Build and deploy a Java service

Learn how to create a simple Hello World application, package it into a container image, upload the container image to Container Registry, and then deploy the container image to Cloud Run. You can use other languages in addition to the ones shown.

For step-by-step guidance on this task directly in Cloud Shell Editor, click Guide me:

Guide me

The following sections take you through the same steps as clicking Guide me.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Cloud account. If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how our products perform in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.
  2. In the Google Cloud Console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to confirm that billing is enabled for your project.

  4. Install and initialize the Cloud SDK.

Writing the sample application

To write an application in Java:

Create a Spring Boot application.

  1. From the console, create a new empty web project using the cURL and unzip commands:

    curl \
        -d dependencies=web \
        -d javaVersion=1.8 \
        -d bootVersion=2.3.3.RELEASE \
        -d name=helloworld \
        -d artifactId=helloworld \
        -d baseDir=helloworld \
    cd helloworld

    This creates a Spring Boot project.

    To use the above cURL command on Microsoft Windows, you'll need one of following command lines, or optionally use the Spring Initializr (configuration preloaded) to generate the project:

  2. Update the HelloworldApplication class in src/main/java/com/example/helloworld/ by adding a @RestController to handle the / mapping and also add a @Value field to provide the NAME environment variable:

    package com.example.helloworld;
    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
    import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
    import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
    public class HelloworldApplication {
      String name;
      class HelloworldController {
        String hello() {
          return "Hello " + name + "!";
      public static void main(String[] args) {, args);
  3. Set the server port to be defined by the PORT environment variable in the


This code creates a basic web server that listens on the port defined by the PORT environment variable.

Your app is finished and ready to be containerized and uploaded to Container Registry.

To deploy Java to Cloud Run with other frameworks, review the Knative samples for Spark and Vert.x.

Containerizing an app and uploading it to Container Registry

To containerize the sample app, create a new file named Dockerfile in the same directory as the source files, and copy the following content:

# Use the official maven/Java 8 image to create a build artifact.
FROM maven:3.8-jdk-11 as builder

# Copy local code to the container image.
COPY pom.xml .
COPY src ./src

# Build a release artifact.
RUN mvn package -DskipTests

# Use AdoptOpenJDK for base image.
# It's important to use OpenJDK 8u191 or above that has container support enabled.
FROM adoptopenjdk/openjdk11:alpine-slim

# Copy the jar to the production image from the builder stage.
COPY --from=builder /app/target/helloworld-*.jar /helloworld.jar

# Run the web service on container startup.
CMD ["java", "", "-jar", "/helloworld.jar"]

Add a .dockerignore file to exclude files from your container image.


Build your container image using Cloud Build, by running the following command from the directory containing the Dockerfile:

gcloud builds submit --tag

where PROJECT-ID is your GCP project ID. You can get it by running gcloud config get-value project.

Upon success, you will see a SUCCESS message containing the image name ( The image is stored in Container Registry and can be re-used if desired.

Deploying to Cloud Run

To deploy the container image:

  1. Deploy using the following command:

    gcloud run deploy --image

    If prompted to enable the API, Reply y to enable.

    Replace PROJECT-ID with your GCP project ID. You can view your project ID by running the command gcloud config get-value project.

    1. You will be prompted for the service name: press Enter to accept the default name, helloworld.
    2. You will be prompted for region: select the region of your choice, for example us-central1.
    3. You will be prompted to allow unauthenticated invocations: respond y .

    Then wait a few moments until the deployment is complete. On success, the command line displays the service URL.

  2. Visit your deployed container by opening the service URL in a web browser.

Cloud Run locations

Cloud Run is regional, which means the infrastructure that runs your Cloud Run services is located in a specific region and is managed by Google to be redundantly available across all the zones within that region.

Meeting your latency, availability, or durability requirements are primary factors for selecting the region where your Cloud Run services are run. You can generally select the region nearest to your users but you should consider the location of the other Google Cloud products that are used by your Cloud Run service. Using Google Cloud products together across multiple locations can affect your service's latency as well as cost.

Cloud Run is available in the following regions:

Subject to Tier 1 pricing

  • asia-east1 (Taiwan)
  • asia-northeast1 (Tokyo)
  • asia-northeast2 (Osaka)
  • europe-north1 (Finland)
  • europe-west1 (Belgium)
  • europe-west4 (Netherlands)
  • us-central1 (Iowa)
  • us-east1 (South Carolina)
  • us-east4 (Northern Virginia)
  • us-west1 (Oregon)

Subject to Tier 2 pricing

  • asia-east2 (Hong Kong)
  • asia-northeast3 (Seoul, South Korea)
  • asia-southeast1 (Singapore)
  • asia-southeast2 (Jakarta)
  • asia-south1 (Mumbai, India)
  • australia-southeast1 (Sydney)
  • europe-central2 (Warsaw, Poland)
  • europe-west2 (London, UK)
  • europe-west3 (Frankfurt, Germany)
  • europe-west6 (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • northamerica-northeast1 (Montreal)
  • southamerica-east1 (Sao Paulo, Brazil)
  • us-west2 (Los Angeles)
  • us-west3 (Las Vegas)
  • us-west4 (Salt Lake City)

If you already created a Cloud Run service, you can view the region in the Cloud Run dashboard in the Cloud Console.

Congratulations! You have just deployed an application packaged in a container image to Cloud Run. Cloud Run automatically and horizontally scales out your container image to handle the received requests, then scales in when demand decreases. You only pay for the CPU, memory, and networking consumed during request handling.

Clean up

Removing your test project

While Cloud Run does not charge when the service is not in use, you might still be charged for storing the container image in Container Registry. You can delete your image or delete your Cloud project to avoid incurring charges. Deleting your Cloud project stops billing for all the resources used within that project.

  1. In the Cloud Console, go to the Manage resources page.

    Go to Manage resources

  2. In the project list, select the project that you want to delete, and then click Delete.
  3. In the dialog, type the project ID, and then click Shut down to delete the project.

What's next

For more information on building a container from code source and pushing to Container Registry, see: