Enumeration

NullValue

static

number

NullValue is a singleton enumeration to represent the null value for the Value type union.

The JSON representation for NullValue is JSON null.

Value

NULL_VALUE

Null value.

Property

NullValue

static

number

NullValue is a singleton enumeration to represent the null value for the Value type union.

The JSON representation for NullValue is JSON null.

Value

NULL_VALUE

Null value.

Abstract types

Any

static

Any contains an arbitrary serialized protocol buffer message along with a URL that describes the type of the serialized message.

Protobuf library provides support to pack/unpack Any values in the form of utility functions or additional generated methods of the Any type.

Example 1: Pack and unpack a message in C++.

Foo foo = ...;
Any any;
any.PackFrom(foo);
...
if (any.UnpackTo(&foo)) {
  ...
}

Example 2: Pack and unpack a message in Java.

Foo foo = ...;
Any any = Any.pack(foo);
...
if (any.is(Foo.class)) {
  foo = any.unpack(Foo.class);
}

Example 3: Pack and unpack a message in Python.

foo = Foo(...)
any = Any()
any.Pack(foo)
...
if any.Is(Foo.DESCRIPTOR):
  any.Unpack(foo)
  ...

Example 4: Pack and unpack a message in Go

 foo := &pb.Foo{...}
 any, err := ptypes.MarshalAny(foo)
 ...
 foo := &pb.Foo{}
 if err := ptypes.UnmarshalAny(any, foo); err != nil {
   ...
 }

The pack methods provided by protobuf library will by default use 'type.googleapis.com/full.type.name' as the type URL and the unpack methods only use the fully qualified type name after the last '/' in the type URL, for example "foo.bar.com/x/y.z" will yield type name "y.z".

JSON

The JSON representation of an Any value uses the regular representation of the deserialized, embedded message, with an additional field @type which contains the type URL. Example:

package google.profile;
message Person {
  string first_name = 1;
  string last_name = 2;
}

{
  "@type": "type.googleapis.com/google.profile.Person",
  "firstName": <string>,
  "lastName": <string>
}

If the embedded message type is well-known and has a custom JSON representation, that representation will be embedded adding a field value which holds the custom JSON in addition to the @type field. Example (for message google.protobuf.Duration):

{
  "@type": "type.googleapis.com/google.protobuf.Duration",
  "value": "1.212s"
}

Properties

Parameter

typeUrl

string

A URL/resource name that uniquely identifies the type of the serialized protocol buffer message. The last segment of the URL's path must represent the fully qualified name of the type (as in path/google.protobuf.Duration). The name should be in a canonical form (e.g., leading "." is not accepted).

In practice, teams usually precompile into the binary all types that they expect it to use in the context of Any. However, for URLs which use the scheme http, https, or no scheme, one can optionally set up a type server that maps type URLs to message definitions as follows:

  • If no scheme is provided, https is assumed.
  • An HTTP GET on the URL must yield a google.protobuf.Type value in binary format, or produce an error.
  • Applications are allowed to cache lookup results based on the URL, or have them precompiled into a binary to avoid any lookup. Therefore, binary compatibility needs to be preserved on changes to types. (Use versioned type names to manage breaking changes.)

    Note: this functionality is not currently available in the official protobuf release, and it is not used for type URLs beginning with type.googleapis.com.

    Schemes other than http, https (or the empty scheme) might be used with implementation specific semantics.

value

string

Must be a valid serialized protocol buffer of the above specified type.

See also

google.protobuf.Any definition in proto format

ListValue

static

ListValue is a wrapper around a repeated field of values.

The JSON representation for ListValue is JSON array.

Property

Parameter

values

Array of Object

Repeated field of dynamically typed values.

This object should have the same structure as Value

See also

google.protobuf.ListValue definition in proto format

Struct

static

Struct represents a structured data value, consisting of fields which map to dynamically typed values. In some languages, Struct might be supported by a native representation. For example, in scripting languages like JS a struct is represented as an object. The details of that representation are described together with the proto support for the language.

The JSON representation for Struct is JSON object.

Property

Parameter

fields

Object with Object properties

Unordered map of dynamically typed values.

See also

google.protobuf.Struct definition in proto format

Timestamp

static

A Timestamp represents a point in time independent of any time zone or calendar, represented as seconds and fractions of seconds at nanosecond resolution in UTC Epoch time. It is encoded using the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar which extends the Gregorian calendar backwards to year one. It is encoded assuming all minutes are 60 seconds long, i.e. leap seconds are "smeared" so that no leap second table is needed for interpretation. Range is from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59.999999999Z. By restricting to that range, we ensure that we can convert to and from RFC 3339 date strings. See https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3339.txt.

Examples

Example 1: Compute Timestamp from POSIX time().

Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds(time(NULL));
timestamp.set_nanos(0);

Example 2: Compute Timestamp from POSIX gettimeofday().

struct timeval tv;
gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);

Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds(tv.tv_sec);
timestamp.set_nanos(tv.tv_usec  1000);

Example 3: Compute Timestamp from Win32 GetSystemTimeAsFileTime().

FILETIME ft;
GetSystemTimeAsFileTime(&ft);
UINT64 ticks = (((UINT64)ft.dwHighDateTime) << 32) | ft.dwLowDateTime;

// A Windows tick is 100 nanoseconds. Windows epoch 1601-01-01T00:00:00Z
// is 11644473600 seconds before Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.
Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds((INT64) ((ticks / 10000000) - 11644473600LL));
timestamp.set_nanos((INT32) ((ticks % 10000000)  100));

Example 4: Compute Timestamp from Java System.currentTimeMillis().

long millis = System.currentTimeMillis();

Timestamp timestamp = Timestamp.newBuilder().setSeconds(millis / 1000)
    .setNanos((int) ((millis % 1000) * 1000000)).build();

Example 5: Compute Timestamp from current time in Python.

timestamp = Timestamp()
timestamp.GetCurrentTime()

JSON Mapping

In JSON format, the Timestamp type is encoded as a string in the RFC 3339 format. That is, the format is "{year}-{month}-{day}T{hour}:{min}:{sec}[.{frac_sec}]Z" where {year} is always expressed using four digits while {month}, {day}, {hour}, {min}, and {sec} are zero-padded to two digits each. The fractional seconds, which can go up to 9 digits (i.e. up to 1 nanosecond resolution), are optional. The "Z" suffix indicates the timezone ("UTC"); the timezone is required. A proto3 JSON serializer should always use UTC (as indicated by "Z") when printing the Timestamp type and a proto3 JSON parser should be able to accept both UTC and other timezones (as indicated by an offset).

For example, "2017-01-15T01:30:15.01Z" encodes 15.01 seconds past 01:30 UTC on January 15, 2017.

In JavaScript, one can convert a Date object to this format using the standard toISOString() with the time format spec '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S.%fZ'. Likewise, in Java, one can use the Joda Time's ISODateTimeFormat.dateTime() to obtain a formatter capable of generating timestamps in this format.

Properties

Parameter

seconds

number

Represents seconds of UTC time since Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z. Must be from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59Z inclusive.

nanos

number

Non-negative fractions of a second at nanosecond resolution. Negative second values with fractions must still have non-negative nanos values that count forward in time. Must be from 0 to 999,999,999 inclusive.

See also

google.protobuf.Timestamp definition in proto format

Value

static

Value represents a dynamically typed value which can be either null, a number, a string, a boolean, a recursive struct value, or a list of values. A producer of value is expected to set one of that variants, absence of any variant indicates an error.

The JSON representation for Value is JSON value.

Properties

Parameter

nullValue

number

Represents a null value.

The number should be among the values of NullValue

numberValue

number

Represents a double value.

stringValue

string

Represents a string value.

boolValue

boolean

Represents a boolean value.

structValue

Object

Represents a structured value.

This object should have the same structure as Struct

listValue

Object

Represents a repeated Value.

This object should have the same structure as ListValue

See also

google.protobuf.Value definition in proto format