Como usar a recuperação pontual

Nesta página, você verá como usar a recuperação pontual (PITR, na sigla em inglês) para reter e recuperar dados no Cloud Spanner.

Para saber mais, consulte Recuperação pontual.

Pré-requisitos

Este guia usa o banco de dados e o esquema definidos no Guia de início rápido do Cloud Spanner. Você pode executar o guia de início rápido para criar o banco de dados e o esquema ou modificar os comandos para uso com seu próprio banco de dados.

Como definir o período de armazenamento

Para definir o período de armazenamento do banco de dados:

Console

  1. Acesse a página Instâncias do Cloud Spanner no Console do Cloud.

    Ir para a página "Instâncias" do Cloud Spanner

  2. Clique na instância que contém o banco de dados para abrir a página Visão geral correspondente.

  3. Clique no banco de dados para abrir a página Visão geral correspondente.

  4. Selecione a guia Backup/Restaurar.

  5. Clique no ícone de lápis no campo Período de armazenamento da versão.

  6. Digite uma quantidade e uma unidade de tempo para o período de armazenamento e clique em Atualizar.

gcloud

Atualize o esquema do banco de dados com a instrução ALTER DATABASE. Por exemplo:

gcloud spanner databases ddl update example-db --instance=test-instance \
    --ddl='ALTER DATABASE `example-db` SET OPTIONS (version_retention_period="7d");'

Para visualizar o período de armazenamento, localize a DDL do seu banco de dados:

gcloud spanner databases ddl describe example-db --instance=test-instance

Esta é a saída:

ALTER DATABASE example-db SET OPTIONS (
  version_retention_period = '7d'
);
...

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class CreateDatabaseWithRetentionPeriodAsyncSample
{
    public async Task CreateDatabaseWithRetentionPeriodAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        var versionRetentionPeriod = "7d";
        var createStatement = $"CREATE DATABASE `{databaseId}`";
        var alterStatement = @$"ALTER DATABASE `{databaseId}` SET OPTIONS
                   (version_retention_period = '{versionRetentionPeriod}')";
        // The retention period cannot be set as part of the CREATE DATABASE statement,
        // but can be set using an ALTER DATABASE statement directly after database creation.
        using var createDbCommand = connection.CreateDdlCommand(
            createStatement,
            alterStatement
        );
        await createDbCommand.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
    }
}

C++

void CreateDatabaseWithVersionRetentionPeriod(
    google::cloud::spanner_admin::DatabaseAdminClient client,
    std::string const& project_id, std::string const& instance_id,
    std::string const& database_id) {
  google::cloud::spanner::Database database(project_id, instance_id,
                                            database_id);
  google::spanner::admin::database::v1::CreateDatabaseRequest request;
  request.set_parent(database.instance().FullName());
  request.set_create_statement("CREATE DATABASE `" + database.database_id() +
                               "`");
  request.add_extra_statements("ALTER DATABASE `" + database.database_id() +
                               "` " +
                               "SET OPTIONS (version_retention_period='2h')");
  request.add_extra_statements(R"""(
      CREATE TABLE Singers (
          SingerId   INT64 NOT NULL,
          FirstName  STRING(1024),
          LastName   STRING(1024),
          SingerInfo BYTES(MAX)
      ) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId))""");
  request.add_extra_statements(R"""(
      CREATE TABLE Albums (
          SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,
          AlbumId      INT64 NOT NULL,
          AlbumTitle   STRING(MAX)
      ) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId, AlbumId),
          INTERLEAVE IN PARENT Singers ON DELETE CASCADE)""");
  auto db = client.CreateDatabase(request).get();
  if (!db) throw std::runtime_error(db.status().message());
  std::cout << "Database " << db->name() << " created.\n";

  auto ddl = client.GetDatabaseDdl(db->name());
  if (!ddl) throw std::runtime_error(ddl.status().message());
  std::cout << "Database DDL is:\n" << ddl->DebugString();
}

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"regexp"

	database "cloud.google.com/go/spanner/admin/database/apiv1"
	adminpb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/spanner/admin/database/v1"
)

func createDatabaseWithRetentionPeriod(ctx context.Context, w io.Writer, db string) error {
	matches := regexp.MustCompile("^(.+)/databases/(.+)$").FindStringSubmatch(db)
	if matches == nil || len(matches) != 3 {
		return fmt.Errorf("createDatabaseWithRetentionPeriod: invalid database id %q", db)
	}

	adminClient, err := database.NewDatabaseAdminClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("createDatabaseWithRetentionPeriod.NewDatabaseAdminClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer adminClient.Close()

	// Create a database with a version retention period of 7 days.
	retentionPeriod := "7d"
	alterDatabase := fmt.Sprintf(
		"ALTER DATABASE `%s` SET OPTIONS (version_retention_period = '%s')",
		matches[2], retentionPeriod,
	)
	req := adminpb.CreateDatabaseRequest{
		Parent:          matches[1],
		CreateStatement: "CREATE DATABASE `" + matches[2] + "`",
		ExtraStatements: []string{
			`CREATE TABLE Singers (
				SingerId   INT64 NOT NULL,
				FirstName  STRING(1024),
				LastName   STRING(1024),
				SingerInfo BYTES(MAX)
			) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId)`,
			`CREATE TABLE Albums (
				SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,
				AlbumId      INT64 NOT NULL,
				AlbumTitle   STRING(MAX)
			) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId, AlbumId),
			INTERLEAVE IN PARENT Singers ON DELETE CASCADE`,
			alterDatabase,
		},
	}
	op, err := adminClient.CreateDatabase(ctx, &req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("createDatabaseWithRetentionPeriod.CreateDatabase: %v", err)
	}
	if _, err := op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("createDatabaseWithRetentionPeriod.Wait: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Created database [%s] with version retention period %q\n", db, retentionPeriod)
	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.api.gax.longrunning.OperationFuture;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Database;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseAdminClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerException;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerExceptionFactory;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.spanner.admin.database.v1.CreateDatabaseMetadata;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

public class CreateDatabaseWithVersionRetentionPeriodSample {

  static void createDatabaseWithVersionRetentionPeriod() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "my-project";
    String instanceId = "my-instance";
    String databaseId = "my-database";
    String versionRetentionPeriod = "7d";

    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService()) {
      DatabaseAdminClient adminClient = spanner.getDatabaseAdminClient();
      createDatabaseWithVersionRetentionPeriod(adminClient, instanceId, databaseId,
          versionRetentionPeriod);
    }
  }

  static void createDatabaseWithVersionRetentionPeriod(DatabaseAdminClient adminClient,
      String instanceId, String databaseId, String versionRetentionPeriod) {
    OperationFuture<Database, CreateDatabaseMetadata> op =
        adminClient.createDatabase(
            instanceId,
            databaseId,
            Arrays.asList(
                "CREATE TABLE Singers ("
                    + "  SingerId   INT64 NOT NULL,"
                    + "  FirstName  STRING(1024),"
                    + "  LastName   STRING(1024),"
                    + "  SingerInfo BYTES(MAX)"
                    + ") PRIMARY KEY (SingerId)",
                "CREATE TABLE Albums ("
                    + "  SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,"
                    + "  AlbumId      INT64 NOT NULL,"
                    + "  AlbumTitle   STRING(MAX)"
                    + ") PRIMARY KEY (SingerId, AlbumId),"
                    + "  INTERLEAVE IN PARENT Singers ON DELETE CASCADE",
                "ALTER DATABASE " + "`" + databaseId + "`"
                    + " SET OPTIONS ( version_retention_period = '" + versionRetentionPeriod + "' )"
            ));
    try {
      Database database = op.get();
      System.out.println("Created database [" + database.getId() + "]");
      System.out.println("\tVersion retention period: " + database.getVersionRetentionPeriod());
      System.out.println("\tEarliest version time: " + database.getEarliestVersionTime());
    } catch (ExecutionException e) {
      // If the operation failed during execution, expose the cause.
      throw (SpannerException) e.getCause();
    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
      // Throw when a thread is waiting, sleeping, or otherwise occupied,
      // and the thread is interrupted, either before or during the activity.
      throw SpannerExceptionFactory.propagateInterrupt(e);
    }
  }
}

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

try {
  // Create a new database with an extra statement which will alter the
  // database after creation to set the version retention period.
  console.log(`Creating database ${instance.formattedName_}.`);
  const versionRetentionStatement = `
    ALTER DATABASE \`${databaseId}\`
    SET OPTIONS (version_retention_period = '1d')`;
  const [, operation] = await database.create({
    extraStatements: [versionRetentionStatement],
  });

  console.log(`Waiting for operation on ${database.id} to complete...`);
  await operation.promise();
  console.log(`
      Created database ${databaseId} with version retention period.`);

  const [data] = await database.get();
  console.log(
    `Version retention period: ${data.metadata.versionRetentionPeriod}`
  );
  const earliestVersionTime = Spanner.timestamp(
    data.metadata.earliestVersionTime
  );
  console.log(`Earliest version time: ${earliestVersionTime}`);
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
}

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Creates a database with data retention for Point In Time Restore.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * create_database_with_version_retention_period($instanceId, $databaseId, $retentionPeriod);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 * @param string $retentionPeriod The data retention period for the database.
 */
function create_database_with_version_retention_period($instanceId, $databaseId, $retentionPeriod)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);

    if (!$instance->exists()) {
        throw new \LogicException("Instance $instanceId does not exist");
    }

    $operation = $instance->createDatabase($databaseId, ['statements' => [
        'CREATE TABLE Singers (
            SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,
            FirstName    STRING(1024),
            LastName     STRING(1024),
            SingerInfo   BYTES(MAX)
        ) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId)',
        'CREATE TABLE Albums (
            SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,
            AlbumId      INT64 NOT NULL,
            AlbumTitle   STRING(MAX)
        ) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId, AlbumId),
        INTERLEAVE IN PARENT Singers ON DELETE CASCADE',
        "ALTER DATABASE `$databaseId` SET OPTIONS (
        version_retention_period = '$retentionPeriod')"
    ]]);

    print('Waiting for operation to complete...' . PHP_EOL);
    $operation->pollUntilComplete();

    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);
    $databaseInfo = $database->info();

    printf('Database %s created with version retention period %s and earliest version time %s' . PHP_EOL,
        $databaseId, $databaseInfo['versionRetentionPeriod'], $databaseInfo['earliestVersionTime']);
}

Python

def create_database_with_version_retention_period(instance_id, database_id, retention_period):
    """Creates a database with a version retention period."""
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    ddl_statements = [
        "CREATE TABLE Singers ("
        + "  SingerId   INT64 NOT NULL,"
        + "  FirstName  STRING(1024),"
        + "  LastName   STRING(1024),"
        + "  SingerInfo BYTES(MAX)"
        + ") PRIMARY KEY (SingerId)",
        "CREATE TABLE Albums ("
        + "  SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,"
        + "  AlbumId      INT64 NOT NULL,"
        + "  AlbumTitle   STRING(MAX)"
        + ") PRIMARY KEY (SingerId, AlbumId),"
        + "  INTERLEAVE IN PARENT Singers ON DELETE CASCADE",
        "ALTER DATABASE `{}`"
        " SET OPTIONS (version_retention_period = '{}')".format(
            database_id, retention_period
        )
    ]
    db = instance.database(database_id, ddl_statements)
    operation = db.create()

    operation.result(30)

    db.reload()

    print("Database {} created with version retention period {} and earliest version time {}".format(
        db.database_id, db.version_retention_period, db.earliest_version_time
    ))

    db.drop()

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner  = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
instance = spanner.instance instance_id
version_retention_period = "7d"

job = instance.create_database database_id, statements: [
  "CREATE TABLE Singers (
    SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,
    FirstName    STRING(1024),
    LastName     STRING(1024),
    SingerInfo   BYTES(MAX)
  ) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId)",

  "CREATE TABLE Albums (
    SingerId     INT64 NOT NULL,
    AlbumId      INT64 NOT NULL,
    AlbumTitle   STRING(MAX)
  ) PRIMARY KEY (SingerId, AlbumId),
  INTERLEAVE IN PARENT Singers ON DELETE CASCADE",

  "ALTER DATABASE `#{database_id}`
    SET OPTIONS ( version_retention_period = '#{version_retention_period}' )"
]

puts "Waiting for create database operation to complete"

job.wait_until_done!
database = job.database

puts "Created database #{database_id} on instance #{instance_id}"
puts "\tVersion retention period: #{database.version_retention_period}"
puts "\tEarliest version time: #{database.earliest_version_time}"

Observações sobre o uso:

  • O período de armazenamento precisa ser de 1 hora a 7 dias e pode ser especificado em dias, horas, minutos ou segundos. Por exemplo, os valores 1d, 24h, 1440m e 86400s são equivalentes.
  • Se você tiver ativado a geração de registros para a API Cloud Spanner no seu projeto, o evento será registrado como UpdateDatabaseDdl e ficará visível no Visualizador de registros.
  • Para reverter para o período de retenção padrão de 1 hora, defina o valor como 1 hora ou NULL.
  • Quando você estende o período de armazenamento, o sistema não preenche versões anteriores de dados. Por exemplo, se você estender o período de armazenamento de 1h para 24h, será preciso aguardar 23h para que o sistema acumule dados antigos antes de recuperar dados das 24h anteriores.

Como conseguir o período de armazenamento e o horário da versão mais antiga

O recurso Banco de dados inclui dois campos:

  • version_retention_period: o período em que o Cloud Spanner retém todas as versões de dados para o banco de dados.
  • earliest_version_time: o carimbo de data/hora mais antigo em que as versões mais antigas dos dados podem ser lidas no banco de dados. Esse valor é atualizado continuamente pelo Cloud Spanner e fica desatualizado quando é consultado. Se você estiver usando esse valor para recuperar dados, não deixe de considerar o momento entre o momento em que o valor é consultado e o momento em que você inicia a recuperação.

Console

  1. Acesse a página Instâncias do Cloud Spanner no Console do Cloud.

    Ir para a página "Instâncias" do Cloud Spanner

  2. Clique na instância que contém o banco de dados para abrir a página Visão geral correspondente.

  3. Clique no banco de dados para abrir a página Visão geral correspondente.

  4. Selecione a guia Backup/Restaurar para abrir a página Backup/Restaurar e exibir o período de armazenamento.

  5. Clique em Criar para abrir a página Criar um backup e exibir o horário da versão mais antiga.

gcloud

Para receber esses campos, chame descrever bancos de dados ou listar bancos de dados. Por exemplo:

gcloud spanner databases describe example-db --instance=test-instance

Esta é a saída:

createTime: '2020-09-07T16:56:08.285140Z'
earliestVersionTime: '2020-10-07T16:56:08.285140Z'
name: projects/my-project/instances/test-instance/databases/example-db
state: READY
versionRetentionPeriod: 3d

Como recuperar uma parte do banco de dados

  1. Execute uma leitura desatualizada e especifique o carimbo de data/hora de recuperação desejado. Verifique se o timestamp especificado é mais recente que o earliest_version_time. do banco de dados.

    gcloud

    Use o execute-sql. Por exemplo:

    gcloud spanner databases execute-sql example-db --instance=test-instance
        --read-timestamp=2020-09-11T10:19:36.010459-07:00 --sql='SELECT * FROM SINGERS'
    

    Bibliotecas de cliente

    Consulte Executar leitura desatualizada.

  2. Armazenar os resultados da consulta. Isso é necessário porque não é possível gravar os resultados da consulta no banco de dados na mesma transação. Para pequenas quantidades de dados, você pode imprimir no console ou armazenar na memória. Para quantidades maiores, talvez seja necessário gravar em um arquivo ou em uma tabela temporária.

  3. Grave os dados recuperados de volta no banco de dados, por exemplo:

    gcloud

    gcloud spanner rows update --instance=test-instance
        --database=example-db --table=Singers --data=SingerId=1,FirstName=10
    

    Para mais informações, consulte Como atualizar dados usando o gcloud.

    Bibliotecas de cliente

    Consulte Como atualizar dados usando DML ou Como atualizar dados com mutações.

Como recuperar um banco de dados inteiro

É possível recuperar todo o banco de dados usando as opções Backup e restauração ou Importar e exportar e especificando um carimbo de data/hora de recuperação.

Backup e restauração

  1. Crie um backup e defina o version_time para o carimbo de data/hora de recuperação desejado.

    Console

    1. Acesse a página Detalhes do banco de dados no Console do Cloud.

      Acessar o Console do Cloud

    2. Na guia Backup/Restaurar, clique em Criar.

    3. Marque a caixa Criar backup de um momento mais antigo.

    gcloud

    gcloud spanner backups create example-db-backup-1 --instance=test-instance \
      --database=example-db --retention-period=1y --version-time=2021-01-22T01:10:35Z --async
    

    Para mais informações, consulte Criar um backup usando o gcloud.

    C#

    // Copyright 2020 Google Inc.
    //
    // Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
    // you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
    // You may obtain a copy of the License at
    //
    //     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
    //
    // Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
    // distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
    // WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
    // See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
    // limitations under the License.
    
    using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Admin.Database.V1;
    using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Common.V1;
    using Google.LongRunning;
    using Google.Protobuf.WellKnownTypes;
    using System;
    
    namespace GoogleCloudSamples.Spanner
    {
        public class CreateBackup
        {
            public static object SpannerCreateBackup(
                string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId, string backupId)
            {
                // Create the DatabaseAdminClient instance.
                DatabaseAdminClient databaseAdminClient = DatabaseAdminClient.Create();
    
                // Initialize request parameters.
                Backup backup = new Backup
                {
                    DatabaseAsDatabaseName =
                        DatabaseName.FromProjectInstanceDatabase(projectId, instanceId, databaseId),
                    ExpireTime = DateTime.UtcNow.AddDays(14).ToTimestamp(),
                    VersionTime = DateTime.UtcNow.ToTimestamp(),
                };
                InstanceName parentAsInstanceName = InstanceName.FromProjectInstance(projectId, instanceId);
    
                // Make the CreateBackup request.
                Operation<Backup, CreateBackupMetadata> response =
                    databaseAdminClient.CreateBackup(parentAsInstanceName, backup, backupId);
    
                Console.WriteLine("Waiting for the operation to finish.");
    
                // Poll until the returned long-running operation is complete.
                Operation<Backup, CreateBackupMetadata> completedResponse =
                    response.PollUntilCompleted();
    
                if (completedResponse.IsFaulted)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine($"Error while creating backup: {completedResponse.Exception}");
                    return 1;
                }
    
                Console.WriteLine($"Backup created successfully.");
    
                // GetBackup to get more information about the created backup.
                BackupName backupName =
                    BackupName.FromProjectInstanceBackup(projectId, instanceId, backupId);
                backup = databaseAdminClient.GetBackup(backupName);
                Console.WriteLine($"Backup {backup.Name} of size {backup.SizeBytes} bytes " +
                              $"was created at {backup.CreateTime} from {backup.Database} " +
                              $"and is in state {backup.State}" +
                              $"and has version time {backup.VersionTime}");
                return 0;
            }
        }
    }
    

    C++

    void CreateBackup(google::cloud::spanner_admin::DatabaseAdminClient client,
                      std::string const& project_id, std::string const& instance_id,
                      std::string const& database_id, std::string const& backup_id,
                      google::cloud::spanner::Timestamp expire_time,
                      google::cloud::spanner::Timestamp version_time) {
      google::cloud::spanner::Database database(project_id, instance_id,
                                                database_id);
      google::spanner::admin::database::v1::CreateBackupRequest request;
      request.set_parent(database.instance().FullName());
      request.set_backup_id(backup_id);
      request.mutable_backup()->set_database(database.FullName());
      *request.mutable_backup()->mutable_expire_time() =
          expire_time.get<google::protobuf::Timestamp>().value();
      *request.mutable_backup()->mutable_version_time() =
          version_time.get<google::protobuf::Timestamp>().value();
      auto backup = client.CreateBackup(request).get();
      if (!backup) throw std::runtime_error(backup.status().message());
      std::cout
          << "Backup " << backup->name() << " of " << backup->database()
          << " of size " << backup->size_bytes() << " bytes"
          << " was created at "
          << google::cloud::spanner::MakeTimestamp(backup->create_time()).value()
          << ".\n";
    }

    Go

    
    import (
    	"context"
    	"fmt"
    	"io"
    	"regexp"
    	"time"
    
    	database "cloud.google.com/go/spanner/admin/database/apiv1"
    	pbt "github.com/golang/protobuf/ptypes/timestamp"
    	adminpb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/spanner/admin/database/v1"
    )
    
    func createBackup(ctx context.Context, w io.Writer, db, backupID string, versionTime time.Time) error {
    	// versionTime := time.Now().AddDate(0, 0, -1) // one day ago
    	matches := regexp.MustCompile("^(.+)/databases/(.+)$").FindStringSubmatch(db)
    	if matches == nil || len(matches) != 3 {
    		return fmt.Errorf("createBackup: invalid database id %q", db)
    	}
    
    	adminClient, err := database.NewDatabaseAdminClient(ctx)
    	if err != nil {
    		return fmt.Errorf("createBackup.NewDatabaseAdminClient: %v", err)
    	}
    	defer adminClient.Close()
    
    	expireTime := time.Now().AddDate(0, 0, 14)
    	// Create a backup.
    	req := adminpb.CreateBackupRequest{
    		Parent:   matches[1],
    		BackupId: backupID,
    		Backup: &adminpb.Backup{
    			Database:    db,
    			ExpireTime:  &pbt.Timestamp{Seconds: expireTime.Unix(), Nanos: int32(expireTime.Nanosecond())},
    			VersionTime: &pbt.Timestamp{Seconds: versionTime.Unix(), Nanos: int32(versionTime.Nanosecond())},
    		},
    	}
    	op, err := adminClient.CreateBackup(ctx, &req)
    	if err != nil {
    		return fmt.Errorf("createBackup.CreateBackup: %v", err)
    	}
    	// Wait for backup operation to complete.
    	backup, err := op.Wait(ctx)
    	if err != nil {
    		return fmt.Errorf("createBackup.Wait: %v", err)
    	}
    
    	// Get the name, create time, version time and backup size.
    	backupCreateTime := time.Unix(backup.CreateTime.Seconds, int64(backup.CreateTime.Nanos))
    	backupVersionTime := time.Unix(backup.VersionTime.Seconds, int64(backup.VersionTime.Nanos))
    	fmt.Fprintf(w,
    		"Backup %s of size %d bytes was created at %s with version time %s\n",
    		backup.Name,
    		backup.SizeBytes,
    		backupCreateTime.Format(time.RFC3339),
    		backupVersionTime.Format(time.RFC3339))
    	return nil
    }
    

    Java

    static void createBackup(DatabaseAdminClient dbAdminClient, DatabaseId databaseId,
        BackupId backupId, Timestamp versionTime) {
      // Set expire time to 14 days from now.
      Timestamp expireTime = Timestamp.ofTimeMicroseconds(TimeUnit.MICROSECONDS.convert(
          System.currentTimeMillis() + TimeUnit.DAYS.toMillis(14), TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS));
      Backup backup =
          dbAdminClient
              .newBackupBuilder(backupId)
              .setDatabase(databaseId)
              .setExpireTime(expireTime)
              .setVersionTime(versionTime)
              .build();
      // Initiate the request which returns an OperationFuture.
      System.out.println("Creating backup [" + backup.getId() + "]...");
      OperationFuture<Backup, CreateBackupMetadata> op = backup.create();
      try {
        // Wait for the backup operation to complete.
        backup = op.get();
        System.out.println("Created backup [" + backup.getId() + "]");
      } catch (ExecutionException e) {
        throw (SpannerException) e.getCause();
      } catch (InterruptedException e) {
        throw SpannerExceptionFactory.propagateInterrupt(e);
      }
    
      // Reload the metadata of the backup from the server.
      backup = backup.reload();
      System.out.println(
          String.format(
              "Backup %s of size %d bytes was created at %s for version of database at %s",
              backup.getId().getName(),
              backup.getSize(),
              LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(
                  backup.getProto().getCreateTime().getSeconds(),
                  backup.getProto().getCreateTime().getNanos(),
                  OffsetDateTime.now().getOffset()),
              LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(
                  backup.getProto().getVersionTime().getSeconds(),
                  backup.getProto().getVersionTime().getNanos(),
                  OffsetDateTime.now().getOffset())
              ));
    }

    // Imports the Google Cloud client library and precise date library
    const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');
    const {PreciseDate} = require('@google-cloud/precise-date');
    
    /**
     * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
     */
    // const projectId = 'my-project-id';
    // const instanceId = 'my-instance';
    // const databaseId = 'my-database';
    // const backupId = 'my-backup';
    // const versionTime = Date.now() - 1000 * 60 * 60 * 24; // One day ago
    
    // Creates a client
    const spanner = new Spanner({
      projectId: projectId,
    });
    
    // Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
    const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
    const database = instance.database(databaseId);
    
    const backup = instance.backup(backupId);
    
    // Creates a new backup of the database
    try {
      console.log(`Creating backup of database ${database.formattedName_}.`);
      const databasePath = database.formattedName_;
      // Expire backup 14 days in the future
      const expireTime = Date.now() + 1000 * 60 * 60 * 24 * 14;
      // Create a backup of the state of the database at the current time.
      const [, operation] = await backup.create({
        databasePath: databasePath,
        expireTime: expireTime,
        versionTime: versionTime,
      });
    
      console.log(`Waiting for backup ${backup.formattedName_} to complete...`);
      await operation.promise();
    
      // Verify backup is ready
      const [backupInfo] = await backup.getMetadata();
      if (backupInfo.state === 'READY') {
        console.log(
          `Backup ${backupInfo.name} of size ` +
            `${backupInfo.sizeBytes} bytes was created at ` +
            `${new PreciseDate(backupInfo.createTime).toISOString()} ` +
            'for version of database at ' +
            `${new PreciseDate(backupInfo.versionTime).toISOString()}`
        );
      } else {
        console.error('ERROR: Backup is not ready.');
      }
    } catch (err) {
      console.error('ERROR:', err);
    } finally {
      // Close the database when finished.
      await database.close();
    }

    PHP

    use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Backup;
    use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
    
    /**
     * Create a backup.
     * Example:
     * ```
     * create_backup($instanceId, $databaseId, $backupId, $versionTime);
     * ```
     *
     * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
     * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
     * @param string $backupId The Spanner backup ID.
     * @param string $versionTime The version of the database to backup.
     */
    function create_backup($instanceId, $databaseId, $backupId, $versionTime)
    {
        $spanner = new SpannerClient();
        $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
        $database = $instance->database($databaseId);
    
        $expireTime = new \DateTime('+14 days');
        $backup = $instance->backup($backupId);
        $operation = $backup->create($database->name(), $expireTime, [
            'versionTime' => new \DateTime($versionTime)
        ]);
    
        print('Waiting for operation to complete...' . PHP_EOL);
        $operation->pollUntilComplete();
    
        $backup->reload();
        $ready = ($backup->state() == Backup::STATE_READY);
    
        if ($ready) {
            print('Backup is ready!' . PHP_EOL);
            $info = $backup->info();
            printf(
                'Backup %s of size %d bytes was created at %s for version of database at %s' . PHP_EOL,
                basename($info['name']), $info['sizeBytes'], $info['createTime'], $info['versionTime']);
        } else {
            print('Backup is not ready!' . PHP_EOL);
        }
    }

    Python

    def create_backup(instance_id, database_id, backup_id, version_time):
        """Creates a backup for a database."""
        spanner_client = spanner.Client()
        instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
        database = instance.database(database_id)
    
        # Create a backup
        expire_time = datetime.utcnow() + timedelta(days=14)
        backup = instance.backup(backup_id, database=database, expire_time=expire_time, version_time=version_time)
        operation = backup.create()
    
        # Wait for backup operation to complete.
        operation.result(2100)
    
        # Verify that the backup is ready.
        backup.reload()
        assert backup.is_ready() is True
    
        # Get the name, create time and backup size.
        backup.reload()
        print(
            "Backup {} of size {} bytes was created at {} for version of database at {}".format(
                backup.name, backup.size_bytes, backup.create_time, backup.version_time
            )
        )
    
    

    Ruby

    # project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
    # instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
    # database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"
    # backup_id = "Your Spanner backup ID"
    # version_time = Time.now - 60 * 60 * 24 # 1 day ago
    
    require "google/cloud/spanner"
    
    spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
    client = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
    instance = spanner.instance instance_id
    database = instance.database database_id
    expire_time = Time.now + 14 * 24 * 3600 # 14 days from now
    
    job = database.create_backup backup_id, expire_time, version_time: version_time
    
    puts "Backup operation in progress"
    
    job.wait_until_done!
    
    backup = instance.backup backup_id
    puts "Backup #{backup.backup_id} of size #{backup.size_in_bytes} bytes was created at #{backup.create_time} for version of database at #{backup.version_time}"

  2. Restaurar do backup para um novo banco de dados. O Cloud Spanner preserva a configuração do período de armazenamento do backup ao banco de dados restaurado.

    Console

    1. Acesse a página Grupos de detalhes no Console do Cloud.

      Acessar o Console do Cloud

    2. Na guia Backup/Restaurar, selecione um backup e clique em Restaurar.

    gcloud

    gcloud spanner databases restore --async \
      --destination-instance=destination-instance --destination-database=example-db-restored \
      --source-instance=test-instance --source-backup=example-db-backup-1
    

    Para mais informações, consulte Como restaurar um banco de dados de um backup.

    C#

    
    using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Admin.Database.V1;
    using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Common.V1;
    using Google.LongRunning;
    using System;
    
    namespace GoogleCloudSamples.Spanner
    {
        public class RestoreDatabase
        {
            public static object SpannerRestoreDatabase(
                string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId, string backupId)
            {
                // Create the DatabaseAdminClient instance.
                DatabaseAdminClient databaseAdminClient = DatabaseAdminClient.Create();
    
                InstanceName parentAsInstanceName =
                    InstanceName.FromProjectInstance(projectId, instanceId);
                BackupName backupAsBackupName =
                    BackupName.FromProjectInstanceBackup(projectId, instanceId, backupId);
    
                // Make the RestoreDatabase request.
                Operation<Database, RestoreDatabaseMetadata> response =
                    databaseAdminClient.RestoreDatabase(
                        parentAsInstanceName, databaseId, backupAsBackupName);
    
                Console.WriteLine("Waiting for the operation to finish");
    
                // Poll until the returned long-running operation is complete.
                var completedResponse = response.PollUntilCompleted();
    
                if (completedResponse.IsFaulted)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine($"Database Restore Failed: {completedResponse.Exception}");
                    return 1;
                }
    
                RestoreInfo restoreInfo = completedResponse.Result.RestoreInfo;
                Console.WriteLine(
                    $"Database {restoreInfo.BackupInfo.SourceDatabase} was restored " +
                    $"to {databaseId} from backup {restoreInfo.BackupInfo.Backup} " +
                    $"with version time {restoreInfo.BackupInfo.VersionTime.ToDateTime()}");
    
                return 0;
            }
        }
    }

    C++

    void RestoreDatabase(google::cloud::spanner_admin::DatabaseAdminClient client,
                         std::string const& project_id,
                         std::string const& instance_id,
                         std::string const& database_id,
                         std::string const& backup_id) {
      google::cloud::spanner::Database database(project_id, instance_id,
                                                database_id);
      google::cloud::spanner::Backup backup(database.instance(), backup_id);
      auto restored_db =
          client
              .RestoreDatabase(database.instance().FullName(),
                               database.database_id(), backup.FullName())
              .get();
      if (!restored_db) {
        throw std::runtime_error(restored_db.status().message());
      }
      std::cout << "Database";
      if (restored_db->restore_info().source_type() ==
          google::spanner::admin::database::v1::BACKUP) {
        auto const& backup_info = restored_db->restore_info().backup_info();
        std::cout << " " << backup_info.source_database() << " as of "
                  << google::cloud::spanner::MakeTimestamp(
                         backup_info.version_time())
                         .value();
      }
      std::cout << " restored to " << restored_db->name();
      std::cout << " from backup " << backup.FullName();
      std::cout << ".\n";
    }

    Go

    
    import (
    	"context"
    	"fmt"
    	"io"
    	"regexp"
    
    	database "cloud.google.com/go/spanner/admin/database/apiv1"
    	adminpb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/spanner/admin/database/v1"
    )
    
    func restoreBackup(ctx context.Context, w io.Writer, db, backupID string) error {
    	adminClient, err := database.NewDatabaseAdminClient(ctx)
    	if err != nil {
    		return err
    	}
    	defer adminClient.Close()
    
    	matches := regexp.MustCompile("^(.*)/databases/(.*)$").FindStringSubmatch(db)
    	if matches == nil || len(matches) != 3 {
    		return fmt.Errorf("Invalid database id %s", db)
    	}
    	instanceName := matches[1]
    	databaseID := matches[2]
    	backupName := instanceName + "/backups/" + backupID
    
    	// Start restoring backup to a new database.
    	restoreOp, err := adminClient.RestoreDatabase(ctx, &adminpb.RestoreDatabaseRequest{
    		Parent:     instanceName,
    		DatabaseId: databaseID,
    		Source: &adminpb.RestoreDatabaseRequest_Backup{
    			Backup: backupName,
    		},
    	})
    	if err != nil {
    		return err
    	}
    	// Wait for restore operation to complete.
    	dbObj, err := restoreOp.Wait(ctx)
    	if err != nil {
    		return err
    	}
    	// Newly created database has restore information.
    	backupInfo := dbObj.RestoreInfo.GetBackupInfo()
    	if backupInfo != nil {
    		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Source database %s restored from backup %s\n", backupInfo.SourceDatabase, backupInfo.Backup)
    	}
    
    	return nil
    }
    

    Java

    static void restoreBackup(
        DatabaseAdminClient dbAdminClient,
        BackupId backupId,
        DatabaseId sourceDatabaseId,
        DatabaseId restoreToDatabase) {
      Backup backup = dbAdminClient.newBackupBuilder(backupId).build();
      // Initiate the request which returns an OperationFuture.
      System.out.println(String.format(
          "Restoring backup [%s] to database [%s]...",
          backup.getId().toString(),
          restoreToDatabase.toString()));
      try {
        OperationFuture<Database, RestoreDatabaseMetadata> op = backup.restore(restoreToDatabase);
        // Wait until the database has been restored.
        Database db = op.get();
        // Refresh database metadata and get the restore info.
        RestoreInfo restore = db.reload().getRestoreInfo();
        Timestamp versionTime = Timestamp.fromProto(restore
            .getProto()
            .getBackupInfo()
            .getVersionTime());
        System.out.println(
            "Restored database ["
                + restore.getSourceDatabase().getName()
                + "] from ["
                + restore.getBackup().getName()
                + "] with version time [" + versionTime + "]");
      } catch (ExecutionException e) {
        throw SpannerExceptionFactory.newSpannerException(e.getCause());
      } catch (InterruptedException e) {
        throw SpannerExceptionFactory.propagateInterrupt(e);
      }
    }

    // Imports the Google Cloud client library and precise date library
    const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');
    const {PreciseDate} = require('@google-cloud/precise-date');
    
    /**
     * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
     */
    // const projectId = 'my-project-id';
    // const instanceId = 'my-instance';
    // const databaseId = 'my-database';
    // const backupId = 'my-backup';
    
    // Creates a client
    const spanner = new Spanner({
      projectId: projectId,
    });
    
    // Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
    const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
    const database = instance.database(databaseId);
    
    // Restore the database
    console.log(
      `Restoring database ${database.formattedName_} from backup ${backupId}.`
    );
    const [, restoreOperation] = await database.restore(
      `projects/${projectId}/instances/${instanceId}/backups/${backupId}`
    );
    
    // Wait for restore to complete
    console.log('Waiting for database restore to complete...');
    await restoreOperation.promise();
    
    console.log('Database restored from backup.');
    const restoreInfo = await database.getRestoreInfo();
    console.log(
      `Database ${restoreInfo.backupInfo.sourceDatabase} was restored ` +
        `to ${databaseId} from backup ${restoreInfo.backupInfo.backup} ` +
        'with version time ' +
        `${new PreciseDate(restoreInfo.backupInfo.versionTime).toISOString()}.`
    );

    PHP

    use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
    
    /**
     * Restore a database from a backup.
     * Example:
     * ```
     * restore_backup($instanceId, $databaseId, $backupId);
     * ```
     * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
     * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
     * @param string $backupId The Spanner backup ID.
     */
    function restore_backup($instanceId, $databaseId, $backupId)
    {
        $spanner = new SpannerClient();
        $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
        $database = $instance->database($databaseId);
        $backup = $instance->backup($backupId);
    
        $operation = $database->restore($backup->name());
        // Wait for restore operation to complete.
        $operation->pollUntilComplete();
    
        // Newly created database has restore information.
        $database->reload();
        $restoreInfo = $database->info()['restoreInfo'];
        $sourceDatabase = $restoreInfo['backupInfo']['sourceDatabase'];
        $sourceBackup = $restoreInfo['backupInfo']['backup'];
        $versionTime = $restoreInfo['backupInfo']['versionTime'];
    
        printf(
            'Database %s restored from backup %s with version time %s' . PHP_EOL,
            $sourceDatabase, $sourceBackup, $versionTime);
    }

    Python

    def restore_database(instance_id, new_database_id, backup_id):
        """Restores a database from a backup."""
        spanner_client = spanner.Client()
        instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
        # Create a backup on database_id.
    
        # Start restoring an existing backup to a new database.
        backup = instance.backup(backup_id)
        new_database = instance.database(new_database_id)
        operation = new_database.restore(backup)
    
        # Wait for restore operation to complete.
        operation.result(1600)
    
        # Newly created database has restore information.
        new_database.reload()
        restore_info = new_database.restore_info
        print(
            "Database {} restored to {} from backup {} with version time {}.".format(
                restore_info.backup_info.source_database,
                new_database_id,
                restore_info.backup_info.backup,
                restore_info.backup_info.version_time
            )
        )
    
    

    Ruby

    # project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
    # instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
    # database_id = "Your Spanner database ID of where to restore"
    # backup_id = "Your Spanner backup ID"
    
    require "google/cloud/spanner"
    
    spanner  = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
    instance = spanner.instance instance_id
    
    backup = instance.backup backup_id
    job = backup.restore database_id
    
    puts "Waiting for restore backup operation to complete"
    
    job.wait_until_done!
    
    restore_info = job.database.restore_info
    puts "Database #{restore_info.backup_info.source_database_id} was restored to #{database_id} from backup #{restore_info.backup_info.backup_id} with version time #{restore_info.backup_info.version_time}"

Importar e exportar

  1. Exporte o banco de dados, especificando o parâmetro snapshotTime para o carimbo de data/hora de recuperação desejado.

    Console

    1. Acesse a página Grupos de detalhes no Console do Cloud.

      Acessar o Console do Cloud

    2. Na guia Importar/Exportar, clique em Exportar.

    3. Marque a caixa Exportar banco de dados de um momento mais antigo.

    Para instruções detalhadas, consulte exportar um banco de dados.

    gcloud

    Use o modelo do Cloud Spanner para Avro do Dataflow para exportar o banco de dados.

    gcloud dataflow jobs run JOB_NAME \
       --gcs-location='gs://cloud-spanner-point-in-time-recovery/Import Export Template/export/templates/Cloud_Spanner_to_GCS_Avro'
       --region=DATAFLOW_REGION --parameters='instanceId=test-instance,databaseId=example-db,outputDir=YOUR_GCS_DIRECTORY,snapshotTime=2020-09-01T23:59:40.125245Z'
    

    Observações sobre o uso:

    • É possível acompanhar o andamento dos jobs de importação e exportação no Console do Dataflow.
    • O Cloud Spanner garante que os dados exportados terão consistência transacional e externa no carimbo de data/hora especificado.
    • Especifique o carimbo de data/hora no formato RFC 3339. Por exemplo, 2020-09-01T23:59:30.234233Z.
    • Verifique se o carimbo de data/hora especificado é mais recente que o earliest_version_time do banco de dados. Se os dados não existirem mais no carimbo de data/hora especificado, você receberá um erro.
  2. Importar para um novo banco de dados.

    Console

    1. Acesse a página Grupos de detalhes no Console do Cloud.

      Acessar o Console do Cloud

    2. Na guia Importar/Exportar, clique em Importar.

    Para instruções detalhadas, consulte Como importar arquivos Avro do Cloud Spanner.

    gcloud

    Use o modelo do Cloud Dataflow Cloud Storage Avro para Cloud Spanner para importar os arquivos Avro.

    gcloud dataflow jobs run JOB_NAME \
       --gcs-location='gs://cloud-spanner-point-in-time-recovery/Import Export Template/import/templates/GCS_Avro_to_Cloud_Spanner' \
       --region=DATAFLOW_REGION \
       --staging-location=YOUR_GCS_STAGING_LOCATION \
       --parameters='instanceId=test-instance,databaseId=example-db,inputDir=YOUR_GCS_DIRECTORY'
    

Estimar o aumento do armazenamento

Antes de aumentar o período de armazenamento da versão de um banco de dados, calcule o aumento esperado no uso do armazenamento do banco de dados totalizando os bytes da transação pelo período desejado. Por exemplo, a consulta a seguir calcula o número de GiB escrito nos últimos sete dias (168h) lendo as tabelas de estatísticas de transações.

SELECT
  SUM(bytes_per_hour) / (1024 * 1024 * 1024 ) as GiB
FROM (
  SELECT
    ((commit_attempt_count - commit_failed_precondition_count - commit_abort_count) * avg_bytes) AS bytes_per_hour,
    interval_end
  FROM
    spanner_sys.txn_stats_total_hour
  ORDER BY
    interval_end DESC
  LIMIT
    168);

Observe que a consulta fornece uma estimativa aproximada e pode ser imprecisa por alguns motivos:

  • A consulta não considera o carimbo de data/hora que precisa ser armazenado para cada versão dos dados antigos. Se o banco de dados consistir em muitos pequenos tipos de dados, a consulta poderá subestimar o aumento do armazenamento.
  • A consulta inclui todas as operações de gravação, mas apenas operações de atualização criam versões antigas de dados. Se a carga de trabalho incluir muitas operações de inserção, a consulta poderá superestimar o aumento do armazenamento.