Package google.protobuf



A generic empty message that you can re-use to avoid defining duplicated empty messages in your APIs. A typical example is to use it as the request or the response type of an API method. For instance:

service Foo {
  rpc Bar(google.protobuf.Empty) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);

The JSON representation for Empty is empty JSON object {}.


A Timestamp represents a point in time independent of any time zone or calendar, represented as seconds and fractions of seconds at nanosecond resolution in UTC Epoch time. It is encoded using the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar which extends the Gregorian calendar backwards to year one. It is encoded assuming all minutes are 60 seconds long, i.e. leap seconds are "smeared" so that no leap second table is needed for interpretation. Range is from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59.999999999Z. By restricting to that range, we ensure that we can convert to and from RFC 3339 date strings. See

Example 1: Compute Timestamp from POSIX time().

Timestamp timestamp;

Example 2: Compute Timestamp from POSIX gettimeofday().

struct timeval tv;
gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);

Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_nanos(tv.tv_usec * 1000);

Example 3: Compute Timestamp from Win32 GetSystemTimeAsFileTime().

UINT64 ticks = (((UINT64)ft.dwHighDateTime) << 32) | ft.dwLowDateTime;

// A Windows tick is 100 nanoseconds. Windows epoch 1601-01-01T00:00:00Z
// is 11644473600 seconds before Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.
Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds((INT64) ((ticks / 10000000) - 11644473600LL));
timestamp.set_nanos((INT32) ((ticks % 10000000) * 100));

Example 4: Compute Timestamp from Java System.currentTimeMillis().

long millis = System.currentTimeMillis();

Timestamp timestamp = Timestamp.newBuilder().setSeconds(millis / 1000)
    .setNanos((int) ((millis % 1000) * 1000000)).build();

Example 5: Compute Timestamp from current time in Python.

now = time.time()
seconds = int(now)
nanos = int((now - seconds) * 10**9)
timestamp = Timestamp(seconds=seconds, nanos=nanos)
Field name Type Description
seconds int64 Represents seconds of UTC time since Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z. Must be from from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59Z inclusive.
nanos int32 Non-negative fractions of a second at nanosecond resolution. Negative second values with fractions must still have non-negative nanos values that count forward in time. Must be from 0 to 999,999,999 inclusive.

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