Inserta, actualiza y borra datos mediante mutaciones

En esta página, se describe cómo insertar, actualizar y borrar datos mediante mutaciones. Una mutación representa una secuencia de inserciones, actualizaciones y eliminaciones que aplica atómicamente Cloud Spanner a diferentes filas y tablas de una base de datos del servicio.

Si bien puedes confirmar mutaciones con gRPC o REST, es más común acceder a las API a través de las bibliotecas cliente.

En esta página, se muestran las tareas básicas de insertar, actualizar y borrar. Puedes encontrar más ejemplos en los instructivos de introducción.

Inserta filas nuevas en una tabla

C++

Los datos se escriben mediante la función InsertMutationBuilder(). Client::Commit() agrega filas nuevas a una tabla. Todas las inserciones en un solo lote se aplican de forma atómica.

En este código, se muestra cómo escribir los datos:

void InsertData(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto insert_singers = spanner::InsertMutationBuilder(
                            "Singers", {"SingerId", "FirstName", "LastName"})
                            .EmplaceRow(1, "Marc", "Richards")
                            .EmplaceRow(2, "Catalina", "Smith")
                            .EmplaceRow(3, "Alice", "Trentor")
                            .EmplaceRow(4, "Lea", "Martin")
                            .EmplaceRow(5, "David", "Lomond")
                            .Build();

  auto insert_albums = spanner::InsertMutationBuilder(
                           "Albums", {"SingerId", "AlbumId", "AlbumTitle"})
                           .EmplaceRow(1, 1, "Total Junk")
                           .EmplaceRow(1, 2, "Go, Go, Go")
                           .EmplaceRow(2, 1, "Green")
                           .EmplaceRow(2, 2, "Forever Hold Your Peace")
                           .EmplaceRow(2, 3, "Terrified")
                           .Build();

  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit(spanner::Mutations{insert_singers, insert_albums});
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "Insert was successful [spanner_insert_data]\n";
}

C#

Puedes insertar datos con el método connection.CreateInsertCommand(), que crea un SpannerCommand nuevo para insertar filas en una tabla. El método SpannerCommand.ExecuteNonQueryAsync() agrega filas nuevas a la tabla.

En este código, se muestra cómo insertar datos:

public class Singer
{
    public int SingerId { get; set; }
    public string FirstName { get; set; }
    public string LastName { get; set; }
}

public class Album
{
    public int SingerId { get; set; }
    public int AlbumId { get; set; }
    public string AlbumTitle { get; set; }
}
public static async Task InsertSampleDataAsync(
    string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
{
    const int firstSingerId = 1;
    const int secondSingerId = 2;
    string connectionString =
    $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
    + $"/databases/{databaseId}";
    List<Singer> singers = new List<Singer>
    {
        new Singer { SingerId = firstSingerId, FirstName = "Marc",
            LastName = "Richards" },
        new Singer { SingerId = secondSingerId, FirstName = "Catalina",
            LastName = "Smith" },
        new Singer { SingerId = 3, FirstName = "Alice",
            LastName = "Trentor" },
        new Singer { SingerId = 4, FirstName = "Lea",
            LastName = "Martin" },
        new Singer { SingerId = 5, FirstName = "David",
            LastName = "Lomond" },
    };
    List<Album> albums = new List<Album>
    {
        new Album { SingerId = firstSingerId, AlbumId = 1,
            AlbumTitle = "Total Junk" },
        new Album { SingerId = firstSingerId, AlbumId = 2,
            AlbumTitle = "Go, Go, Go" },
        new Album { SingerId = secondSingerId, AlbumId = 1,
            AlbumTitle = "Green" },
        new Album { SingerId = secondSingerId, AlbumId = 2,
            AlbumTitle = "Forever Hold your Peace" },
        new Album { SingerId = secondSingerId, AlbumId = 3,
            AlbumTitle = "Terrified" },
    };
    // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
    using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
    {
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        // Insert rows into the Singers table.
        var cmd = connection.CreateInsertCommand("Singers",
            new SpannerParameterCollection
            {
                { "SingerId", SpannerDbType.Int64 },
                { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String },
                { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String }
            });
        await Task.WhenAll(singers.Select(singer =>
        {
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = singer.SingerId;
            cmd.Parameters["FirstName"].Value = singer.FirstName;
            cmd.Parameters["LastName"].Value = singer.LastName;
            return cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        }));

        // Insert rows into the Albums table.
        cmd = connection.CreateInsertCommand("Albums",
            new SpannerParameterCollection
            {
                { "SingerId", SpannerDbType.Int64 },
                { "AlbumId", SpannerDbType.Int64 },
                { "AlbumTitle", SpannerDbType.String }
            });
        await Task.WhenAll(albums.Select(album =>
        {
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = album.SingerId;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumId"].Value = album.AlbumId;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumTitle"].Value = album.AlbumTitle;
            return cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        }));
        Console.WriteLine("Inserted data.");
    }
}

Go

Escribirás datos con una Mutation. Una Mutation es un contenedor para las operaciones de mutación. Una Mutation representa una secuencia de inserciones, actualizaciones, eliminaciones, y más secuencias que se pueden aplicar atómicamente a diferentes filas y tablas en una base de datos de Cloud Spanner.

Usa Mutation.InsertOrUpdate() para construir una mutación INSERT_OR_UPDATE, que agrega una fila nueva o actualiza los valores de la columna si la fila ya existe. También puedes usar el método Mutation.Insert() para construir una mutación INSERT, que agrega una fila nueva.

Client.Apply() aplica mutaciones de forma atómica a una base de datos.

En este código, se muestra cómo escribir los datos:


import (
	"context"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func write(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	singerColumns := []string{"SingerId", "FirstName", "LastName"}
	albumColumns := []string{"SingerId", "AlbumId", "AlbumTitle"}
	m := []*spanner.Mutation{
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Singers", singerColumns, []interface{}{1, "Marc", "Richards"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Singers", singerColumns, []interface{}{2, "Catalina", "Smith"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Singers", singerColumns, []interface{}{3, "Alice", "Trentor"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Singers", singerColumns, []interface{}{4, "Lea", "Martin"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Singers", singerColumns, []interface{}{5, "David", "Lomond"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Albums", albumColumns, []interface{}{1, 1, "Total Junk"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Albums", albumColumns, []interface{}{1, 2, "Go, Go, Go"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Albums", albumColumns, []interface{}{2, 1, "Green"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Albums", albumColumns, []interface{}{2, 2, "Forever Hold Your Peace"}),
		spanner.InsertOrUpdate("Albums", albumColumns, []interface{}{2, 3, "Terrified"}),
	}
	_, err = client.Apply(ctx, m)
	return err
}

Java

Escribirás datos con un objeto Mutation. Un objeto Mutation es un contenedor para operaciones de mutación. Una Mutation representa una secuencia de inserciones, actualizaciones y eliminaciones que Cloud Spanner aplica de manera atómica a diferentes filas y tablas en una base de datos de Cloud Spanner.

El método newInsertBuilder() en la clase Mutation genera una mutación INSERT, que inserta una fila nueva en una tabla. Si la fila ya existe, la escritura falla. Como alternativa, puedes usar el método newInsertOrUpdateBuilder para generar una mutación INSERT_OR_UPDATE, que actualiza los valores de la columna si la fila ya existe.

El método write() en la clase DatabaseClient escribe las mutaciones. Todas las mutaciones en un solo lote se aplican de forma atómica.

En este código, se muestra cómo escribir los datos:

static final List<Singer> SINGERS =
    Arrays.asList(
        new Singer(1, "Marc", "Richards"),
        new Singer(2, "Catalina", "Smith"),
        new Singer(3, "Alice", "Trentor"),
        new Singer(4, "Lea", "Martin"),
        new Singer(5, "David", "Lomond"));

static final List<Album> ALBUMS =
    Arrays.asList(
        new Album(1, 1, "Total Junk"),
        new Album(1, 2, "Go, Go, Go"),
        new Album(2, 1, "Green"),
        new Album(2, 2, "Forever Hold Your Peace"),
        new Album(2, 3, "Terrified"));
static void writeExampleData(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  List<Mutation> mutations = new ArrayList<>();
  for (Singer singer : SINGERS) {
    mutations.add(
        Mutation.newInsertBuilder("Singers")
            .set("SingerId")
            .to(singer.singerId)
            .set("FirstName")
            .to(singer.firstName)
            .set("LastName")
            .to(singer.lastName)
            .build());
  }
  for (Album album : ALBUMS) {
    mutations.add(
        Mutation.newInsertBuilder("Albums")
            .set("SingerId")
            .to(album.singerId)
            .set("AlbumId")
            .to(album.albumId)
            .set("AlbumTitle")
            .to(album.albumTitle)
            .build());
  }
  dbClient.write(mutations);
}

Node.js

Escribe datos con un objeto Table. El método Table.insert() agrega filas nuevas a la tabla. Todas las inserciones en un solo lote se aplican de forma atómica.

En este código, se muestra cómo escribir los datos:

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

// Instantiate Spanner table objects
const singersTable = database.table('Singers');
const albumsTable = database.table('Albums');

// Inserts rows into the Singers table
// Note: Cloud Spanner interprets Node.js numbers as FLOAT64s, so
// they must be converted to strings before being inserted as INT64s
try {
  await singersTable.insert([
    {SingerId: '1', FirstName: 'Marc', LastName: 'Richards'},
    {SingerId: '2', FirstName: 'Catalina', LastName: 'Smith'},
    {SingerId: '3', FirstName: 'Alice', LastName: 'Trentor'},
    {SingerId: '4', FirstName: 'Lea', LastName: 'Martin'},
    {SingerId: '5', FirstName: 'David', LastName: 'Lomond'},
  ]);

  await albumsTable.insert([
    {SingerId: '1', AlbumId: '1', AlbumTitle: 'Total Junk'},
    {SingerId: '1', AlbumId: '2', AlbumTitle: 'Go, Go, Go'},
    {SingerId: '2', AlbumId: '1', AlbumTitle: 'Green'},
    {SingerId: '2', AlbumId: '2', AlbumTitle: 'Forever Hold your Peace'},
    {SingerId: '2', AlbumId: '3', AlbumTitle: 'Terrified'},
  ]);

  console.log('Inserted data.');
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  await database.close();
}

PHP

Escribirás datos con el método Database::insertBatch. insertBatch agrega filas nuevas a una tabla. Todas las inserciones en un solo lote se aplican de forma atómica.

En este código, se muestra cómo escribir los datos:

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Inserts sample data into the given database.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $operation = $database->transaction(['singleUse' => true])
        ->insertBatch('Singers', [
            ['SingerId' => 1, 'FirstName' => 'Marc', 'LastName' => 'Richards'],
            ['SingerId' => 2, 'FirstName' => 'Catalina', 'LastName' => 'Smith'],
            ['SingerId' => 3, 'FirstName' => 'Alice', 'LastName' => 'Trentor'],
            ['SingerId' => 4, 'FirstName' => 'Lea', 'LastName' => 'Martin'],
            ['SingerId' => 5, 'FirstName' => 'David', 'LastName' => 'Lomond'],
        ])
        ->insertBatch('Albums', [
            ['SingerId' => 1, 'AlbumId' => 1, 'AlbumTitle' => 'Total Junk'],
            ['SingerId' => 1, 'AlbumId' => 2, 'AlbumTitle' => 'Go, Go, Go'],
            ['SingerId' => 2, 'AlbumId' => 1, 'AlbumTitle' => 'Green'],
            ['SingerId' => 2, 'AlbumId' => 2, 'AlbumTitle' => 'Forever Hold Your Peace'],
            ['SingerId' => 2, 'AlbumId' => 3, 'AlbumTitle' => 'Terrified']
        ])
        ->commit();

    print('Inserted data.' . PHP_EOL);
}

Python

Escribirás datos con un objeto Batch. Un objeto Batch es un contenedor para operaciones de mutación. Una mutación representa una secuencia de inserciones, actualizaciones, eliminaciones, y más secuencias que se pueden aplicar de manera atómica a diferentes filas y tablas en una base de datos de Cloud Spanner.

El método insert() en la clase Batch se usa para agregar una o más mutaciones de inserción al lote. Todas las mutaciones en un solo lote se aplican de forma atómica.

En este código, se muestra cómo escribir los datos:

def insert_data(instance_id, database_id):
    """Inserts sample data into the given database.

    The database and table must already exist and can be created using
    `create_database`.
    """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    with database.batch() as batch:
        batch.insert(
            table="Singers",
            columns=("SingerId", "FirstName", "LastName"),
            values=[
                (1, u"Marc", u"Richards"),
                (2, u"Catalina", u"Smith"),
                (3, u"Alice", u"Trentor"),
                (4, u"Lea", u"Martin"),
                (5, u"David", u"Lomond"),
            ],
        )

        batch.insert(
            table="Albums",
            columns=("SingerId", "AlbumId", "AlbumTitle"),
            values=[
                (1, 1, u"Total Junk"),
                (1, 2, u"Go, Go, Go"),
                (2, 1, u"Green"),
                (2, 2, u"Forever Hold Your Peace"),
                (2, 3, u"Terrified"),
            ],
        )

    print("Inserted data.")

Ruby

Escribirás datos con un objeto Client. El método Client#commit crea y confirma una transacción para operaciones de escritura que se ejecutan de forma atómica en un único momento lógico a través de las columnas, las filas y las tablas en una base de datos.

En este código, se muestra cómo escribir los datos:

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

client.commit do |c|
  c.insert "Singers", [
    { SingerId: 1, FirstName: "Marc",     LastName: "Richards" },
    { SingerId: 2, FirstName: "Catalina", LastName: "Smith"    },
    { SingerId: 3, FirstName: "Alice",    LastName: "Trentor"  },
    { SingerId: 4, FirstName: "Lea",      LastName: "Martin"   },
    { SingerId: 5, FirstName: "David",    LastName: "Lomond"   }
  ]
  c.insert "Albums", [
    { SingerId: 1, AlbumId: 1, AlbumTitle: "Total Junk"              },
    { SingerId: 1, AlbumId: 2, AlbumTitle: "Go, Go, Go"              },
    { SingerId: 2, AlbumId: 1, AlbumTitle: "Green"                   },
    { SingerId: 2, AlbumId: 2, AlbumTitle: "Forever Hold Your Peace" },
    { SingerId: 2, AlbumId: 3, AlbumTitle: "Terrified"               }
  ]
end

puts "Inserted data"

Actualiza filas en una tabla

Supongamos que las ventas de Albums(1, 1) son más bajas de lo esperado. Como resultado, deseas mover $200,000 del presupuesto de marketing de Albums(2, 2) a Albums(1, 1), pero solo si el dinero está disponible en el presupuesto de Albums(2, 2).

Debido a que necesitas leer los datos en las tablas para determinar si debes escribir valores nuevos, debes usar una transacción de lectura y escritura para realizar las operaciones de lectura y escritura de manera atómica.

C++

Usa la función Transaction() a fin de ejecutar una transacción para un cliente.

Este es el código para ejecutar la transacción:

void ReadWriteTransaction(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;

  // A helper to read a single album MarketingBudget.
  auto get_current_budget =
      [](spanner::Client client, spanner::Transaction txn,
         std::int64_t singer_id,
         std::int64_t album_id) -> StatusOr<std::int64_t> {
    auto key = spanner::KeySet().AddKey(spanner::MakeKey(singer_id, album_id));
    auto rows = client.Read(std::move(txn), "Albums", std::move(key),
                            {"MarketingBudget"});
    using RowType = std::tuple<std::int64_t>;
    auto row = spanner::GetSingularRow(spanner::StreamOf<RowType>(rows));
    if (!row) return std::move(row).status();
    return std::get<0>(*std::move(row));
  };

  auto commit = client.Commit(
      [&client, &get_current_budget](
          spanner::Transaction const& txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto b1 = get_current_budget(client, txn, 1, 1);
        if (!b1) return std::move(b1).status();
        auto b2 = get_current_budget(client, txn, 2, 2);
        if (!b2) return std::move(b2).status();
        std::int64_t transfer_amount = 200000;

        return spanner::Mutations{
            spanner::UpdateMutationBuilder(
                "Albums", {"SingerId", "AlbumId", "MarketingBudget"})
                .EmplaceRow(1, 1, *b1 + transfer_amount)
                .EmplaceRow(2, 2, *b2 - transfer_amount)
                .Build()};
      });

  if (!commit) throw std::runtime_error(commit.status().message());
  std::cout << "Transfer was successful [spanner_read_write_transaction]\n";
}

C#

Para .NET Standard 2.0 (o .NET 4.5) y superior, puedes usar TransactionScope() de .NET Framework para ejecutar una transacción. Para todas las versiones compatibles de .NET, puedes crear una transacción si estableces el resultado de SpannerConnection.BeginTransactionAsync como la propiedad Transaction de SpannerCommand.

Estas son las dos formas de ejecutar la transacción:

.NET Standard 2.0

public static async Task ReadWriteWithTransactionAsync(
    string projectId,
    string instanceId,
    string databaseId)
{
    // This sample transfers 200,000 from the MarketingBudget
    // field of the second Album to the first Album. Make sure to run
    // the addColumn and writeDataToNewColumn samples first,
    // in that order.

    string connectionString =
    $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
    + $"/databases/{databaseId}";

    using (TransactionScope scope = new TransactionScope(
        TransactionScopeAsyncFlowOption.Enabled))
    {
        decimal transferAmount = 200000;
        decimal secondBudget = 0;
        decimal firstBudget = 0;

        // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
        using (var connection =
            new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
        {
            // Create statement to select the second album's data.
            var cmdLookup = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT * FROM Albums WHERE SingerId = 2 AND AlbumId = 2");
            // Excecute the select query.
            using (var reader = await cmdLookup.ExecuteReaderAsync())
            {
                while (await reader.ReadAsync())
                {
                    // Read the second album's budget.
                    secondBudget =
                      reader.GetFieldValue<decimal>("MarketingBudget");
                    // Confirm second Album's budget is sufficient and
                    // if not raise an exception. Raising an exception
                    // will automatically roll back the transaction.
                    if (secondBudget < transferAmount)
                    {
                        throw new Exception("The second album's "
                            + $"budget {secondBudget} "
                            + "is less than the "
                            + "amount to transfer.");
                    }
                }
            }
            // Read the first album's budget.
            cmdLookup = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT * FROM Albums WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1");
            using (var reader = await cmdLookup.ExecuteReaderAsync())
            {
                while (await reader.ReadAsync())
                {
                    firstBudget =
                      reader.GetFieldValue<decimal>("MarketingBudget");
                }
            }

            // Specify update command parameters.
            var cmd = connection.CreateUpdateCommand("Albums",
                new SpannerParameterCollection {
                {"SingerId", SpannerDbType.Int64},
                {"AlbumId", SpannerDbType.Int64},
                {"MarketingBudget", SpannerDbType.Int64},
            });
            // Update second album to remove the transfer amount.
            secondBudget -= transferAmount;
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = 2;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumId"].Value = 2;
            cmd.Parameters["MarketingBudget"].Value = secondBudget;
            await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
            // Update first album to add the transfer amount.
            firstBudget += transferAmount;
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = 1;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumId"].Value = 1;
            cmd.Parameters["MarketingBudget"].Value = firstBudget;
            await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
            scope.Complete();
            Console.WriteLine("Transaction complete.");
        }
    }
}

.NET Standard 1.5

public static async Task ReadWriteWithTransactionCoreAsync(
    string projectId,
    string instanceId,
    string databaseId)
{
    // This sample transfers 200,000 from the MarketingBudget
    // field of the second Album to the first Album. Make sure to run
    // the addColumn and writeDataToNewColumn samples first,
    // in that order.
    string connectionString =
        $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
        + $"/databases/{databaseId}";

    decimal transferAmount = 200000;
    decimal secondBudget = 0;
    decimal firstBudget = 0;

    Console.WriteLine(".NetCore API sample.");

    // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
    using (var connection =
        new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
    {
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        // Create a readwrite transaction that we'll assign
        // to each SpannerCommand.
        using (var transaction =
                await connection.BeginTransactionAsync())
        {
            // Create statement to select the second album's data.
            var cmdLookup = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
             "SELECT * FROM Albums WHERE SingerId = 2 AND AlbumId = 2");
            cmdLookup.Transaction = transaction;
            // Excecute the select query.
            using (var reader = await cmdLookup.ExecuteReaderAsync())
            {
                while (await reader.ReadAsync())
                {
                    // Read the second album's budget.
                    secondBudget =
                       reader.GetFieldValue<decimal>("MarketingBudget");
                    // Confirm second Album's budget is sufficient and
                    // if not raise an exception. Raising an exception
                    // will automatically roll back the transaction.
                    if (secondBudget < transferAmount)
                    {
                        throw new Exception("The second album's "
                                + $"budget {secondBudget} "
                                + "contains less than the "
                                + "amount to transfer.");
                    }
                }
            }
            // Read the first album's budget.
            cmdLookup = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
             "SELECT * FROM Albums WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1");
            cmdLookup.Transaction = transaction;
            using (var reader = await cmdLookup.ExecuteReaderAsync())
            {
                while (await reader.ReadAsync())
                {
                    firstBudget =
                      reader.GetFieldValue<decimal>("MarketingBudget");
                }
            }

            // Specify update command parameters.
            var cmd = connection.CreateUpdateCommand("Albums",
                new SpannerParameterCollection
                {
                    {"SingerId", SpannerDbType.Int64},
                    {"AlbumId", SpannerDbType.Int64},
                    {"MarketingBudget", SpannerDbType.Int64},
                });
            cmd.Transaction = transaction;
            // Update second album to remove the transfer amount.
            secondBudget -= transferAmount;
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = 2;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumId"].Value = 2;
            cmd.Parameters["MarketingBudget"].Value = secondBudget;
            await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
            // Update first album to add the transfer amount.
            firstBudget += transferAmount;
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = 1;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumId"].Value = 1;
            cmd.Parameters["MarketingBudget"].Value = firstBudget;
            await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

            await transaction.CommitAsync();
        }
        Console.WriteLine("Transaction complete.");
    }
}

Go

Usa el tipo ReadWriteTransaction para ejecutar un cuerpo de trabajo en el contexto de una transacción de lectura y escritura. Client.ReadWriteTransaction() muestra un objeto ReadWriteTransaction.

En la muestra, se usa ReadWriteTransaction.ReadRow() para recuperar una fila de datos.

En la muestra, también se usa ReadWriteTransaction.BufferWrite(), que agrega una lista de mutaciones al conjunto de actualizaciones que se aplicarán cuando se confirme la transacción.

En la muestra, también se usa el tipo Key, que representa una clave de fila en una tabla o índice de Cloud Spanner.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func writeWithTransaction(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		getBudget := func(key spanner.Key) (int64, error) {
			row, err := txn.ReadRow(ctx, "Albums", key, []string{"MarketingBudget"})
			if err != nil {
				return 0, err
			}
			var budget int64
			if err := row.Column(0, &budget); err != nil {
				return 0, err
			}
			return budget, nil
		}
		album2Budget, err := getBudget(spanner.Key{2, 2})
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		const transferAmt = 200000
		if album2Budget >= transferAmt {
			album1Budget, err := getBudget(spanner.Key{1, 1})
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			album1Budget += transferAmt
			album2Budget -= transferAmt
			cols := []string{"SingerId", "AlbumId", "MarketingBudget"}
			txn.BufferWrite([]*spanner.Mutation{
				spanner.Update("Albums", cols, []interface{}{1, 1, album1Budget}),
				spanner.Update("Albums", cols, []interface{}{2, 2, album2Budget}),
			})
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Moved %d from Album2's MarketingBudget to Album1's.", transferAmt)
		}
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

Usa la interfaz TransactionRunner para ejecutar un cuerpo de trabajo en el contexto de una transacción de lectura y escritura. Esta interfaz contiene el método run(), que se usa para ejecutar una transacción de lectura y escritura, con reintentos según sea necesario. El método readWriteTransaction de la clase DatabaseClient muestra un objeto TransactionRunner para ejecutar una única transacción lógica.

La clase TransactionRunner.TransactionCallable contiene un método run() para realizar un único intento de transacción. run() toma un objeto TransactionContext, que es el contexto de una transacción.

En la muestra, se usa la clase Struct, que es útil para almacenar los resultados de las llamadas readRow(). En la muestra, también se usa la clase Key, que representa una clave de fila en una tabla o índice de Cloud Spanner.

Este es el código para ejecutar la transacción:

static void writeWithTransaction(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(
          new TransactionCallable<Void>() {
            @Override
            public Void run(TransactionContext transaction) throws Exception {
              // Transfer marketing budget from one album to another. We do it in a transaction to
              // ensure that the transfer is atomic.
              Struct row =
                  transaction.readRow("Albums", Key.of(2, 2), Arrays.asList("MarketingBudget"));
              long album2Budget = row.getLong(0);
              // Transaction will only be committed if this condition still holds at the time of
              // commit. Otherwise it will be aborted and the callable will be rerun by the
              // client library.
              long transfer = 200000;
              if (album2Budget >= transfer) {
                long album1Budget =
                    transaction
                        .readRow("Albums", Key.of(1, 1), Arrays.asList("MarketingBudget"))
                        .getLong(0);
                album1Budget += transfer;
                album2Budget -= transfer;
                transaction.buffer(
                    Mutation.newUpdateBuilder("Albums")
                        .set("SingerId")
                        .to(1)
                        .set("AlbumId")
                        .to(1)
                        .set("MarketingBudget")
                        .to(album1Budget)
                        .build());
                transaction.buffer(
                    Mutation.newUpdateBuilder("Albums")
                        .set("SingerId")
                        .to(2)
                        .set("AlbumId")
                        .to(2)
                        .set("MarketingBudget")
                        .to(album2Budget)
                        .build());
              }
              return null;
            }
          });
}

Node.js

Usa Database.runTransaction() para ejecutar una transacción.

Este es el código para ejecutar la transacción:

// This sample transfers 200,000 from the MarketingBudget field
// of the second Album to the first Album, as long as the second
// Album has enough money in its budget. Make sure to run the
// addColumn and updateData samples first (in that order).

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const transferAmount = 200000;

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  let firstBudget, secondBudget;
  const queryOne = {
    columns: ['MarketingBudget'],
    keys: [[2, 2]], // SingerId: 2, AlbumId: 2
  };

  const queryTwo = {
    columns: ['MarketingBudget'],
    keys: [[1, 1]], // SingerId: 1, AlbumId: 1
  };

  Promise.all([
    // Reads the second album's budget
    transaction.read('Albums', queryOne).then(results => {
      // Gets second album's budget
      const rows = results[0].map(row => row.toJSON());
      secondBudget = rows[0].MarketingBudget;
      console.log(`The second album's marketing budget: ${secondBudget}`);

      // Makes sure the second album's budget is large enough
      if (secondBudget < transferAmount) {
        throw new Error(
          `The second album's budget (${secondBudget}) is less than the transfer amount (${transferAmount}).`
        );
      }
    }),

    // Reads the first album's budget
    transaction.read('Albums', queryTwo).then(results => {
      // Gets first album's budget
      const rows = results[0].map(row => row.toJSON());
      firstBudget = rows[0].MarketingBudget;
      console.log(`The first album's marketing budget: ${firstBudget}`);
    }),
  ])
    .then(() => {
      console.log(firstBudget, secondBudget);
      // Transfers the budgets between the albums
      firstBudget += transferAmount;
      secondBudget -= transferAmount;

      console.log(firstBudget, secondBudget);

      // Updates the database
      // Note: Cloud Spanner interprets Node.js numbers as FLOAT64s, so they
      // must be converted (back) to strings before being inserted as INT64s.
      transaction.update('Albums', [
        {
          SingerId: '1',
          AlbumId: '1',
          MarketingBudget: firstBudget.toString(),
        },
        {
          SingerId: '2',
          AlbumId: '2',
          MarketingBudget: secondBudget.toString(),
        },
      ]);
    })
    .then(() => {
      // Commits the transaction and send the changes to the database
      return transaction.commit();
    })
    .then(() => {
      console.log(
        `Successfully executed read-write transaction to transfer ${transferAmount} from Album 2 to Album 1.`
      );
    })
    .catch(err => {
      console.error('ERROR:', err);
    })
    .then(() => {
      transaction.end();
      // Closes the database when finished
      return database.close();
    });
});

PHP

Usa Database::runTransaction para ejecutar una transacción.

Este es el código para ejecutar la transacción:

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;
use UnexpectedValueException;

/**
 * Performs a read-write transaction to update two sample records in the
 * database.
 *
 * This will transfer 200,000 from the `MarketingBudget` field for the second
 * Album to the first Album. If the `MarketingBudget` for the second Album is
 * too low, it will raise an exception.
 *
 * Before running this sample, you will need to run the `update_data` sample
 * to populate the fields.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * read_write_transaction($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function read_write_transaction($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $transferAmount = 200000;

        // Read the second album's budget.
        $secondAlbumKey = [2, 2];
        $secondAlbumKeySet = $spanner->keySet(['keys' => [$secondAlbumKey]]);
        $secondAlbumResult = $t->read(
            'Albums',
            $secondAlbumKeySet,
            ['MarketingBudget'],
            ['limit' => 1]
        );

        $firstRow = $secondAlbumResult->rows()->current();
        $secondAlbumBudget = $firstRow['MarketingBudget'];
        if ($secondAlbumBudget < $transferAmount) {
            // Throwing an exception will automatically roll back the transaction.
            throw new UnexpectedValueException(
                'The second album\'s budget is lower than the transfer amount: ' . $transferAmount
            );
        }

        $firstAlbumKey = [1, 1];
        $firstAlbumKeySet = $spanner->keySet(['keys' => [$firstAlbumKey]]);
        $firstAlbumResult = $t->read(
            'Albums',
            $firstAlbumKeySet,
            ['MarketingBudget'],
            ['limit' => 1]
        );

        // Read the first album's budget.
        $firstRow = $firstAlbumResult->rows()->current();
        $firstAlbumBudget = $firstRow['MarketingBudget'];

        // Update the budgets.
        $secondAlbumBudget -= $transferAmount;
        $firstAlbumBudget += $transferAmount;
        printf('Setting first album\'s budget to %s and the second album\'s ' .
            'budget to %s.' . PHP_EOL, $firstAlbumBudget, $secondAlbumBudget);

        // Update the rows.
        $t->updateBatch('Albums', [
            ['SingerId' => 1, 'AlbumId' => 1, 'MarketingBudget' => $firstAlbumBudget],
            ['SingerId' => 2, 'AlbumId' => 2, 'MarketingBudget' => $secondAlbumBudget],
        ]);

        // Commit the transaction!
        $t->commit();

        print('Transaction complete.' . PHP_EOL);
    });
}

Python

Usa el método run_in_transaction() de la clase Database para ejecutar una transacción.

Este es el código para ejecutar la transacción:

def read_write_transaction(instance_id, database_id):
    """Performs a read-write transaction to update two sample records in the
    database.

    This will transfer 200,000 from the `MarketingBudget` field for the second
    Album to the first Album. If the `MarketingBudget` is too low, it will
    raise an exception.

    Before running this sample, you will need to run the `update_data` sample
    to populate the fields.
    """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    def update_albums(transaction):
        # Read the second album budget.
        second_album_keyset = spanner.KeySet(keys=[(2, 2)])
        second_album_result = transaction.read(
            table="Albums",
            columns=("MarketingBudget",),
            keyset=second_album_keyset,
            limit=1,
        )
        second_album_row = list(second_album_result)[0]
        second_album_budget = second_album_row[0]

        transfer_amount = 200000

        if second_album_budget < transfer_amount:
            # Raising an exception will automatically roll back the
            # transaction.
            raise ValueError("The second album doesn't have enough funds to transfer")

        # Read the first album's budget.
        first_album_keyset = spanner.KeySet(keys=[(1, 1)])
        first_album_result = transaction.read(
            table="Albums",
            columns=("MarketingBudget",),
            keyset=first_album_keyset,
            limit=1,
        )
        first_album_row = list(first_album_result)[0]
        first_album_budget = first_album_row[0]

        # Update the budgets.
        second_album_budget -= transfer_amount
        first_album_budget += transfer_amount
        print(
            "Setting first album's budget to {} and the second album's "
            "budget to {}.".format(first_album_budget, second_album_budget)
        )

        # Update the rows.
        transaction.update(
            table="Albums",
            columns=("SingerId", "AlbumId", "MarketingBudget"),
            values=[(1, 1, first_album_budget), (2, 2, second_album_budget)],
        )

    database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

    print("Transaction complete.")

Ruby

Usa el método transaction de la clase Client para ejecutar una transacción.

Este es el código para ejecutar la transacción:

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner         = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client          = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
transfer_amount = 200_000

client.transaction do |transaction|
  first_album  = transaction.read("Albums", [:MarketingBudget], keys: [[1, 1]]).rows.first
  second_album = transaction.read("Albums", [:MarketingBudget], keys: [[2, 2]]).rows.first

  raise "The second album does not have enough funds to transfer" if second_album[:MarketingBudget] < transfer_amount

  new_first_album_budget  = first_album[:MarketingBudget] + transfer_amount
  new_second_album_budget = second_album[:MarketingBudget] - transfer_amount

  transaction.update "Albums", [
    { SingerId: 1, AlbumId: 1, MarketingBudget: new_first_album_budget  },
    { SingerId: 2, AlbumId: 2, MarketingBudget: new_second_album_budget }
  ]
end

puts "Transaction complete"

Borra filas en una tabla

Cada biblioteca cliente proporciona varias formas de borrar filas:

  • Borra todas las filas de una tabla.
  • Borra una sola fila mediante la especificación de los valores de la columna de clave para la fila.
  • Borra un grupo de filas mediante la creación de un intervalo de claves.
  • Borra las filas de una tabla intercalada mediante la eliminación de las filas superiores si la tabla intercalada incluye ON DELETE CASCADE en su definición de esquema.

C++

Borra filas mediante la función DeleteMutationBuilder() para un cliente.

En este código, se muestra cómo borrar los datos:

void DeleteData(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;

  // Delete the albums with key (2,1) and (2,3).
  auto delete_albums = spanner::DeleteMutationBuilder(
                           "Albums", spanner::KeySet()
                                         .AddKey(spanner::MakeKey(2, 1))
                                         .AddKey(spanner::MakeKey(2, 3)))
                           .Build();

  // Delete some singers using the keys in the range [3, 5]
  auto delete_singers_range =
      spanner::DeleteMutationBuilder(
          "Singers", spanner::KeySet().AddRange(spanner::MakeKeyBoundClosed(3),
                                                spanner::MakeKeyBoundOpen(5)))
          .Build();

  // Deletes remaining rows from the Singers table and the Albums table, because
  // the Albums table is defined with ON DELETE CASCADE.
  auto delete_singers_all =
      spanner::MakeDeleteMutation("Singers", spanner::KeySet::All());

  auto commit_result = client.Commit(spanner::Mutations{
      delete_albums, delete_singers_range, delete_singers_all});
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "Delete was successful [spanner_delete_data]\n";
}

C#

Borra las filas con el método connection.CreateDeleteCommand(), que crea un nuevo SpannerCommand para borrar las filas. El método SpannerCommand.ExecuteNonQueryAsync() borra las filas de la tabla.

En este ejemplo, se borran las filas de la tabla Singers de forma individual. Las filas de la tabla Albums se borran porque la tabla Albums está intercalada en la tabla Singers y se define con ON DELETE CASCADE.

public static async Task DeleteIndividualRowsAsync(
    string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
{
    const int singerId = 2;
    string connectionString =
        $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
        + $"/databases/{databaseId}";
    List<Album> albums = new List<Album>
    {
        new Album { SingerId = singerId, AlbumId = 1, AlbumTitle = "Green" },
        new Album { SingerId = singerId, AlbumId = 3, AlbumTitle = "Terrified" },
    };
    // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
    using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
    {
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        // Delete individual rows from the UpcomingAlbums table.
        await Task.WhenAll(albums.Select(album =>
        {
            var cmd = connection.CreateDeleteCommand(
                "UpcomingAlbums",
                new SpannerParameterCollection
                {
                    { "SingerId", SpannerDbType.Int64, album.SingerId },
                    { "AlbumId", SpannerDbType.Int64, album.AlbumId }
                }
            );
            return cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        }));

        Console.WriteLine("Deleted individual rows in UpcomingAlbums.");
    }
}

public static async Task DeleteRangeOfRowsAsync(
    string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
{
    string connectionString =
        $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
        + $"/databases/{databaseId}";
    // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
    using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
    {
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        // Delete a range of rows from the UpcomingSingers table where the column key is >=3 and <5.
        var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand(
           "DELETE FROM UpcomingSingers WHERE SingerId >= 3 AND SingerId < 5");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) deleted from UpcomingSingers.");
    }
}

public static async Task DeleteAllRowsAsync(
    string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
{
    string connectionString =
        $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
        + $"/databases/{databaseId}";
    // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
    using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
    {
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        // Delete remaining UpcomingSingers rows, which will also delete the remaining
        // UpcomingAlbums rows since it was defined with ON DELETE CASCADE.
        var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand(
           "DELETE FROM UpcomingSingers WHERE true");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) deleted from UpcomingSingers.");
    }
}

Go

Borra filas con un Mutation. Usa el método Mutation.Delete() para construir una mutación DELETE, que borra una fila. El método Client.Apply() aplica mutaciones atómicas a la base de datos.

En este ejemplo, se borran las filas de la tabla Albums de forma individual y, luego, se borran todas las filas de la tabla Singers con un KeyRange.


import (
	"context"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func delete(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	m := []*spanner.Mutation{
		// Delete individual rows.
		spanner.Delete("Albums", spanner.Key{2, 1}),
		spanner.Delete("Albums", spanner.Key{2, 3}),
		// Delete a range of rows where the column key is >=3 and <5.
		spanner.Delete("Singers", spanner.KeyRange{Start: spanner.Key{3}, End: spanner.Key{5}, Kind: spanner.ClosedOpen}),
		// Delete remaining Singers rows, which will also delete the remaining
		// Albums rows because Albums was defined with ON DELETE CASCADE.
		spanner.Delete("Singers", spanner.AllKeys()),
	}
	_, err = client.Apply(ctx, m)
	return err
}

Java

Borra las filas con el método Mutation.delete().

En este ejemplo, se usa el método KeySet.all() para borrar todas las filas de la tabla Albums. Después de eliminar las filas de la tabla Albums, el ejemplo borra las filas de la tabla Singers de forma individual mediante claves creadas con el método KeySet.singleKey().

static void deleteExampleData(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  List<Mutation> mutations = new ArrayList<>();

  // KeySet.Builder can be used to delete a specific set of rows.
  // Delete the Albums with the key values (2,1) and (2,3).
  mutations.add(
      Mutation.delete(
          "Albums", KeySet.newBuilder().addKey(Key.of(2, 1)).addKey(Key.of(2, 3)).build()));

  // KeyRange can be used to delete rows with a key in a specific range.
  // Delete a range of rows where the column key is >=3 and <5
  mutations.add(
      Mutation.delete("Singers", KeySet.range(KeyRange.closedOpen(Key.of(3), Key.of(5)))));

  // KeySet.all() can be used to delete all the rows in a table.
  // Delete remaining Singers rows, which will also delete the remaining Albums rows since it was
  // defined with ON DELETE CASCADE.
  mutations.add(Mutation.delete("Singers", KeySet.all()));

  dbClient.write(mutations);
  System.out.printf("Records deleted.\n");
}

Node.js

Borra las filas con el método table.deleteRows().

En este ejemplo, se usa el método table.deleteRows() para borrar todas las filas de la tabla Singers. Las filas de la tabla Albums se borran porque la tabla Albums está intercalada en la tabla Singers y se define con ON DELETE CASCADE.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

// Instantiate Spanner table object
const albumsTable = database.table('Albums');

// Deletes individual rows from the Albums table.
try {
  const keys = [
    [2, 1],
    [2, 3],
  ];
  await albumsTable.deleteRows(keys);
  console.log('Deleted individual rows in Albums.');
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
}

// Delete a range of rows where the column key is >=3 and <5
database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: 'DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId >= 3 AND SingerId < 5',
    });
    console.log(`${rowCount} records deleted from Singers.`);
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  }

  // Deletes remaining rows from the Singers table and the Albums table,
  // because Albums table is defined with ON DELETE CASCADE.
  try {
    // The WHERE clause is required for DELETE statements to prevent
    // accidentally deleting all rows in a table.
    // https://cloud.google.com/spanner/docs/dml-syntax#where_clause
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: 'DELETE FROM Singers WHERE true',
    });
    console.log(`${rowCount} records deleted from Singers.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    await database.close();
  }
});

PHP

Borra filas con Database::delete() method. La página del método Database::delete() incluye un ejemplo.

Python

Borra las filas con el método Batch.delete().

En este ejemplo, se borran todas las filas de las tablas Albums y Singers de forma individual mediante un objeto KeySet.

def delete_data(instance_id, database_id):
    """Deletes sample data from the given database.

    The database, table, and data must already exist and can be created using
    `create_database` and `insert_data`.
    """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    # Delete individual rows
    albums_to_delete = spanner.KeySet(keys=[[2, 1], [2, 3]])

    # Delete a range of rows where the column key is >=3 and <5
    singers_range = spanner.KeyRange(start_closed=[3], end_open=[5])
    singers_to_delete = spanner.KeySet(ranges=[singers_range])

    # Delete remaining Singers rows, which will also delete the remaining
    # Albums rows because Albums was defined with ON DELETE CASCADE
    remaining_singers = spanner.KeySet(all_=True)

    with database.batch() as batch:
        batch.delete("Albums", albums_to_delete)
        batch.delete("Singers", singers_to_delete)
        batch.delete("Singers", remaining_singers)

    print("Deleted data.")

Ruby

Borra las filas con el método Client#delete. La página Client#delete incluye un ejemplo.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

# Delete individual rows
client.delete "Albums", [[2, 1], [2, 3]]

# Delete a range of rows where the column key is >=3 and <5
key_range = client.range 3, 5, exclude_end: true
client.delete "Singers", key_range

# Delete remaining Singers rows, which will also delete the remaining
# Albums rows because Albums was defined with ON DELETE CASCADE
client.delete "Singers"