expect in the response.

You are also using the Google Cloud SQL REST API, indirectly, when you use any of the following ways of administering instances:

The advantage of using these methods, especially the Google Cloud Platform Console, is that they can greatly simplify administering your instances (depending on your use case). If you are just starting out with Google Cloud SQL, we recommend that you start with the one of these tools first before working with the REST API directly.

Activating the API

To use the Google Cloud SQL API, you need to activate it in the Google Cloud Platform Console:

  1. In the Google Cloud Platform Console, select a project.

  2. In the API Manager component, click on Google Cloud SQL API.

  3. In the Google Cloud SQL API component, select Enable API.

Note that the Google Cloud SQL API component is different than the Google Cloud SQL component. The latter component must be enabled for you to manage instances in the Google Cloud Platform Console and the Cloud SDK.

Authorizing requests

Every request your application sends to the Google Cloud SQL API must include an authorization token. The token also identifies your application to Google.

About authorization protocols

Your application must use OAuth 2.0 to authorize requests. No other authorization protocols are supported. If your application uses Google Sign-In, some aspects of authorization are handled for you.

Authorizing requests with OAuth 2.0

All requests to the Google Cloud SQL API must be authorized by an authenticated user.

The details of the authorization process, or "flow," for OAuth 2.0 vary somewhat depending on what kind of application you're writing. The following general process applies to all application types:

  1. When you create your application, you register it using the Google Cloud Platform Console. Google then provides information you'll need later, such as a client ID and a client secret.
  2. Activate the Google Cloud SQL API in the Google Cloud Platform Console. (If the API isn't listed in the Cloud Platform Console, then skip this step.)
  3. When your application needs access to user data, it asks Google for a particular scope of access.
  4. Google displays a consent screen to the user, asking them to authorize your application to request some of their data.
  5. If the user approves, then Google gives your application a short-lived access token.
  6. Your application requests user data, attaching the access token to the request.
  7. If Google determines that your request and the token are valid, it returns the requested data.

Some flows include additional steps, such as using refresh tokens to acquire new access tokens. For detailed information about flows for various types of applications, see Google's OAuth 2.0 documentation.

Here's the OAuth 2.0 scope information for the Google Cloud SQL API:

Scope Meaning
https://www.googleapis.com/auth/sqlservice.admin Read/write access to Google Cloud SQL.
https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform Instances.import and Instances.export need this additional scope.

To request access using OAuth 2.0, your application needs the scope information, as well as information that Google supplies when you register your application (such as the client ID and the client secret).

Permissions

In addition to authorization, the project member must have the required permissions for the API request. For more information, see Project Access Control.

Google Cloud SQL and Google APIs Discovery Service

Google APIs Discovery Service is a service that you can use to discover Google APIs. For example, when you use the Google APIs Explorer tool, you are using the Discovery Service. In the Discovery Service, Google Cloud SQL is represented as "sqladmin" (for example: https://www.googleapis.com/discovery/v1/apis/sqladmin/v1beta4/sql.operation). This is different than the base path "sql" that you use in requests to the REST API (for example: https://www.googleapis.com/sql/v1beta4/projects/example-id/instances).

Some client libraries also use the Discovery Service. In the client creation code, be sure to use "sqladmin" to access the correct discovery document. For more information, see Client Libraries.

API examples

You can see examples of using the API with cURL in the How-to Guides for this documentation set.

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