Publish messages with flow control settings

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Creates a publisher client with custom flow control settings and uses it to publish some messages.

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For detailed documentation that includes this code sample, see the following:

Code sample

C++

Before trying this sample, follow the C++ setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub C++ API reference documentation.

namespace pubsub = ::google::cloud::pubsub;
using ::google::cloud::future;
using ::google::cloud::Options;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](std::string project_id, std::string topic_id) {
  auto topic = pubsub::Topic(std::move(project_id), std::move(topic_id));
  // Configure the publisher to block if either (1) 100 or more messages, or
  // (2) messages with 100MiB worth of data have not been acknowledged by the
  // service. By default the publisher never blocks, and its capacity is only
  // limited by the system's memory.
  auto publisher = pubsub::Publisher(pubsub::MakePublisherConnection(
      std::move(topic),
      Options{}
          .set<pubsub::MaxPendingMessagesOption>(100)
          .set<pubsub::MaxPendingBytesOption>(100 * 1024 * 1024L)
          .set<pubsub::FullPublisherActionOption>(
              pubsub::FullPublisherAction::kBlocks)));

  std::vector<future<void>> ids;
  for (char const* data : {"a", "b", "c"}) {
    ids.push_back(
        publisher.Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder().SetData(data).Build())
            .then([data](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
              auto s = f.get();
              if (!s) return;
              std::cout << "Sent '" << data << "' (" << *s << ")\n";
            }));
  }
  publisher.Flush();
  // Block until they are actually sent.
  for (auto& id : ids) id.get();
}

Go

Before trying this sample, follow the Go setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Go API reference documentation.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"strconv"
	"sync"
	"sync/atomic"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
)

func publishWithFlowControlSettings(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	t := client.Topic(topicID)
	t.PublishSettings.FlowControlSettings = pubsub.FlowControlSettings{
		MaxOutstandingMessages: 100,                     // default 1000
		MaxOutstandingBytes:    10 * 1024 * 1024,        // default 0 (unlimited)
		LimitExceededBehavior:  pubsub.FlowControlBlock, // default Block, other options: SignalError and Ignore
	}

	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	var totalErrors uint64

	numMsgs := 1000
	// Rapidly publishing 1000 messages in a loop may be constrained by flow control.
	for i := 0; i < numMsgs; i++ {
		wg.Add(1)
		result := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{
			Data: []byte("message #" + strconv.Itoa(i)),
		})
		go func(i int, res *pubsub.PublishResult) {
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Publishing message %d\n", i)
			defer wg.Done()
			// The Get method blocks until a server-generated ID or
			// an error is returned for the published message.
			_, err := res.Get(ctx)
			if err != nil {
				// Error handling code can be added here.
				fmt.Fprintf(w, "Failed to publish: %v", err)
				atomic.AddUint64(&totalErrors, 1)
				return
			}
		}(i, result)
	}

	wg.Wait()

	if totalErrors > 0 {
		return fmt.Errorf("%d of %d messages did not publish successfully", totalErrors, numMsgs)
	}
	return nil
}

Java

Before trying this sample, follow the Java setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Java API reference documentation.


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutures;
import com.google.api.gax.batching.BatchingSettings;
import com.google.api.gax.batching.FlowControlSettings;
import com.google.api.gax.batching.FlowController.LimitExceededBehavior;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class PublishWithFlowControlExample {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishWithFlowControlExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishWithFlowControlExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    Publisher publisher = null;
    List<ApiFuture<String>> messageIdFutures = new ArrayList<>();

    try {
      // Configure how many messages the publisher client can hold in memory
      // and what to do when messages exceed the limit.
      FlowControlSettings flowControlSettings =
          FlowControlSettings.newBuilder()
              // Block more messages from being published when the limit is reached. The other
              // options are Ignore (or continue publishing) and ThrowException (or error out).
              .setLimitExceededBehavior(LimitExceededBehavior.Block)
              .setMaxOutstandingRequestBytes(10 * 1024 * 1024L) // 10 MiB
              .setMaxOutstandingElementCount(100L) // 100 messages
              .build();

      // By default, messages are not batched.
      BatchingSettings batchingSettings =
          BatchingSettings.newBuilder().setFlowControlSettings(flowControlSettings).build();

      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).setBatchingSettings(batchingSettings).build();

      // Publish 1000 messages in quick succession may be constrained by publisher flow control.
      for (int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) {
        String message = "message " + i;
        ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(message);
        PubsubMessage pubsubMessage = PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).build();

        // Once published, returns a server-assigned message id (unique within the topic)
        ApiFuture<String> messageIdFuture = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);
        messageIdFutures.add(messageIdFuture);
      }
    } finally {
      // Wait on any pending publish requests.
      List<String> messageIds = ApiFutures.allAsList(messageIdFutures).get();

      System.out.println(
          "Published " + messageIds.size() + " messages with flow control settings.");

      if (publisher != null) {
        // When finished with the publisher, shut down to free up resources.
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Node.js

Before trying this sample, follow the Node.js setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Node.js API reference documentation.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment this variable before running the sample.
 */
// const topicNameOrId = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME_OR_ID';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function publishWithFlowControl(topicNameOrId) {
  // Create publisher options
  const options = {
    flowControlOptions: {
      maxOutstandingMessages: 50,
      maxOutstandingBytes: 10 * 1024 * 1024, // 10 MB
    },
  };

  // Get a publisher.
  const topic = pubSubClient.topic(topicNameOrId, options);

  // For flow controlled publishing, we'll use a publisher flow controller
  // instead of `topic.publish()`.
  const flow = topic.flowControlled();

  // Publish messages in a fast loop.
  const testMessage = {data: Buffer.from('test!')};
  for (let i = 0; i < 1000; i++) {
    // You can also just `await` on `publish()` unconditionally, but if
    // you want to avoid pausing to the event loop on each iteration,
    // you can manually check the return value before doing so.
    const wait = flow.publish(testMessage);
    if (wait) {
      await wait;
    }
  }

  // Wait on any pending publish requests. Note that you can call `all()`
  // earlier if you like, and it will return a Promise for all messages
  // that have been sent to `flowController.publish()` so far.
  const messageIds = await flow.all();
  console.log(`Published ${messageIds.length} with flow control settings.`);
}

Python

Before trying this sample, follow the Python setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Python API reference documentation.

from concurrent import futures
from google.cloud import pubsub_v1
from google.cloud.pubsub_v1.types import (
    LimitExceededBehavior,
    PublisherOptions,
    PublishFlowControl,
)

# TODO(developer)
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

# Configure how many messages the publisher client can hold in memory
# and what to do when messages exceed the limit.
flow_control_settings = PublishFlowControl(
    message_limit=100,  # 100 messages
    byte_limit=10 * 1024 * 1024,  # 10 MiB
    limit_exceeded_behavior=LimitExceededBehavior.BLOCK,
)
publisher = pubsub_v1.PublisherClient(
    publisher_options=PublisherOptions(flow_control=flow_control_settings)
)
topic_path = publisher.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)
publish_futures = []

# Resolve the publish future in a separate thread.
def callback(publish_future: pubsub_v1.publisher.futures.Future) -> None:
    message_id = publish_future.result()
    print(message_id)

# Publish 1000 messages in quick succession may be constrained by
# publisher flow control.
for n in range(1, 1000):
    data_str = f"Message number {n}"
    # Data must be a bytestring
    data = data_str.encode("utf-8")
    publish_future = publisher.publish(topic_path, data)
    # Non-blocking. Allow the publisher client to batch messages.
    publish_future.add_done_callback(callback)
    publish_futures.append(publish_future)

futures.wait(publish_futures, return_when=futures.ALL_COMPLETED)

print(f"Published messages with flow control settings to {topic_path}.")

Ruby

Before trying this sample, follow the Ruby setup instructions in the Pub/Sub quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Ruby API reference documentation.

# topic_id = "your-topic-id"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

topic = pubsub.topic topic_id, async: {
  # Configure how many messages the publisher client can hold in memory
  # and what to do when messages exceed the limit.
  flow_control: {
    message_limit: 100,
    byte_limit: 10 * 1024 * 1024, # 10 MiB
    # Block more messages from being published when the limit is reached. The
    # other options are :ignore and :error.
    limit_exceeded_behavior: :block
  }
}
# Rapidly publishing 1000 messages in a loop may be constrained by flow control.
1000.times do |i|
  topic.publish_async "message #{i}" do |result|
    raise "Failed to publish the message." unless result.succeeded?
  end
end

# Stop the async_publisher to send all queued messages immediately.
topic.async_publisher.stop.wait!
puts "Published messages with flow control settings to #{topic_id}."

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