SAP MaxDB Deployment Guide for Linux

This deployment guide shows you how to deploy and connect to a Compute Engine virtual machine (VM) that is ready for the installation of SAP MaxDB on a Linux operating system.

The instructions in this guide use Cloud Deployment Manager to deploy and configure the VM, the Linux operating system, and the required disk volumes for SAP MaxDB.

For details on planning your deployment, see the SAP MaxDB Planning Guide.

Prerequisites

If you do not already have a Google Cloud Platform project with billing enabled, you must create one before you can deploy a VM for your SAP MaxDB installation.

To create a project:

  1. Sign in to your Google Account.

    If you don't already have one, sign up for a new account.

  2. Select or create a Google Cloud Platform project.

    Go to the Manage resources page

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud Platform project.

    Learn how to enable billing

Configuring the gcloud command environment

These instructions use Cloud Shell to enter gcloud commands that deploy or configure your GCP resources. Cloud Shell is accessed through the GCP Console in your browser.

Cloud Shell runs on a VM that GCP provisions each time you start Cloud Shell. The first time you use Cloud Shell, GCP also creates a persistent $HOME directory for you, which is restored each time you open Cloud Shell.

The provisioned VM includes the latest Cloud SDK, which provides the gcloud command-line interface. Therefore, the gcloud commands that you use in Cloud Shell are the same as those you would use in a locally installed instance of the Cloud SDK.

If you have the Cloud SDK installed, you can issue the gcloud commands that are used in these instructions from your local machine. However, with a locally installed Cloud SDK you must always make sure that you are using the latest version of the Cloud SDK.

Whether you use Cloud Shell or Cloud SDK, you can can set and change the properties of your gcloud command environment and save them as a configuration. Configurations are collections of key-value pairs that influence the behavior of the gcloud commands.

Some basic actions you can take with a configuration in Cloud Shell include:

  • Initialize a configuration with gcloud init.

  • Check the settings of your current gcloud configuration with gcloud config list.

  • Change the GCP project you are working in with gcloud config set project [PROJECT_ID] where [PROJECT_ID] represents your GCP project.

  • Set a default region with gcloud config set compute/region [REGION] where [REGION] represents a GCP region.

  • Set a default zone with gcloud config set compute/zone [ZONE] where [ZONE] represents a GCP zone.

  • Create a new configuration with gcloud config configurations create [NAME] where [NAME] represents the name for the configuration.

For more information about working with configurations, see Managing Cloud SDK configurations.

Creating a network

For security purposes, create a new network. You can control who has access by adding firewall rules or by using another access control method.

If your project has a default VPC network, don't use it. Instead, create your own VPC network so that the only firewall rules in effect are those that you create explicitly.

During deployment, VM instances typically require access to the internet to download Google's monitoring agent. If you are using one of the SAP-certified Linux images that are available from GCP, the VM instance also requires access to the internet in order to register the license and to access OS vendor repositories. A configuration with a NAT gateway and with VM network tags supports this access, even if the target VMs do not have external IPs.

To set up networking:

  1. Go to Cloud Shell.

    Go to Cloud Shell

  2. To create a new network in the custom subnetworks mode, run:

    gcloud compute networks create [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --subnet-mode custom

    where [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the name of the new network. The network name can contain only lowercase characters, digits, and the dash character (-).

    Specify --subnet-mode custom to avoid using the default auto mode, which automatically creates a subnet in each Compute Engine region. For more information, see Subnet creation mode.

  3. Create a subnetwork, and specify the region and IP range:

    gcloud compute networks subnets create [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME] \
            --network [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --region [YOUR_REGION] --range [YOUR_RANGE]

    where:

    • [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME] is the new subnetwork.
    • [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the name of the network you created in the previous step.
    • [REGION] is the region where you want the subnetwork.
    • [YOUR_RANGE] is the IP address range, specified in CIDR format, such as 10.1.0.0/24. If you plan to add more than one subnetwork, assign non-overlapping CIDR IP ranges for each subnetwork in the network. Note that each subnetwork and its internal IP ranges are mapped to a single region.
  4. Optionally, repeat the previous step and add additional subnetworks.

Setting up a NAT gateway

If you intend to create one or more VMs that will not have public IP addresses, you must create a NAT gateway so that your VMs can access the Internet to download Google's monitoring agent.

If you intend to assign an external public IP address to your VM, you can skip this step.

To create a NAT gateway:

  1. Create a VM to act as the NAT gateway in the subnet you just created:

    gcloud compute instances create [YOUR_VM_NAME] --can-ip-forward \
            --zone [YOUR_ZONE]  --image-family [YOUR_IMAGE_FAMILY] \
            --image-project [YOUR_IMAGE_PROJECT] \
            --machine-type=[YOUR_MACHINE_TYPE] --subnet [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME] \
            --metadata startup-script="sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1; iptables \
            -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE" --tags [YOUR_VM_TAG]

    where:

    • [YOUR_VM_NAME] is the name of the VM you are creating that want to use for the NAT gateway.
    • [YOUR_ZONE] is the zone where you want the VM.
    • [YOUR_IMAGE_FAMILY] and [YOUR_IMAGE_PROJECT] specify the image you want to use for the NAT gateway.
    • [YOUR_MACHINE_TYPE] is any supported machine type. If you expect high network traffic, choose a machine type with that has at least eight virtual CPUs.
    • [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME] is the name of the subnetwork where you want the VM.
    • [YOUR_VM_TAG] is a tag that is applied to the VM you are creating. If you use this VM as a bastion host, this tag is used to apply the related firewall rule only to this VM.
  2. Create a route that is tagged so that traffic passes through the NAT VM instead of the default Internet gateway:

    gcloud compute routes create [YOUR_ROUTE_NAME] \
            --network [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --destination-range 0.0.0.0/0 \
            --next-hop-instance [YOUR_VM_NAME] --next-hop-instance-zone \
            [YOUR_ZONE] --tags [YOUR_TAG_NAME] --priority 800

    where:

    • [YOUR_ROUTE_NAME] is the name of the route you are creating.
    • [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the network you created.
    • [YOUR_VM_NAME] is the VM you are using for your NAT gateway.
    • [YOUR_ZONE] is the zone where the VM is located.
    • [YOUR_TAG_NAME] is the tag on the route that directs traffic through the NAT VM.
  3. If you also want to use the NAT gateway VM as a bastion host, run the following command. This command creates a firewall rule that allows inbound SSH access to this instance from the Internet:

    gcloud compute firewall-rules create allow-ssh --network [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --allow tcp:22 --source-ranges 0.0.0.0/0 --target-tags "[YOUR_VM_TAG]"

    where:

    • [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the network you created.
    • [YOUR_VM_TAG] is the tag you specified when you created the NAT gateway VM. This tag is used so this firewall rule applies only to the VM that hosts the NAT gateway, and not to all VMs in the network.

Deploying a Linux VM for SAP MaxDB with Deployment Manager

The following instructions use Deployment Manager to deploy a VM instance with Linux and all of the persistent disks that SAP MaxDB requires.

About Deployment Manager

In these instructions, you define the resource options for your installation in a Deployment Manager configuration file template.

Deployment Manager treats all of the resources that are created for your SAP system as a single entity called a deployment. You can view and work with all of the deployments for your project on the Deployments page in the GCP Console.

Be aware of the following behaviors when using Deployment Manager:

  • Deleting a deployment deletes all of the resources associated with the deployment, including the VMs, the persistent disks, and any SAP systems that are installed on the VM.
  • By default, Deployment Manager uses the ACQUIRE resource creation policy. If you specify a VM name that is already in use by another VM in your project, Deployment Manager doesn't create a new VM, but instead adds the existing VM to your new deployment. If your original VM was created by a previous run of Deployment Manager, the VM is associated with two deployments.

    If you then delete the new deployment, the acquired VM is deleted from the deployment that originally created it. To avoid such a scenario, either set the Deployment Manager resource policy to CREATE, or make sure that you use unique resource names in your new deployment.

    For information about the policies you can use while creating resources with Deployment Manager and how to specify them, see the Deployment Manager documentation.

Deployment procedure

  1. Open the Cloud Shell.

    Go to the Cloud Shell

  2. Download the template.yaml configuration file template to your working directory by entering the following command in the Cloud Shell:

    wget https://storage.googleapis.com/sapdeploy/dm-templates/sap_maxdb/template.yaml
    
  3. Optionally, rename the template.yaml file to identify the configuration it defines.

  4. Open the template.yaml file in the Cloud Shell code editor.

    To open the Cloud Shell code editor, click the pencil icon in the upper right corner of the Cloud Shell terminal window.

  5. In the template.yaml file, update the following property values by replacing the brackets and their contents with the values for your installation.

    Property Data type Description
    instanceName String The name of the VM instance on which SAP MaxDB will be installed. The name must be 13 characters or less and be specified in lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens.
    instanceType String The type of Compute Engine virtual machine on which SAP MaxDB will be installed. Specify a machine type with two or more vCPUs. For example, n1-standard-4. If you are running SAP MaxDB with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM, select a machine type that includes enough CPUs and memory to support both systems. See the SAP NetWeaver Planning Guide.
    zone String The zone in which you are deploying your SAP MaxDB. It must be in the same region that you selected for your subnetwork.
    subnetwork String The name of the subnetwork that you created in a previous step. If you are deploying to a shared VPC, specify this value as [SHAREDVPC_PROJECT]/[SUBNETWORK]. For example, myproject/network1.
    linuxImage String The name of the Linux operating- system image or image family that you are using with SAP MaxDB. To specify an image family, add the prefix family/ to the family name. For example, family/rhel-7 or family/sles-12-sp3-sap. To specify a specific image, specify only the image name. For the list of available image families, see the Images page in the Cloud console.
    linuxImageProject String The GCP project that contains the image you are going to use. This project might be your own project or a GCP image project, such as rhel-sap-cloud or suse-sap-cloud. For a list of GCP image projects, see the Images page in the Compute Engine documentation.
    maxdbSID String The database instance ID.
    maxdbRootSize Integer The size in GB of /sapdb, which is the root directory of the database instance. The minimum and default values for maxdbRootSize are both 8 GB.
    maxdbDataSize Integer The size of /sapdb/[DBSID]/sapdata, which holds the database data files. The minimum and default values for maxdbDataSize are both 30 GB.
    maxdbLogSize Integer The size of /sapdb/[DBSID]saplog, which holds the database transaction logs. The minimum and default values for maxdbLogSize are both 8 GB.
    maxdbBackupSize Integer The size of the /maxdbbackup volume. This property is optional. If set to 0 or omitted, no disk is created.
    maxdbDataSSD boolean Specifies whether the data drive uses an SSD persistent disk (Yes) or an HDD persistent disk (No). Yes is the default.
    maxdbLogSSD boolean Specifies whether the log drive uses an SSD persistent disk (Yes) or an HDD persistent disk (No). Yes is the default. SSD is recommended for the log drive.
    usrsapSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP MaxDB to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.
    sapmntSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP MaxDB to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.
    swapSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP MaxDB to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.

    The following configuration file creates a VM that is configured to run both the SAP MaxDB database server and SAP NetWeaver. The configuration file directs Deployment Manager to deploy an n1-standard-16 VM that is running a SLES 12 SP3 operating system. The VM includes all of the directories that are required to run SAP MaxDB with NetWeaver.

     imports:
     - path: https://storage.googleapis.com/sapdeploy/dm-templates/sap_maxdb/sap_maxdb.py
    
     resources:
     - name: sap_maxdb
       type: https://storage.googleapis.com/sapdeploy/dm-templates/sap_maxdb/sap_maxdb.py
       properties:
         instanceName: xmp-maxdb-lin
         instanceType: n1-standard-16
         zone: us-central1-f
         subnetwork: example-sub-network
         linuxImage: family/sles-12-sp3-sap
         linuxImageProject: suse-sap-cloud
         maxdbSID: MD1
         maxdbRootSize: 10
         maxdbDataSize: 50
         maxdbLogSize: 30
         maxdbBackupSize: 100
         maxdbDataSSD: Yes
         maxdbLogSSD: Yes
         usrsapSize: 15
         sapmntSize: 15
         swapSize: 24
    
  6. Create the VM instance:

    gcloud deployment-manager deployments create [DEPLOYMENT-NAME] --config [TEMPLATE-NAME].yaml
    

    The above command invokes the Deployment Manager, which deploys the VM according to the specifications in your template.yaml file. The process might take a few minutes. To check the progress of your deployment, follow the steps in the next section.

Verifying deployment

The following steps use Stackdriver Logging, which might incur charges. For more information, see Stackdriver pricing.

  1. Open Stackdriver Logging to check for errors and monitor the progress of the installation.

    Go to Logging

  2. On the Resources tab, select Global as your logging resource. If 'INSTANCE DEPLOYMENT COMPLETE' is displayed for a VM, Deployment Manager processing is complete for the VM.

    Logging display

  3. After the SAP MaxDB system deploys, connect to your VM by using SSH. From the Compute Engine VM instances page, you can click the SSH button for your VM instance, or you can use your preferred SSH method.

    SSH button on Compute Engine VM instances page.

  4. Change to the root user.

    sudo su -
  5. At the command prompt, enter df -h. Ensure that you see output similar to the following, such as the //sapdb/[DBSID]/sapdata directory.

    Data volumes created by the script.

  6. If you are installing SAP MaxDB on the same VM as SAP NetWeaver, confirm that the swap directory was created by entering the following command:

    cat /proc/meminfo | grep Swap

    You should see results similar to the following example:

    Example of terminal output when the swap directory exits.

If any of the validation steps show that the installation failed:

  1. Correct the error.
  2. On the Deployments page, delete the deployment to clean up the VMs and persistent disks from the failed installation.
  3. Rerun your deployment.

Installing the database

Now that your operating system is configured, you can install your SAP MaxDB database. MaxDB is typically installed with the SAP product that it is integrated with.

To install SAP MaxDB on your VM:

  1. Establish an SSH connection to your Linux-based VM.
  2. Download the SAP Software Provisioning Manager (SWPM), the SAP product installation media, and MaxDB installation Media according to SAP installation guides.
  3. Install your SAP product and SAP MaxDB database according to the SAP installation guides for your SAP product. For additional guidance, see the SAP MaxDB documentation.

SAP provides additional installation information in SAP Note 1020175 - FAQ: SAP MaxDB installation, upgrade or applying a patch.

Performing post-deployment tasks

Before using your SAP MaxDB instance, we recommend that you perform the following post-deployment steps:

  1. Update your SAP MaxDB software with the latest patches, if available.
  2. Install any additional components.
  3. Configure and back up your new SAP MaxDB database.

For more information, see SAP MaxDB Database Administration.

Troubleshooting

This section contains information about how to correct common issues.

Troubleshooting connecting to your VM

If you are having issues connecting to your VM through SSH, ensure that you have created a firewall rule to open port 22 on the GCP network you are using.

For other possible issues, see Known issues for SSH from the browser.

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