Spanner: Becoming a SQL System (SIGMOD 2017)
This paper highlights the database DNA of Spanner. It describes distributed query execution in the presence of resharding, query restarts upon transient failures, range extraction that drives query routing and index seeks, and the improved blockwise-columnar storage format.
Cloud Spanner, TrueTime, and the CAP Theorem
How Cloud Spanner provides scale, ACID transactions, high availability, and low latency.
Life of Cloud Spanner Reads and Writes
How writes and reads work in Cloud Spanner and how Cloud Spanner ensures strong consistency.
Life of a Cloud Spanner Query
How Cloud Spanner supports SQL queries.
Optimizing Schema Design for Cloud Spanner
How to model your data to ensure that your application can scale and perform as it grows in various dimensions.
Spanner: Google's Globally Distributed Database (OSDI 2012)
This paper describes the systems aspects of Spanner, such as scalability, automatic sharding, fault tolerance, consistent replication, external consistency, and wide-area distribution.
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