This tutorial demonstrates how to create and use your own public IP addresses, or custom IP addresses, on virtual machines (VMs) in Compute Engine on Google Cloud. This tutorial assumes that you have a provider-independent IP space that you can advertise by using your own routing equipment. It also assumes that you have some experience with Compute Engine.
You might want to use custom IP addresses because:
- Your own IP addresses are hard-coded in applications that cannot be easily changed.
- Your own IP addresses have associated reputation, allowing traffic from these endpoints. This is essential for mail-sending applications.
The following diagram shows the steps to add a custom IP address to a VM and advertise it through Dedicated Interconnect to the internet.
The numbers in the graphic correspond to the following steps:
- Add your custom IP addresses to each VM.
- Add your public IP prefixes to advertise to your peering router by using custom route advertising.
- Add static routes back to the VM instance to map the custom IP addresses to that instance.
- Set up an internet transit connection and advertise your public IP prefixes.
At the end of the tutorial you test the connection by following these steps:
- Pinging an interconnected VM.
- Verifying that the requests to the custom IP address are routed correctly.
- Confirming that the custom IP address is forwarded as the source for outgoing requests.
This tutorial uses Cloud Router custom route advertisements, which you can use to restrict or extend IP ranges in Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) advertisements globally or on a per-neighbor basis. You can withhold one or more subnet ranges from being advertised, or you can advertise ranges that your Cloud Router doesn't advertise by default.
- Add a custom IP address to a VM.
- Use custom route advertising to advertise the IP address from your Cloud Router through Dedicated Interconnect or Cloud VPN.
- Add a static route back to the VM instance that is mapping the custom IP address to the Google Cloud instance.
- Test the connectivity.
This tutorial uses billable components of Cloud Platform, including:
- Compute Engine
- Dedicated Interconnect or Cloud VPN
Before you begin
Sign in to your Google Account.
If you don't already have one, sign up for a new account.
In the Cloud Console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.
Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud project. Learn how to confirm billing is enabled for your project.
- Enable the Compute Engine API.
- Establish Dedicated Interconnect or Cloud VPN from your on-premises infrastructure to your Google Cloud project.
Setting up your environment
In this section you configure the project settings that you need in order to complete the tutorial.
Start a Cloud Shell instance
You work through the rest of the tutorial in Cloud Shell.
Configure project settings
To simplify using the
gcloud command-line tool, you can set up the following
properties so that you don't have to supply them with each command:
Set your default project by using your project ID for
gcloud config set project [PROJECT_ID]
Set your default Compute Engine region by using your preferred region for
gcloud config set compute/region [ZONE] export REGION=[REGION]
Set your default Compute Engine zone by using your preferred zone for
gcloud config set compute/zone [ZONE] export ZONE=[ZONE]
(Optional) Create interconnected virtual private clouds (VPCs)
When you implement this solution in a production environment, you connect to your on-premises environment, which is connected to your Google Cloud project through Cloud VPN or Dedicated Interconnect.
If you want to try this method for this tutorial, but you don't have an established Cloud VPN or dedicated connection, you can use the following steps to create two interconnected VPCs in the same project. One VPC houses the custom IP address and the other acts as the on-premises environment.
Create a VPC that includes a custom subnetwork for the VM that will host the custom IP address:
gcloud compute networks create custom-ip-vpc --subnet-mode custom gcloud compute networks subnets create subnet-custom-ip \ --network custom-ip-vpc \ --range 10.10.20.0/24
Create a second VPC that includes a custom subnetwork to represent your on-premises network. Create this second VPC in the same project as the first VPC. You use
172.16.0.0/16as the address range:
gcloud compute networks create on-premises-vpc --subnet-mode custom gcloud compute networks subnets create subnet-on-premises \ --network on-premises-vpc \ --range 172.16.0.0/16
Create one Cloud Router for each VPC. The autonomous system number (ASN) must be unique throughout your peered network. You can choose any private ASN from
gcloud compute routers create cloud-router \ --network custom-ip-vpc \ --asn 65001 gcloud compute routers create on-premises-router \ --network on-premises-vpc \ --asn 65002
Create a Cloud VPN gateway for each VPC:
gcloud compute target-vpn-gateways create cloud-vpn \ --network custom-ip-vpc gcloud compute target-vpn-gateways create on-premises-vpn \ --network on-premises-vpc
Reserve a static IP address to use for the peering points for the Cloud VPN tunnel:
gcloud compute addresses create cloud-vpn-static-ip --region $REGION gcloud compute addresses create on-premises-vpn-static-ip --region $REGION
Retrieve the reserved IP address:
gcloud compute addresses list
The output looks like this:
NAME REGION ADDRESS STATUS cloud-vpn-static-ip europe-west1 203.0.113.1 RESERVED on-premises-vpn-static-ip europe-west1 203.0.113.2 RESERVED
Create rules that forward IPsec-specific traffic toward the Cloud VPN gateway, such as encapsulating security payload (ESP) protocol and user datagram protocol (UDP) ports
4500. Use the static IP addresses that you reserved in a previous step.
gcloud compute forwarding-rules create fr-esp-cloud \ --address cloud-vpn-static-ip \ --target-vpn-gateway cloud-vpn \ --ip-protocol ESP \ --region $REGION
gcloud compute forwarding-rules create fr-udp500-cloud \ --address cloud-vpn-static-ip \ --target-vpn-gateway cloud-vpn \ --ip-protocol UDP \ --ports 500 \ --region $REGION
gcloud compute forwarding-rules create fr-udp4500-cloud \ --address cloud-vpn-static-ip \ --target-vpn-gateway cloud-vpn \ --ip-protocol UDP \ --ports 4500 \ --region $REGION
- Create the same forwarding rules for the on-premises Cloud VPN gateway, adjusting the IP address and VPC resource:
gcloud compute forwarding-rules create fr-esp-on-premises \ --address on-premises-vpn-static-ip \ --target-vpn-gateway on-premises-vpn \ --ip-protocol ESP \ --region $REGION
gcloud compute forwarding-rules create fr-udp500-on-premises \ --address on-premises-vpn-static-ip \ --target-vpn-gateway on-premises-vpn \ --ip-protocol UDP \ --ports 500 \ --region $REGION
gcloud compute forwarding-rules create fr-udp4500-on-premises \ --address on-premises-vpn-static-ip \ --target-vpn-gateway on-premises-vpn \ --ip-protocol UDP \ --ports 4500 \ --region $REGION
Verify that you've created all the rules:
gcloud compute forwarding-rules list
The output looks like this:
NAME REGION IP_ADDRESS IP_PROTOCOL TARGET fr-esp-cloud europe-west1 203.0.113.1 ESP europe-west1/targetVpnGateways/cloud-vpn fr-udp500-cloud europe-west1 203.0.113.1 UDP europe-west1/targetVpnGateways/cloud-vpn fr-udp4500-cloud europe-west1 203.0.113.1 UDP europe-west1/targetVpnGateways/cloud-vpn fr-esp-on-premises europe-west1 203.0.113.2 ESP europe-west1/targetVpnGateways/on-premises-vpn fr-udp500-on-premises europe-west1 203.0.113.2 UDP europe-west1/targetVpnGateways/on-premises-vpn fr-udp4500-on-premises europe-west1 203.0.113.2 UDP europe-west1/targetVpnGateways/on-premises-vpn
Create a Cloud VPN tunnel that connects the two gateways.
Use the static address that you assigned to the on-premises Cloud VPN gateway as a peer address.
--peer-addressflag, use the
gcloudtool to retrieve the static IP address that you reserved in a previous step.
gcloud compute vpn-tunnels create tunnel-cloud \ --ike-version 2 \ --target-vpn-gateway cloud-vpn \ --peer-address on-premises-vpn-static-ip \ --peer-address $(gcloud compute addresses list \ --format="value(address.basename())" --filter="name=on-premises-vpn-static-ip") \ --shared-secret SHAREDSECRET \ --router cloud-router
gcloud compute vpn-tunnels create tunnel-on-premises \ --ike-version 2 \ --target-vpn-gateway on-premises-vpn \ --peer-address $(gcloud compute addresses list \ --format="value(address.basename())" --filter="name=cloud-vpn-static-ip") \ --shared-secret SHAREDSECRET \ --router on-premises-router
You have allocated the resources for the Cloud VPN tunnel, but no traffic is forwarded yet.
Verify that the tunnel is created:
gcloud compute vpn-tunnels list
The output looks like this:
NAME REGION GATEWAY PEER_ADDRESS tunnel-cloud europe-west1 cloud-vpn 203.0.113.2 tunnel-on-premises europe-west1 on-premises-vpn 203.0.113.1
Update the Cloud Router configuration to add a virtual interface to establish a BGP session. Do this update for both peering points:
gcloud compute routers add-interface cloud-router \ --interface-name if-cloud \ --ip-address 169.254.1.1 \ --mask-length 30 \ --vpn-tunnel tunnel-cloud
gcloud compute routers add-interface on-premises-router \ --interface-name if-on-premises \ --ip-address 169.254.1.2 \ --mask-length 30 \ --vpn-tunnel tunnel-on-premises
The IP addresses that you use here must belong to the link-local address block
169.254.0.0/16. Every tunnel in your peered network requires a unique pair of IP addresses.
Update both routers to add the BGP peer to the interfaces:
gcloud compute routers add-bgp-peer cloud-router \ --peer-name bgp-peer-cloud \ --interface if-cloud \ --peer-ip-address 169.254.1.2 \ --peer-asn 65002
gcloud compute routers add-bgp-peer on-premises-router \ --peer-name bgp-peer-on-premises \ --interface if-on-premises \ --peer-ip-address 169.254.1.1 \ --peer-asn 65001
Verify the setting by providing the respective Cloud Router resource name:
gcloud compute routers describe [CLOUD_ROUTER_NAME]
Create firewall rules that allow inbound traffic from the peered on-premises VPC:
gcloud compute firewall-rules create vpnrule \ --network custom-ip-vpc \ --allow tcp,udp,icmp \ --source-ranges $(gcloud compute networks subnets list \ --format="value(ipCidrRange)" \ --filter="name=subnet-on-premises") \ --target-tags=custom-ip
Creating a VM with a custom IP address
In this section you create a VM and add a custom IP address to that VM. Then you configure the Cloud Router and your VPC to allow traffic that uses this custom IP address. To test the setup, you create a VM in the on-premises network or in the VPC that represents it. To connect through SSH to the VM that hosts the custom IP address, you need a bastion host.
The following diagram shows the result of the preceding steps and includes the VMs mentioned in this section.
Create a VM.
Use the VPC
custom-ip-vpcthat you created in the preceding steps. If you use your own VPC, you must change the name and IP addresses accordingly throughout this tutorial.
gcloud compute instances create "custom-ip-vm" \ --machine-type "n1-standard-1" \ --subnet "subnet-custom-ip" \ --no-address \ --can-ip-forward \ --tags=custom-ip,ssh
To communicate by using the custom IP address, you must enable IP forwarding. Otherwise traffic is filtered if it doesn't originate from the custom IP addresses that are assigned to the VM.
Create the bastion host:
gcloud compute instances create "bastion-host" \ --machine-type "n1-standard-1" \ --subnet "subnet-custom-ip" \ --can-ip-forward \ --tags=ssh
The bastion host resides in the same VPC as the VM that hosts the custom IP address.
Create a firewall rule that allows SSH connections to the bastion host VM and to the VM that will host the custom IP address:
gcloud compute firewall-rules create allow-ssh-custom-ip \ --network custom-ip-vpc \ --allow tcp:22 \ --source-ranges 0.0.0.0/0 \ --target-tags=ssh
Establish a connection through the bastion host to the VM that will host the custom IP address:
eval "$(ssh-agent -s)" ssh-add .ssh/google_compute_engine gcloud compute ssh --ssh-flag="-A" bastion-host ssh custom-ip-vm
Add the custom IP address and routes to the VM by using a subinterface:
sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces
Add the following lines to the end of the file:
auto eth0:0 iface eth0:0 inet static address 198.51.100.10 netmask 255.255.255.255 up ip route add 10.0.0.0/8 via 10.10.20.1 dev eth0 src 10.10.20.2 up ip route change default via 10.10.20.1 src 198.51.100.10
The example uses
198.51.100.10as a non-RFC 1918 IP address, which is part of the RFC 5737 block that is reserved for documentation purposes. Replace this IP address with your custom IP address.
Change the default route to use the custom IP address as the source for all outgoing traffic that isn't destined for the
10.0.0.0/8range. Then add a route to the VM that allows all traffic to instances within the
10.0.0.0/8range to be routed through the standard interface
eth0by using the internal IP address of the VM. You use this IP address to communicate with the VM from other instances within your Google Cloud project.
By changing the default route, you get the benefits of the custom IP address without having to change anything on your application. The route settings must always comply with your use case requirements and might differ from the settings that are used in this tutorial.
Save your changes and then restart the networking services:
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart
After the networking services restart, verify that the VM is using the custom IP address:
The output confirms that the VM is using the custom IP address through the subinterface
eth0:0that you defined previously:
1: lo: [LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP] mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1 link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: eth0: [BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP] mtu 1460 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link/ether 42:01:0a:0a:14:02 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 10.10.20.2/32 brd 10.10.20.2 scope global eth0 valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet 198.51.100.10/32 brd 198.51.100.10 scope global eth0:0 valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 fe80::4001:aff:fe0a:1402/64 scope link valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
Verify that you set the routes correctly:
ip route show
The output looks something like the following:
default via 10.10.20.1 dev eth0 src 198.51.100.10 10.0.0.0/8 via 10.10.20.1 dev eth0 src 10.10.20.2 10.10.20.1 dev eth0 scope link
The first line shows that the updated default route uses your custom IP address as the source for outgoing traffic. The second line shows a route that allows all traffic within the
10.0.0.0/8range to use the standard IP address of the VM as the source. This route is used for internal traffic that isn't facing the public internet.
Close the SSH connection to the VM:
Close the SSH connection to the bastion host:
Creating a route for the custom IP address
Now that you have set up the custom IP address on the VM that will host it, you need to set routing rules on Google Cloud to make sure that traffic to and from this VM is routed correctly.
Create a route that takes all requests that are sent to the custom IP address and redirects those requests to the VM that you configured in the previous step:
gcloud compute routes create custom-ip-vm-route \ --network=custom-ip-vpc \ --destination-range=198.51.100.10/32 \ --next-hop-instance=custom-ip-vm
Create another route that redirects all outgoing traffic that is sent from the instance with the custom IP address to the internet through the Cloud VPN tunnel or dedicated connection:
gcloud compute routes create default-route \ --network=custom-ip-vpc \ --priority=100 \ --tags=custom-ip \ --destination-range=0.0.0.0/0 \ --next-hop-vpn-tunnel=tunnel-cloud
Configuring custom route advertisements
You can use custom route advertisements over a Cloud Router BGP session
to selectively advertise specific subnets through BGP dynamic routing. Instead
of restricting the advertisement of subnets, you advertise your custom IP
address by populating the
--advertisement-ranges flag with the custom IP
address that you added to your newly created VM.
Update the advertisement configuration for your Cloud Router:
gcloud compute routers update cloud-router \ --advertisement-mode=CUSTOM \ --set-advertisement-groups=ALL_SUBNETS \ --set-advertisement-ranges=198.51.100.10/32
The custom IP address is advertised to your peering router or the Cloud Router in the VPC simulating this environment.
Verify that firewall rules allow incoming traffic to your new VM:
gcloud compute firewall-rules list
Make sure that traffic is allowed through the Cloud VPN tunnel or dedicated connection to the VM that will host the custom IP address. If you followed the optional create interconnected VPCs steps, the firewall rule that is named
vpnruleregulates this traffic.
Testing the setup
To test whether your VM can handle incoming and outgoing traffic that's using the custom IP address, follow these steps:
- Create a VM in the interconnected VPC or on-premises network.
- Ping the custom IP address to verify that incoming traffic gets routed correctly.
- Ping the VM that resides in the interconnected VPC or on-premises network from the custom IP address.
tcpdumpon the interconnected VPC or on-premises network to verify that the custom IP address is forwarded as the source address for outbound traffic.
If you didn't follow the create interconnected VPCs steps, you can work with a machine in your on-premises environment in a similar way. Replace all IP addresses accordingly.
Create a VM in the interconnected VPC or on-premises network:
gcloud compute instances create "on-premises-vm" \ --machine-type "n1-standard-1" \ --subnet "subnet-on-premises" \ --tags "on-premises-vm"
Create firewall rules to allow an SSH connection and ping the VM that you created:
gcloud compute firewall-rules create allow-ssh-on-premises \ --network on-premises-vpc \ --allow tcp:22 \ --source-ranges 0.0.0.0/0 \ --target-tags=on-premises-vm
gcloud compute firewall-rules create allow-icmp-on-premises \ --network on-premises-vpc \ --allow icmp \ --source-ranges=198.51.100.10/32
Ping the custom IP address from the VM that resides in the interconnected VPC to verify that incoming traffic is routed correctly:
gcloud compute ssh on-premises-vm ping 198.51.100.10 -c 3
At this stage the request should be routed correctly to the VM that is using the custom IP address.
tcpdumpon the interconnected VM:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install tcpdump -y
tcpdumpto verify that the custom IP address is forwarded as the source address for outbound traffic:
sudo /usr/sbin/tcpdump icmp -n -c 5
Keep this window open.
Open a separate SSH window from your VM that will host the custom IP address, and ping the VM by using an SSH agent in the same way that you did previously.
Retrieve the IP address of the simulated on-premises VM:
gcloud compute instances list \ --format="value(networkInterfaces.networkIP)" \ --filter="name=on-premises-vm"
The output is the IP address of the on-premises VM.
Use the bastion host to log in to the VM that is using the custom IP address:
eval "$(ssh-agent -s)" ssh-add .ssh/google_compute_engine gcloud compute ssh --ssh-flag="-A" bastion-host ssh custom-ip-vm
Ping the on-premises VM. Replace
[IP_ADDRESS]with the IP address of the on-premises VM.
ping [IP_ADDRESS] -c 3
The output of
tcpdumplooks something like this:
15:00:22.448708 IP 198.51.100.10 > 172.16.0.2: ICMP echo request, id 26718, seq 1, length 64 15:00:22.448744 IP 172.16.0.2 > 198.51.100.10: ICMP echo reply, id 26718, seq 1, length 64 15:00:23.449013 IP 198.51.100.10 > 172.16.0.2: ICMP echo request, id 26718, seq 2, length 64 15:00:23.449046 IP 172.16.0.2 > 198.51.100.10: ICMP echo reply, id 26718, seq 2, length 64 15:00:24.450382 IP 198.51.100.10 > 172.16.0.2: ICMP echo request, id 26718, seq 3, length 64
This output shows that the custom IP address
198.51.100.10is being used as the source IP address.
Advertising the custom IP address to the internet isn't covered by the preceding steps. If you want to advertise the custom IP address to the internet, configure your on-premises equipment to do so.
To route traffic that is destined for the custom IP address, you must set a route. The number of routes per project is limited by your quota, so you cannot use this solution to create more custom IP addresses than your limit.
To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud Platform account for the resources used in this tutorial:
- Delete all Compute Engine instances created in this tutorial.
- Delete all Cloud VPN tunnels created in this tutorial.
Delete the project
The easiest way to eliminate billing is to delete the project that you created for the tutorial.
To delete the project:
- In the Cloud Console, go to the Manage resources page.
- In the project list, select the project you want to delete and click Delete delete.
- In the dialog, type the project ID, and then click Shut down to delete the project.