SAP ASE Deployment Guide for Linux

This deployment guide shows you how to deploy and connect to a Compute Engine virtual machine (VM) that is ready for the installation of SAP Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) on a Linux operating system.

The instructions in this guide use Cloud Deployment Manager to deploy and configure the VM, the Linux operating system, and the required disk volumes for SAP ASE.

For details on planning your deployment, see the SAP ASE Planning Guide.

Prerequisites

If you do not already have a Google Cloud Platform project with billing enabled, you must create one before you can deploy a VM for your SAP ASE installation.

To create a project:

  1. Sign in to your Google Account.

    If you don't already have one, sign up for a new account.

  2. Select or create a GCP project.

    Go to the Manage resources page

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your project.

    Learn how to enable billing

Configuring the gcloud command environment

These instructions use Cloud Shell to enter gcloud commands that deploy or configure your GCP resources. Cloud Shell is accessed through the GCP console in your browser.

Cloud Shell runs on a VM that GCP provisions each time you start Cloud Shell. The first time you use Cloud Shell, GCP also creates a persistent $HOME directory for you, which is restored each time you open Cloud Shell.

The provisioned VM includes the latest Cloud SDK, which provides the gcloud command-line interface. Therefore, the gcloud commands that you use in Cloud Shell are the same as those you would use in a locally installed instance of the Cloud SDK.

If you have the Cloud SDK installed, you can issue the gcloud commands that are used in these instructions from your local machine. However, with a locally installed Cloud SDK you must always make sure that you are using the latest version of the Cloud SDK.

Whether you use Cloud Shell or Cloud SDK, you can can set and change the properties of your gcloud command environment and save them as a configuration. Configurations are collections of key-value pairs that influence the behavior of the gcloud commands.

Some basic actions you can take with a configuration in Cloud Shell include:

  • Initialize a configuration with gcloud init

  • Check the settings of your current gcloud configuration with gcloud config list

  • Change the GCP project you are working in with gcloud config set project [PROJECT_ID]

  • Set a default region with gcloud config set compute/region [REGION]

  • Set a default zone with gcloud config set compute/zone [ZONE]

  • Create a new configuration with gcloud config configurations create [NAME]

For more information about working with configurations, see Managing SDK Configurations.

Creating a network

When you create a project, a default network is created for your project. However, for security purposes, you should create a new network and specify firewall rules to control who has access.

To set up networking:

  1. Go to Cloud Shell.

    Go to Cloud Shell

  2. To create a new network in the custom subnetworks mode, run:

    gcloud compute networks create [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --subnet-mode custom

    where [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the name of the new network. The network name can contain only lowercase characters, digits, and the dash character (-).

    Make sure to specify the custom flag instead of using an automatic subnetwork. An automatic subnetwork always has the same assigned IP address range, which can cause issues if you have multiple subnetworks and want to use VPN.

  3. Create a subnetwork, and specify the region and IP range:

    gcloud compute networks subnets create [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME]
            --network [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --region [YOUR_REGION] --range [YOUR_RANGE]

    where:

    • [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME] is the new subnetwork.
    • [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the name of the network you created in the previous step.
    • [REGION] is the region where you want the subnetwork. If you are using SAP ASE with SAP NetWeaver, use a region that is supported for SAP NetWeaver.
    • [YOUR_RANGE] is the IP address range, specified in CIDR format, such as 10.1.0.0/24. If you plan to add more than one subnetwork, assign non-overlapping CIDR IP ranges for each subnetwork in the network. Note that each subnetwork and its internal IP ranges are mapped to a single region.
  4. Optionally, repeat the previous step and add additional subnetworks.

Setting up a NAT gateway

If you intend to create one or more VMs that will not have public IP addresses, you must create a NAT gateway so that your VMs can access the Internet to download Google's monitoring agent.

If you intend to assign an external public IP address to your VM, you can skip this step.

To create a NAT gateway:

  1. Create a VM to act as the NAT gateway in the subnet you just created:

    gcloud compute instances create [YOUR_VM_NAME] --can-ip-forward \
            --zone [YOUR_ZONE]  --image-family [YOUR_IMAGE_FAMILY] \
            --image-project [YOUR_IMAGE_PROJECT] \
            --machine-type=[YOUR_MACHINE_TYPE] --subnet [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME] \
            --metadata startup-script="sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1; iptables \
            -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE" --tags [YOUR_VM_TAG]

    where:

    • [YOUR_VM_NAME] is the name of the VM you are creating that want to use for the NAT gateway.
    • [YOUR_ZONE] is the zone where you want the VM.
    • [YOUR_IMAGE_FAMILY] and [YOUR_IMAGE_PROJECT] specify the image you want to use for the NAT gateway.
    • [YOUR_MACHINE_TYPE] is any supported machine type. If you expect high network traffic, choose a machine type with that has at least eight virtual CPUs.
    • [YOUR_SUBNETWORK_NAME] is the name of the subnetwork where you want the VM.
    • [YOUR_VM_TAG] is a tag that is applied to the VM you are creating. If you use this VM as a bastion host, this tag is used to apply the related firewall rule only to this VM.
  2. Create a route that is tagged so that traffic passes through the NAT VM instead of the default Internet gateway:

    gcloud compute routes create [YOUR_ROUTE_NAME] \
            --network [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --destination-range 0.0.0.0/0 \
            --next-hop-instance [YOUR_VM_NAME] --next-hop-instance-zone \
            [YOUR_ZONE] --tags [YOUR_TAG_NAME] --priority 800

    where:

    • [YOUR_ROUTE_NAME] is the name of the route you are creating.
    • [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the network you created.
    • [YOUR_VM_NAME] is the VM you are using for your NAT gateway.
    • [YOUR_ZONE] is the zone where the VM is located.
    • [YOUR_TAG_NAME] is the tag on the route that directs traffic through the NAT VM.
  3. If you also want to use the NAT gateway VM as a bastion host, run the following command. This command creates a firewall rule that allows inbound SSH access to this instance from the Internet:

    gcloud compute firewall-rules create allow-ssh --network [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] --allow tcp:22 --source-ranges 0.0.0.0/0 --target-tags "[YOUR_VM_TAG]"

    where:

    • [YOUR_NETWORK_NAME] is the network you created.
    • [YOUR_VM_TAG] is the tag you specified when you created the NAT gateway VM. This tag is used so this firewall rule applies only to the VM that hosts the NAT gateway, and not to all VMs in the network.

Adding firewall rules

By default, an implied firewall rule blocks incoming connections from outside your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network. To allow incoming connections, set up a firewall rule for your VM. After an incoming connection is established with a VM, traffic is permitted in both directions over that connection.

You can create a firewall rule to allow external access to specified ports, or to restrict access between VMs on the same network. If the default VPC network type is used, some additional default rules also apply, such as the default-allow-internal rule, which allows connectivity between VMs on the same network on all ports.

Depending on the IT policy that is applicable to your environment, you might need to isolate or otherwise restrict connectivity to your database host, which you can do by creating firewall rules.

Depending on your scenario, you can create firewall rules to allow access for:

  • ASE network listener for client connections. The default ASE port number is 5000.
  • The ports required by SAP ASE Cockpit. For a list of ports that ASE Cockpit uses, see the SAP ASE Cockpit documentation in the SAP Help Portal.
  • The default SAP ports that are listed in TCP/IP of All SAP Products.
  • Connections from your computer or your corporate network environment to your Compute Engine VM instance. If you are unsure of what IP address to use, talk to your company's network administrator.
  • Communication between VMs when, for example, your database server and application server are running on different VMs. To enable communication between VMs, you must create a firewall rule to allow traffic that originates from the subnetwork.
  • SSH connections to your VM instance, including SSH from the browser. The default SSH port number is 22.
  • Connection to your VM by using a third-party tool in Linux. Create a rule to allow access for the tool through your firewall.

To create a firewall rule:

  1. In the GCP Console, go to the Firewall rules page.

    OPEN FIREWALL RULES

  2. At the top of the page, click Create firewall rule.

    • In the Network field, select the network where your VM is located.
    • In the Targets field, select All instances in the network.
    • In the Source filter field, select one of the following:
      • IP ranges to allow incoming traffic from specific IP addresses. Specify the range of IP addresses in the Source IP ranges field.
      • Subnets to allow incoming traffic from a particular subnetwork. Specify the subnetwork name in the following Subnets field. You can use this option to allow access between the VMs in a 3-tier or scaleout configuration.
    • In the Protocols and ports section, select Specified protocols and ports and enter tcp:[PORT_NUMBER].
  3. Click Create to create your firewall rule.

Deploying a Linux VM for SAP ASE with Cloud Deployment Manager

The following instructions use Cloud Deployment Manager to deploy a VM instance with Linux and all of the persistent disks that SAP ASE requires. You define the values for the installation in a Cloud Deployment Manager configuration file template.

Cloud Deployment Manager treats all of the resources that are created for the SAP ASE system as a single entity called a deployment. You can view all of the deployments for your GCP project on the Deployments page in the GCP Console.

The following instructions use Cloud Shell, but if you prefer, you can use the Cloud SDK in your local terminal instead.

  1. Open the Cloud Shell.

    Go to the Cloud Shell

  2. Download the template.yaml configuration file template to your working directory by entering the following command in the Cloud Shell:

    wget https://storage.googleapis.com/sapdeploy/dm-templates/sap_ase/template.yaml
    
  3. Optionally, rename the template.yaml file to identify the configuration it defines.

  4. Open the template.yaml file in the Cloud Shell code editor.

    To open the Cloud Shell code editor, click the pencil icon in the upper right corner of the Cloud Shell terminal window.

  5. In the template.yaml file, update the following property values by replacing the brackets and their contents with the values for your installation.

    Property Data type Description
    instanceName String The name of the VM instance on which SAP ASE will be installed. The name must be 13 characters or less and be specified in lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens.
    instanceType String The type of Compute Engine virtual machine on which SAP ASE will be installed. If you are running SAP ASE with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM, select a machine type that includes enough CPUs and memory to support both systems. See the SAP NetWeaver Planning Guide.
    zone String The zone in which you are deploying your SAP ASE. It must be in the same region that you selected for your subnetwork.
    subnetwork String The name of the subnetwork that you created in a previous step. If you are deploying to a shared VPC, specify this value as [SHAREDVPC_PROJECT]/[SUBNETWORK]. For example, myproject/network1.
    linuxImage String The name of the Linux operating- system image or image family that you are using with SAP ASE. To specify an image family, add the prefix family/ to the family name. For example, family/rhel-7 or family/sles-12-sp2-sap. To use a specific image, enter only the image name. For the list of available image families, see the Images page in the Cloud console.
    linuxImageProject String The GCP project that contains the image you are going to use. This project might be your own project or a GCP image project, such as rhel-sap-cloud or suse-sap-cloud. For a list of GCP image projects, see the Images page in the Compute Engine documentation.
    aseSID String The database instance ID.
    asesidSize Integer The size in GB of /sybase/[DBSID], which is the root directory of the database instance. In the deployed VM, this volume is labeled ASE.
    asediagSize Integer The size of /sybase/[DBSID]/sapdiag, which holds the diagnostic tablespace for SAPTOOLS.
    asesaptempSize Integer The size of /sybase/[DBSID]/saptmp, which holds the database temporary table space.
    asesapdataSize Integer The size of /sybase/[DBSID]/sapdata, which holds the database data files.
    aselogSize Integer The size of /sybase/[DBSID]logdir, which holds the database transaction logs.
    asebackupSize Integer The size of the /sybasebackup volume. If set to 0 or omitted, no disk is created.
    asesapdataSSD boolean The SSD toggle for the data drive. If set to true, the data disk will be SSD.
    aselogSSD boolean The SSD toggle for the log drive. If set to true, the log disk will be SSD.
    usrsapSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP ASE to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.
    sapmntSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP ASE to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.
    swapSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP ASE to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.

    The following configuration file creates a VM that is configured to run both the SAP ASE database server and SAP NetWeaver. The configuration file directs Cloud Deployment Manager to deploy an n1-standard-16 VM that is running a SLES 12 SP2 operating system. The VM includes all of the directories that are required to run SAP ASE with NetWeaver.

     imports:
     - path: https://storage.googleapis.com/sapdeploy/dm-templates/sap_ase/sap_ase.py
    
     resources:
     - name: sap_ase
       type: https://storage.googleapis.com/sapdeploy/dm-templates/sap_ase/sap_ase.py
       properties:
         instanceName: ex-vm-ase-lin
         instanceType: n1-standard-16
         zone: us-central1-f
         subnetwork: example-sub-network
         linuxImage: family/sles-12-sp2-sap
         linuxImageProject: suse-sap-cloud
         aseSID: AS1
         asesidSize: 10
         asediagSize: 15
         asesaptempSize: 20
         asesapdataSize: 50
         aselogSize: 30
         asebackupSize: 100
         asesapdataSSD: Yes
         aselogSSD: Yes
         usrsapSize: 15
         sapmntSize: 15
         swapSize: 24
    
  6. Create the VM instance:

    gcloud deployment-manager deployments create [DEPLOYMENT-NAME] --config [TEMPLATE-NAME].yaml
    

    The above command invokes the Cloud Deployment Manager, which deploys the VM according to the specifications in your template.yaml file. The process might take a few minutes. To check the progress of your deployment, follow the steps in the next section.

Verifying deployment

  1. Open Stackdriver Logging to check for errors and monitor the progress of the installation.

    Go to Logging

  2. On the Resources tab, select Global as your logging resource. If "INSTANCE DEPLOYMENT COMPLETE" is displayed for a VM, Cloud Deployment Manager processing is complete for the VM.

    Logging display

  3. After the SAP ASE system deploys without errors, connect to your VM by using SSH. From the Compute Engine VM instances page, you can click the SSH button for your VM instance, or you can use your preferred SSH method.

    SSH button on Compute Engine VM instances page.

  4. Change to the root user.

    sudo su -

  5. At the command prompt, enter df -h. Ensure that you see output similar to the following, such as the //sybase/[DBSID]/sapdata directory.

    Data volumes created by the script.

  6. Confirm that the swap directory was created by entering the following command:

    cat /proc/meminfo | grep Swap

    You should see results similar to the following example:

    Example of terminal output when the swap directory exits.

If any of the validation steps show that the installation failed:

  1. Correct the error.
  2. On the Deployments page, delete the deployment to clean up the VMs and persistent disks from the failed installation.
  3. Rerun your deployment.

Installing the database

Now that your operating system is configured, you can install your SAP ASE database:

To install SAP ASE on your VM:

  1. Establish an SSH connection to your Linux-based VM.
  2. Download or copy your SAP ASE installation media from SAP to your VM.
  3. Prepare your SAP ASE SySAM license file or license server for use with the installation.
  4. Install the SAP ASE database. See the SAP ASE Installation and Upgrade Guide for Linux for guidance.

Performing post-deployment tasks

Before using your SAP ASE instance, we recommend that you perform the following post-deployment steps:

  1. Update your SAP ASE software with the latest patches, if available.
  2. Install any additional components.
  3. Configure and back up your new SAP ASE database.

For additional post-deployment guidance, see the Post-installation Tasks section of the SAP ASE Installation and Upgrade Guide for Linux.

Troubleshooting

This section contains information about how to correct common issues.

Troubleshooting connecting to your VM

If you are having issues connecting to your VM through SSH, ensure that you have created a firewall rule to open port 22 on the GCP network you are using.

For other possible issues, see Known issues for SSH from the browser.

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