Subscribe with exactly once delivery

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Receive messages from a subscription with exactly once delivery enabled.

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For detailed documentation that includes this code sample, see the following:

Code sample

C#

Before trying this sample, follow the C# setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub C# API reference documentation.


using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using System;
using System.Collections.Concurrent;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using static Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1.SubscriberClient;

public class ExactlyOnceDeliverySubscriberAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<IEnumerable<string>> ExactlyOnceDeliverySubscriberAsync(string projectId, string subscriptionId)
    {
        // subscriptionId should be the ID of an exactly-once delivery subscription.
        SubscriptionName subscriptionName = SubscriptionName.FromProjectSubscription(projectId, subscriptionId);
        SubscriberClient subscriber = await SubscriberClient.CreateAsync(subscriptionName);
        // To get the status of ACKnowledge (ACK) or Not ACKnowledge (NACK) request in exactly once delivery subscriptions,
        // create a subscription handler that inherits from Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1.SubscriptionHandler. 
        // For more information see Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1.SubscriptionHandler reference docs here:
        // https://cloud.google.com/dotnet/docs/reference/Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1/latest/Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1.SubscriptionHandler
        var subscriptionHandler = new SampleSubscriptionHandler();
        Task subscriptionTask = subscriber.StartAsync(subscriptionHandler);
        // The subscriber will be running until it is stopped.
        await Task.Delay(5000);
        await subscriber.StopAsync(CancellationToken.None);
        // Let's make sure that the start task finished successfully after the call to stop.
        await subscriptionTask;
        return subscriptionHandler.SuccessfulAckedIds;
    }

    // Sample handler to handle messages and ACK/NACK responses.
    public class SampleSubscriptionHandler : SubscriptionHandler
    {
        public ConcurrentBag<string> SuccessfulAckedIds { get; } = new ConcurrentBag<string>();

        /// <summary>
        /// The function that processes received messages. It should be thread-safe.
        /// Return <see cref="Reply.Ack"/> to ACKnowledge the message (meaning it won't be received again).
        /// Return <see cref="Reply.Nack"/> to Not ACKnowledge the message (meaning it will be received again).
        /// From the point of view of message acknowledgement, throwing an exception is equivalent to returning <see cref="Reply.Nack"/>.
        /// </summary>
        public override async Task<Reply> HandleMessage(PubsubMessage message, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            string text = System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetString(message.Data.ToArray());
            Console.WriteLine($"Message {message.MessageId}: {text}");
            return await Task.FromResult(Reply.Ack);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// This method will receive responses for all acknowledge requests.
        /// </summary>
        public override void HandleAckResponses(IReadOnlyList<AckNackResponse> responses)
        {
            foreach (var response in responses)
            {
                if (response.Status == AcknowledgementStatus.Success)
                {
                    SuccessfulAckedIds.Add(response.MessageId);
                }

                string result = response.Status switch
                {
                    AcknowledgementStatus.Success => $"MessageId {response.MessageId} successfully acknowledged.",
                    AcknowledgementStatus.PermissionDenied => $"MessageId {response.MessageId} failed to acknowledge due to a permission denied error.",
                    AcknowledgementStatus.FailedPrecondition => $"MessageId {response.MessageId} failed to acknowledge due to a failed precondition.",
                    AcknowledgementStatus.InvalidAckId => $"MessageId {response.MessageId} failed to acknowledge due an invalid or expired AckId.",
                    AcknowledgementStatus.Other => $"MessageId {response.MessageId} failed to acknowledge due to an unknown reason.",
                    _ => $"Unknown acknowledgement status for messageId {response.MessageId}."
                };

                Console.WriteLine(result);
            }
        }
    }
}

C++

Before trying this sample, follow the C++ setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub C++ API reference documentation.

namespace pubsub = ::google::cloud::pubsub;
auto sample = [](pubsub::Subscriber subscriber) {
  return subscriber.Subscribe(
      [&](pubsub::Message const& m, pubsub::ExactlyOnceAckHandler h) {
        std::cout << "Received message " << m << "\n";
        std::move(h).ack().then([id = m.message_id()](auto f) {
          auto status = f.get();
          std::cout << "Message id " << id
                    << " ack() completed with status=" << status << "\n";
        });
        PleaseIgnoreThisSimplifiesTestingTheSamples();
      });
};

Go

Before trying this sample, follow the Go setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Go API reference documentation.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"time"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
)

// receiveMessagesWithExactlyOnceDeliveryEnabled instantiates a subscriber client.
// This differs from regular subscribing since you must call msg.AckWithResult()
// or msg.NackWithResult() instead of the regular Ack/Nack methods.
// When exactly once delivery is enabled on the subscription, the message is
// guaranteed to not be delivered again if the ack result succeeds.
func receiveMessagesWithExactlyOnceDeliveryEnabled(w io.Writer, projectID, subID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// subID := "my-sub"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	sub := client.Subscription(subID)
	// Set MinExtensionPeriod high to avoid any unintentional
	// acknowledgment expirations (e.g. due to network events).
	// This can lead to high tail latency in case of client crashes.
	sub.ReceiveSettings.MinExtensionPeriod = 600 * time.Second

	// Receive messages for 10 seconds, which simplifies testing.
	// Comment this out in production, since `Receive` should
	// be used as a long running operation.
	ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(ctx, 10*time.Second)
	defer cancel()
	err = sub.Receive(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, msg *pubsub.Message) {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Got message: %q\n", string(msg.Data))
		r := msg.AckWithResult()
		// Block until the result is returned and a pubsub.AcknowledgeStatus
		// is returned for the acked message.
		status, err := r.Get(ctx)
		if err != nil {
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "MessageID: %s failed when calling result.Get: %v", msg.ID, err)
		}

		switch status {
		case pubsub.AcknowledgeStatusSuccess:
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Message successfully acked: %s", msg.ID)
		case pubsub.AcknowledgeStatusInvalidAckID:
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Message failed to ack with response of Invalid. ID: %s", msg.ID)
		case pubsub.AcknowledgeStatusPermissionDenied:
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Message failed to ack with response of Permission Denied. ID: %s", msg.ID)
		case pubsub.AcknowledgeStatusFailedPrecondition:
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Message failed to ack with response of Failed Precondition. ID: %s", msg.ID)
		case pubsub.AcknowledgeStatusOther:
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Message failed to ack with response of Other. ID: %s", msg.ID)
		default:
		}
	})
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("got err from sub.Receive: %v", err)
	}
	return nil
}

Java

Before trying this sample, follow the Java setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Java API reference documentation.


import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.AckReplyConsumerWithResponse;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.AckResponse;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.MessageReceiverWithAckResponse;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Subscriber;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.ProjectSubscriptionName;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

public class SubscribeWithExactlyOnceConsumerWithResponseExample {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String subscriptionId = "your-subscription-id";

    subscribeWithExactlyOnceConsumerWithResponseExample(projectId, subscriptionId);
  }

  public static void subscribeWithExactlyOnceConsumerWithResponseExample(
      String projectId, String subscriptionId) {
    ProjectSubscriptionName subscriptionName =
        ProjectSubscriptionName.of(projectId, subscriptionId);

    // Instantiate an asynchronous message receiver using `AckReplyConsumerWithResponse`
    // instead of `AckReplyConsumer` to get a future that tracks the result of the ack call.
    // When exactly once delivery is enabled on the subscription, the message is guaranteed
    // to not be delivered again if the ack future succeeds.
    MessageReceiverWithAckResponse receiverWithResponse =
        (PubsubMessage message, AckReplyConsumerWithResponse consumerWithResponse) -> {
          try {
            // Handle incoming message, then ack the message, and receive an ack response.
            System.out.println("Message received: " + message.getData().toStringUtf8());
            Future<AckResponse> ackResponseFuture = consumerWithResponse.ack();

            // Retrieve the completed future for the ack response from the server.
            AckResponse ackResponse = ackResponseFuture.get();

            switch (ackResponse) {
              case SUCCESSFUL:
                // Success code means that this MessageID will not be delivered again.
                System.out.println("Message successfully acked: " + message.getMessageId());
                break;
              case INVALID:
                System.out.println(
                    "Message failed to ack with a response of Invalid. Id: "
                        + message.getMessageId());
                break;
              case PERMISSION_DENIED:
                System.out.println(
                    "Message failed to ack with a response of Permission Denied. Id: "
                        + message.getMessageId());
                break;
              case FAILED_PRECONDITION:
                System.out.println(
                    "Message failed to ack with a response of Failed Precondition. Id: "
                        + message.getMessageId());
                break;
              case OTHER:
                System.out.println(
                    "Message failed to ack with a response of Other. Id: "
                        + message.getMessageId());
                break;
              default:
                break;
            }
          } catch (InterruptedException | ExecutionException e) {
            System.out.println(
                "MessageId: " + message.getMessageId() + " failed when retrieving future");
          } catch (Throwable t) {
            System.out.println("Throwable caught" + t.getMessage());
          }
        };

    Subscriber subscriber = null;
    try {
      subscriber = Subscriber.newBuilder(subscriptionName, receiverWithResponse).build();
      // Start the subscriber.
      subscriber.startAsync().awaitRunning();
      System.out.printf("Listening for messages on %s:\n", subscriptionName.toString());
      // Allow the subscriber to run for 30s unless an unrecoverable error occurs.
      subscriber.awaitTerminated(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
    } catch (TimeoutException timeoutException) {
      // Shut down the subscriber after 30s. Stop receiving messages.
      subscriber.stopAsync();
    }
  }
}

Node.js

Before trying this sample, follow the Node.js setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Node.js API reference documentation.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment this variable before running the sample.
 */
// const subscriptionNameOrId = 'YOUR_SUBSCRIPTION_NAME_OR_ID';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function listenForMessagesWithExactlyOnceDelivery(
  subscriptionNameOrId,
  timeout
) {
  // References an existing subscription
  const subscription = pubSubClient.subscription(subscriptionNameOrId);

  // Create an event handler to handle messages
  let messageCount = 0;
  const messageHandler = async message => {
    console.log(`Received message ${message.id}:`);
    console.log(`\tData: ${message.data}`);
    console.log(`\tAttributes: ${message.attributes}`);
    messageCount++;

    // Use `ackWithResponse()` instead of `ack()` to get a Promise that tracks
    // the result of the acknowledge call. When exactly-once delivery is enabled
    // on the subscription, the message is guaranteed not to be delivered again
    // if the ack Promise resolves.
    try {
      // When the Promise resolves, the value is always AckResponses.Success,
      // signaling that the ack was accepted. Note that you may call this
      // method on a subscription without exactly-once delivery, but it will
      // always return AckResponses.Success.
      await message.ackWithResponse();
      console.log(`Ack for message ${message.id} successful.`);
    } catch (e) {
      // In all other cases, the error passed on reject will explain why. This
      // is only for permanent failures; transient errors are retried automatically.
      const ackError = e;
      console.log(
        `Ack for message ${message.id} failed with error: ${ackError.errorCode}`
      );
    }
  };

  // Listen for new messages until timeout is hit
  subscription.on('message', messageHandler);

  setTimeout(() => {
    subscription.removeListener('message', messageHandler);
    console.log(`${messageCount} message(s) received.`);
  }, timeout * 1000);
}

PHP

Before trying this sample, follow the PHP setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub PHP API reference documentation.

use Google\Cloud\PubSub\PubSubClient;

/**
 * Subscribe and pull messages from a subscription
 * with `Exactly Once Delivery` enabled.
 *
 * @param string $projectId
 * @param string $subscriptionId
 */
function subscribe_exactly_once_delivery(
    string $projectId,
    string $subscriptionId
): void {
    $pubsub = new PubSubClient([
        'projectId' => $projectId,
    ]);

    $subscription = $pubsub->subscription($subscriptionId);
    $messages = $subscription->pull();

    foreach ($messages as $message) {
        // When exactly once delivery is enabled on the subscription,
        // the message is guaranteed to not be delivered again if the ack succeeds.
        // Passing the `returnFailures` flag retries any temporary failures received
        // while acking the msg and also returns any permanently failed msgs.
        // Passing this flag on a subscription with exactly once delivery disabled
        // will always return an empty array.
        $failedMsgs = $subscription->acknowledge($message, ['returnFailures' => true]);

        if (empty($failedMsgs)) {
            printf('Acknowledged message: %s' . PHP_EOL, $message->data());
        } else {
            // Either log or store the $failedMsgs to be retried later
        }
    }
}

Python

Before trying this sample, follow the Python setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Python API reference documentation.

from concurrent.futures import TimeoutError
from google.cloud import pubsub_v1
from google.cloud.pubsub_v1.subscriber import exceptions as sub_exceptions

# TODO(developer)
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# subscription_id = "your-subscription-id"
# Number of seconds the subscriber should listen for messages
# timeout = 5.0

subscriber = pubsub_v1.SubscriberClient()
# The `subscription_path` method creates a fully qualified identifier
# in the form `projects/{project_id}/subscriptions/{subscription_id}`
subscription_path = subscriber.subscription_path(project_id, subscription_id)

def callback(message: pubsub_v1.subscriber.message.Message) -> None:
    print(f"Received {message}.")

    # Use `ack_with_response()` instead of `ack()` to get a future that tracks
    # the result of the acknowledge call. When exactly-once delivery is enabled
    # on the subscription, the message is guaranteed to not be delivered again
    # if the ack future succeeds.
    ack_future = message.ack_with_response()

    try:
        # Block on result of acknowledge call.
        # When `timeout` is not set, result() will block indefinitely,
        # unless an exception is encountered first.
        ack_future.result(timeout=timeout)
        print(f"Ack for message {message.message_id} successful.")
    except sub_exceptions.AcknowledgeError as e:
        print(
            f"Ack for message {message.message_id} failed with error: {e.error_code}"
        )

streaming_pull_future = subscriber.subscribe(subscription_path, callback=callback)
print(f"Listening for messages on {subscription_path}..\n")

# Wrap subscriber in a 'with' block to automatically call close() when done.
with subscriber:
    try:
        # When `timeout` is not set, result() will block indefinitely,
        # unless an exception is encountered first.
        streaming_pull_future.result(timeout=timeout)
    except TimeoutError:
        streaming_pull_future.cancel()  # Trigger the shutdown.
        streaming_pull_future.result()  # Block until the shutdown is complete.

Ruby

Before trying this sample, follow the Ruby setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Ruby API reference documentation.

require "google/cloud/pubsub"

# Shows how to register callback to acknowledge method and access the result passed in
class PubsubSubscriberExactlyOnceDelivery
  def subscriber_exactly_once_delivery project_id:, topic_id:, subscription_id:
    pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new project_id: project_id
    topic = pubsub.topic topic_id
    subscription = pubsub.subscription subscription_id
    subscriber   = subscription.listen do |received_message|
      puts "Received message: #{received_message.data}"

      # Pass in callback to access the acknowledge result.
      # For subscription with Exactly once delivery disabled the result will be success always.
      received_message.acknowledge! do |result|
        puts "Acknowledge result's status: #{result.status}"
      end
    end

    subscriber.start
    # Let the main thread sleep for 60 seconds so the thread for listening
    # messages does not quit
    sleep 60
    subscriber.stop.wait!
  end

  def self.run
    # TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    project_id = "your-project-id"
    topic_id = "your-topic-id"
    subscription_id = "id-for-new-subcription" # subscription with exactly once delivery enabled
    PubsubSubscriberExactlyOnceDelivery.new.subscriber_exactly_once_delivery project_id: project_id,
                                                                             topic_id: topic_id,
                                                                             subscription_id: subscription_id
  end
end

if $PROGRAM_NAME == __FILE__
  PubsubSubscriberExactlyOnceDelivery.run
end

Node.js (TypeScript)

Before trying this sample, follow the Node.js setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Node.js API reference documentation.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment this variable before running the sample.
 */
// const subscriptionNameOrId = 'YOUR_SUBSCRIPTION_NAME_OR_ID';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
import {Message, PubSub, AckError} from '@google-cloud/pubsub';

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function listenForMessagesWithExactlyOnceDelivery(
  subscriptionNameOrId: string,
  timeout: number
) {
  // References an existing subscription
  const subscription = pubSubClient.subscription(subscriptionNameOrId);

  // Create an event handler to handle messages
  let messageCount = 0;
  const messageHandler = async (message: Message) => {
    console.log(`Received message ${message.id}:`);
    console.log(`\tData: ${message.data}`);
    console.log(`\tAttributes: ${message.attributes}`);
    messageCount++;

    // Use `ackWithResponse()` instead of `ack()` to get a Promise that tracks
    // the result of the acknowledge call. When exactly-once delivery is enabled
    // on the subscription, the message is guaranteed not to be delivered again
    // if the ack Promise resolves.
    try {
      // When the Promise resolves, the value is always AckResponses.Success,
      // signaling that the ack was accepted. Note that you may call this
      // method on a subscription without exactly-once delivery, but it will
      // always return AckResponses.Success.
      await message.ackWithResponse();
      console.log(`Ack for message ${message.id} successful.`);
    } catch (e) {
      // In all other cases, the error passed on reject will explain why. This
      // is only for permanent failures; transient errors are retried automatically.
      const ackError = e as AckError;
      console.log(
        `Ack for message ${message.id} failed with error: ${ackError.errorCode}`
      );
    }
  };

  // Listen for new messages until timeout is hit
  subscription.on('message', messageHandler);

  setTimeout(() => {
    subscription.removeListener('message', messageHandler);
    console.log(`${messageCount} message(s) received.`);
  }, timeout * 1000);
}

What's next

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