Abstract types

Any

static

Any contains an arbitrary serialized protocol buffer message along with a URL that describes the type of the serialized message.

Protobuf library provides support to pack/unpack Any values in the form of utility functions or additional generated methods of the Any type.

Example 1: Pack and unpack a message in C++.

Foo foo = ...;
Any any;
any.PackFrom(foo);
...
if (any.UnpackTo(&foo)) {
  ...
}

Example 2: Pack and unpack a message in Java.

Foo foo = ...;
Any any = Any.pack(foo);
...
if (any.is(Foo.class)) {
  foo = any.unpack(Foo.class);
}

Example 3: Pack and unpack a message in Python.

foo = Foo(...)
any = Any()
any.Pack(foo)
...
if any.Is(Foo.DESCRIPTOR):
  any.Unpack(foo)
  ...

Example 4: Pack and unpack a message in Go

 foo := &pb.Foo{...}
 any, err := ptypes.MarshalAny(foo)
 ...
 foo := &pb.Foo{}
 if err := ptypes.UnmarshalAny(any, foo); err != nil {
   ...
 }

The pack methods provided by protobuf library will by default use 'type.googleapis.com/full.type.name' as the type URL and the unpack methods only use the fully qualified type name after the last '/' in the type URL, for example "foo.bar.com/x/y.z" will yield type name "y.z".

JSON

The JSON representation of an Any value uses the regular representation of the deserialized, embedded message, with an additional field @type which contains the type URL. Example:

package google.profile;
message Person {
  string first_name = 1;
  string last_name = 2;
}

{
  "@type": "type.googleapis.com/google.profile.Person",
  "firstName": <string>,
  "lastName": <string>
}

If the embedded message type is well-known and has a custom JSON representation, that representation will be embedded adding a field value which holds the custom JSON in addition to the @type field. Example (for message google.protobuf.Duration):

{
  "@type": "type.googleapis.com/google.protobuf.Duration",
  "value": "1.212s"
}

Properties

Parameter

typeUrl

string

A URL/resource name whose content describes the type of the serialized protocol buffer message.

For URLs which use the scheme http, https, or no scheme, the following restrictions and interpretations apply:

  • If no scheme is provided, https is assumed.
  • The last segment of the URL's path must represent the fully qualified name of the type (as in path/google.protobuf.Duration). The name should be in a canonical form (e.g., leading "." is not accepted).
  • An HTTP GET on the URL must yield a google.protobuf.Type value in binary format, or produce an error.
  • Applications are allowed to cache lookup results based on the URL, or have them precompiled into a binary to avoid any lookup. Therefore, binary compatibility needs to be preserved on changes to types. (Use versioned type names to manage breaking changes.)

    Schemes other than http, https (or the empty scheme) might be used with implementation specific semantics.

value

string

Must be a valid serialized protocol buffer of the above specified type.

See also

google.protobuf.Any definition in proto format

BoolValue

static

Wrapper message for bool.

The JSON representation for BoolValue is JSON true and false.

Property

Parameter

value

boolean

The bool value.

See also

google.protobuf.BoolValue definition in proto format

BytesValue

static

Wrapper message for bytes.

The JSON representation for BytesValue is JSON string.

Property

Parameter

value

string

The bytes value.

See also

google.protobuf.BytesValue definition in proto format

DoubleValue

static

Wrapper message for double.

The JSON representation for DoubleValue is JSON number.

Property

Parameter

value

number

The double value.

See also

google.protobuf.DoubleValue definition in proto format

FloatValue

static

Wrapper message for float.

The JSON representation for FloatValue is JSON number.

Property

Parameter

value

number

The float value.

See also

google.protobuf.FloatValue definition in proto format

Int32Value

static

Wrapper message for int32.

The JSON representation for Int32Value is JSON number.

Property

Parameter

value

number

The int32 value.

See also

google.protobuf.Int32Value definition in proto format

Int64Value

static

Wrapper message for int64.

The JSON representation for Int64Value is JSON string.

Property

Parameter

value

number

The int64 value.

See also

google.protobuf.Int64Value definition in proto format

StringValue

static

Wrapper message for string.

The JSON representation for StringValue is JSON string.

Property

Parameter

value

string

The string value.

See also

google.protobuf.StringValue definition in proto format

Timestamp

static

A Timestamp represents a point in time independent of any time zone or calendar, represented as seconds and fractions of seconds at nanosecond resolution in UTC Epoch time. It is encoded using the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar which extends the Gregorian calendar backwards to year one. It is encoded assuming all minutes are 60 seconds long, i.e. leap seconds are "smeared" so that no leap second table is needed for interpretation. Range is from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59.999999999Z. By restricting to that range, we ensure that we can convert to and from RFC 3339 date strings. See https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3339.txt.

Examples

Example 1: Compute Timestamp from POSIX time().

Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds(time(NULL));
timestamp.set_nanos(0);

Example 2: Compute Timestamp from POSIX gettimeofday().

struct timeval tv;
gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);

Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds(tv.tv_sec);
timestamp.set_nanos(tv.tv_usec  1000);

Example 3: Compute Timestamp from Win32 GetSystemTimeAsFileTime().

FILETIME ft;
GetSystemTimeAsFileTime(&ft);
UINT64 ticks = (((UINT64)ft.dwHighDateTime) << 32) | ft.dwLowDateTime;

// A Windows tick is 100 nanoseconds. Windows epoch 1601-01-01T00:00:00Z
// is 11644473600 seconds before Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.
Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds((INT64) ((ticks / 10000000) - 11644473600LL));
timestamp.set_nanos((INT32) ((ticks % 10000000)  100));

Example 4: Compute Timestamp from Java System.currentTimeMillis().

long millis = System.currentTimeMillis();

Timestamp timestamp = Timestamp.newBuilder().setSeconds(millis / 1000)
    .setNanos((int) ((millis % 1000) * 1000000)).build();

Example 5: Compute Timestamp from current time in Python.

timestamp = Timestamp()
timestamp.GetCurrentTime()

JSON Mapping

In JSON format, the Timestamp type is encoded as a string in the RFC 3339 format. That is, the format is "{year}-{month}-{day}T{hour}:{min}:{sec}[.{frac_sec}]Z" where {year} is always expressed using four digits while {month}, {day}, {hour}, {min}, and {sec} are zero-padded to two digits each. The fractional seconds, which can go up to 9 digits (i.e. up to 1 nanosecond resolution), are optional. The "Z" suffix indicates the timezone ("UTC"); the timezone is required, though only UTC (as indicated by "Z") is presently supported.

For example, "2017-01-15T01:30:15.01Z" encodes 15.01 seconds past 01:30 UTC on January 15, 2017.

In JavaScript, one can convert a Date object to this format using the standard toISOString() with the time format spec '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S.%fZ'. Likewise, in Java, one can use the Joda Time's ISODateTimeFormat.dateTime()) to obtain a formatter capable of generating timestamps in this format.

Properties

Parameter

seconds

number

Represents seconds of UTC time since Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z. Must be from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59Z inclusive.

nanos

number

Non-negative fractions of a second at nanosecond resolution. Negative second values with fractions must still have non-negative nanos values that count forward in time. Must be from 0 to 999,999,999 inclusive.

See also

google.protobuf.Timestamp definition in proto format

UInt32Value

static

Wrapper message for uint32.

The JSON representation for UInt32Value is JSON number.

Property

Parameter

value

number

The uint32 value.

See also

google.protobuf.UInt32Value definition in proto format

UInt64Value

static

Wrapper message for uint64.

The JSON representation for UInt64Value is JSON string.

Property

Parameter

value

number

The uint64 value.

See also

google.protobuf.UInt64Value definition in proto format