使用非对称密钥加密和解密数据

本主题介绍了如何使用 RSA 密钥创建和使用非对称加密密钥。如果要使用非对称密钥创建和验证签名,请参阅创建和验证数字签名。如果要使用对称密钥进行加密和解密,请参阅加密和解密数据

非对称加密使用非对称密钥的公钥部分,非对称解密使用该密钥的私钥部分。Cloud Key Management Service 提供检索公钥以及对使用该公钥加密的密文进行解密的功能。Cloud KMS 不允许直接对私钥进行访问。

准备工作

  • 本主题提供在命令行运行的示例。要简化示例的使用,请使用 Cloud Shell。加密示例使用预先安装在 Cloud Shell 上的 OpenSSL

  • 创建一个非对称密钥密钥用途ASYMMETRIC_DECRYPT)。 如需查看密钥用途 ASYMMETRIC_DECRYPT 支持哪些算法,请参阅非对称加密算法您不能使用用途为 ASYMMETRIC_SIGN 的密钥执行此程序。

  • 如果您要使用命令行,请安装 OpenSSL(如果尚未安装)。如果您使用 Cloud Shell,则 OpenSSL 已安装。

  • macOS 用户:在 macOS 上安装的 OpenSSL 版本不支持在本主题中用于解密数据的标志。要在 macOS 上按照以下步骤操作,请从 Homebrew 安装 OpenSSL。

对密钥的访问权限控制

  • 对于将检索公钥的用户或服务,向非对称密钥授予 cloudkms.cryptoKeyVersions.viewPublicKey 权限。对数据进行加密时需要该公钥。

  • 对于将对使用公钥加密的数据进行解密的用户或服务,向非对称密钥授予 cloudkms.cryptoKeyVersions.useToDecrypt 权限。

如需了解 Cloud KMS 中的权限和角色,请参阅权限和角色

加密数据

要使用非对称加密密钥加密数据,请检索公钥并使用公钥加密数据。

命令行

此示例要求在本地系统上安装 OpenSSL

下载公钥

下载公钥:

gcloud kms keys versions get-public-key key-version \
    --key key \
    --keyring key-ring \
    --location location  \
    --output-file public-key-path

key-version 替换为具有公钥的密钥版本。将 key 替换为密钥的名称。将 key-ring 替换为密钥所在的密钥环的名称。将 location 替换为密钥环的 Cloud KMS 位置。将 public-key-path 替换为要在本地系统上保存公钥的位置。

加密数据

使用刚才下载的公钥加密数据,并将输出保存到文件中:

openssl pkeyutl -in cleartext-data-input-file \
    -encrypt \
    -pubin \
    -inkey public-key-path \
    -pkeyopt rsa_padding_mode:oaep \
    -pkeyopt rsa_oaep_md:sha256 \
    -pkeyopt rsa_mgf1_md:sha256 \
    > encrypted-data-output-file
  • cleartext-data-input-file 替换为要加密的路径和文件名。

  • public-key-path 替换为下载公钥的路径和文件名。

  • encrypted-data-output-file 替换要保存数据的路径和文件名。

C#

要运行此代码,请先设置 C# 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS C# SDK


using Google.Cloud.Kms.V1;
using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;

public class EncryptAsymmetricSample
{
    public byte[] EncryptAsymmetric(
      string projectId = "my-project", string locationId = "us-east1", string keyRingId = "my-key-ring", string keyId = "my-key", string keyVersionId = "123",
      string message = "Sample message")
    {
        // Create the client.
        KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.Create();

        // Build the key version name.
        CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName = new CryptoKeyVersionName(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

        // Get the public key.
        PublicKey publicKey = client.GetPublicKey(keyVersionName);

        // Split the key into blocks and base64-decode the PEM parts.
        string[] blocks = publicKey.Pem.Split("-", StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries);
        byte[] pem = Convert.FromBase64String(blocks[1]);

        // Create a new RSA key.
        RSA rsa = RSA.Create();
        rsa.ImportSubjectPublicKeyInfo(pem, out _);

        // Convert the message into bytes. Cryptographic plaintexts and
        // ciphertexts are always byte arrays.
        byte[] plaintext = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(message);

        // Encrypt the data.
        byte[] ciphertext = rsa.Encrypt(plaintext, RSAEncryptionPadding.OaepSHA256);
        return ciphertext;
    }
}

Go

要在命令行上使用 Cloud KMS,请先安装或升级到最新版本的 Cloud SDK

import (
	"context"
	"crypto/rand"
	"crypto/rsa"
	"crypto/sha256"
	"crypto/x509"
	"encoding/pem"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	kms "cloud.google.com/go/kms/apiv1"
	kmspb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/kms/v1"
)

// encryptAsymmetric encrypts data on your local machine using an
// 'RSA_DECRYPT_OAEP_2048_SHA256' public key retrieved from Cloud KMS.
func encryptAsymmetric(w io.Writer, name string, message string) error {
	// name := "projects/my-project/locations/us-east1/keyRings/my-key-ring/cryptoKeys/my-key/cryptoKeyVersions/123"
	// message := "Sample message"

	// Create the client.
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := kms.NewKeyManagementClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to create kms client: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Retrieve the public key from Cloud KMS. This is the only operation that
	// involves Cloud KMS. The remaining operations take place on your local
	// machine.
	response, err := client.GetPublicKey(ctx, &kmspb.GetPublicKeyRequest{
		Name: name,
	})
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to get public key: %v", err)
	}

	// Parse the public key. Note, this example assumes the public key is in the
	// RSA format.
	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(response.Pem))
	publicKey, err := x509.ParsePKIXPublicKey(block.Bytes)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to parse public key: %v", err)
	}
	rsaKey, ok := publicKey.(*rsa.PublicKey)
	if !ok {
		return fmt.Errorf("public key is not rsa")
	}

	// Convert the message into bytes. Cryptographic plaintexts and
	// ciphertexts are always byte arrays.
	plaintext := []byte(message)

	// Encrypt data using the RSA public key.
	ciphertext, err := rsa.EncryptOAEP(sha256.New(), rand.Reader, rsaKey, plaintext, nil)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("rsa.EncryptOAEP: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Encrypted ciphertext: %s", ciphertext)
	return nil
}

Java

要运行此代码,请先设置 Java 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Java SDK

import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.CryptoKeyVersionName;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.KeyManagementServiceClient;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.PublicKey;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.StringReader;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.KeyFactory;
import java.security.spec.MGF1ParameterSpec;
import java.security.spec.X509EncodedKeySpec;
import java.util.Base64;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.spec.OAEPParameterSpec;
import javax.crypto.spec.PSource;

public class EncryptAsymmetric {

  public void encryptAsymmetric() throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String locationId = "us-east1";
    String keyRingId = "my-key-ring";
    String keyId = "my-key";
    String keyVersionId = "123";
    String plaintext = "Plaintext to encrypt";
    encryptAsymmetric(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId, plaintext);
  }

  // Encrypt data that was encrypted using the public key component of the given
  // key version.
  public void encryptAsymmetric(
      String projectId,
      String locationId,
      String keyRingId,
      String keyId,
      String keyVersionId,
      String plaintext)
      throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only
    // needs to be created once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After
    // completing all of your requests, call the "close" method on the client to
    // safely clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.create()) {
      // Build the key version name from the project, location, key ring, key,
      // and key version.
      CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName =
          CryptoKeyVersionName.of(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

      // Get the public key.
      PublicKey publicKey = client.getPublicKey(keyVersionName);

      // Convert the public PEM key to a DER key (see helper below).
      byte[] derKey = convertPemToDer(publicKey.getPem());
      X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(derKey);
      java.security.PublicKey rsaKey = KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA").generatePublic(keySpec);

      // Encrypt plaintext for the 'RSA_DECRYPT_OAEP_2048_SHA256' key.
      // For other key algorithms:
      // https://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/javax/crypto/Cipher.html
      Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding");
      OAEPParameterSpec oaepParams =
          new OAEPParameterSpec(
              "SHA-256", "MGF1", MGF1ParameterSpec.SHA256, PSource.PSpecified.DEFAULT);
      cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, rsaKey, oaepParams);
      byte[] ciphertext = cipher.doFinal(plaintext.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8));
      System.out.printf("Ciphertext: %s%n", ciphertext);
    }
  }

  // Converts a base64-encoded PEM certificate like the one returned from Cloud
  // KMS into a DER formatted certificate for use with the Java APIs.
  private byte[] convertPemToDer(String pem) {
    BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(new StringReader(pem));
    String encoded =
        bufferedReader
            .lines()
            .filter(line -> !line.startsWith("-----BEGIN") && !line.startsWith("-----END"))
            .collect(Collectors.joining());
    return Base64.getDecoder().decode(encoded);
  }
}

Node.js

要运行此代码,请先设置 Node.js 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Node.js SDK

//
// TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
//
// const projectId = 'my-project';
// const locationId = 'us-east1';
// const keyRingId = 'my-key-ring';
// const keyId = 'my-key';
// const versionId = '123';
// const plaintextBuffer = Buffer.from('...');

// Imports the Cloud KMS library
const {KeyManagementServiceClient} = require('@google-cloud/kms');

// Instantiates a client
const client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

// Build the key version name
const versionName = client.cryptoKeyVersionPath(
  projectId,
  locationId,
  keyRingId,
  keyId,
  versionId
);

async function encryptAsymmetric() {
  // Get public key from Cloud KMS
  const [publicKey] = await client.getPublicKey({
    name: versionName,
  });

  // Optional, but recommended: perform integrity verification on publicKey.
  // For more details on ensuring E2E in-transit integrity to and from Cloud KMS visit:
  // https://cloud.google.com/kms/docs/data-integrity-guidelines
  const crc32c = require('fast-crc32c');
  if (publicKey.name !== versionName) {
    throw new Error('GetPublicKey: request corrupted in-transit');
  }
  if (crc32c.calculate(publicKey.pem) !== Number(publicKey.pemCrc32c.value)) {
    throw new Error('GetPublicKey: response corrupted in-transit');
  }

  // Import and setup crypto
  const crypto = require('crypto');

  // Encrypt plaintext locally using the public key. This example uses a key
  // that was configured with sha256 hash with OAEP padding. Update these
  // values to match the Cloud KMS key.
  //
  // NOTE: In Node < 12, this function does not properly consume the OAEP
  // padding and thus produces invalid ciphertext. If you are using Node to do
  // public key encryption, please use version 12+.
  const ciphertextBuffer = crypto.publicEncrypt(
    {
      key: publicKey.pem,
      oaepHash: 'sha256',
      padding: crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING,
    },
    plaintextBuffer
  );

  console.log(`Ciphertext: ${ciphertextBuffer.toString('base64')}`);
  return ciphertextBuffer;
}

return encryptAsymmetric();

PHP

要运行此代码,请先了解如何在 Google Cloud 上使用 PHP安装 Cloud KMS PHP SDK

function encrypt_asymmetric_sample(
    string $projectId = 'my-project',
    string $locationId = 'us-east1',
    string $keyRingId = 'my-key-ring',
    string $keyId = 'my-key',
    string $versionId = '123',
    string $plaintext = '...'
) {
    // PHP has limited support for asymmetric encryption operations.
    // Specifically, openssl_public_encrypt() does not allow customizing
    // algorithms or padding. Thus, it is not currently possible to use PHP
    // core for asymmetric operations on RSA keys.
    //
    // Third party libraries like phpseclib may provide the required
    // functionality. Google does not endorse this external library.
}

Python

要运行此代码,请先设置 Python 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Python SDK

def encrypt_asymmetric(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id, plaintext):
    """
    Encrypt plaintext using the public key portion of an asymmetric key.

    Args:
        project_id (string): Google Cloud project ID (e.g. 'my-project').
        location_id (string): Cloud KMS location (e.g. 'us-east1').
        key_ring_id (string): ID of the Cloud KMS key ring (e.g. 'my-key-ring').
        key_id (string): ID of the key to use (e.g. 'my-key').
        version_id (string): ID of the key version to use (e.g. '1').
        plaintext (string): message to encrypt

    Returns:
        bytes: Encrypted ciphertext.

    """

    # Import the client library.
    from google.cloud import kms

    # Import base64 for printing the ciphertext.
    import base64

    # Import cryptographic helpers from the cryptography package.
    from cryptography.hazmat.backends import default_backend
    from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import hashes, serialization
    from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric import padding

    # Convert the plaintext to bytes.
    plaintext_bytes = plaintext.encode('utf-8')

    # Create the client.
    client = kms.KeyManagementServiceClient()

    # Build the key version name.
    key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id)

    # Get the public key.
    public_key = client.get_public_key(request={'name': key_version_name})

    # Extract and parse the public key as a PEM-encoded RSA key.
    pem = public_key.pem.encode('utf-8')
    rsa_key = serialization.load_pem_public_key(pem, default_backend())

    # Construct the padding. Note that the padding differs based on key choice.
    sha256 = hashes.SHA256()
    mgf = padding.MGF1(algorithm=sha256)
    pad = padding.OAEP(mgf=mgf, algorithm=sha256, label=None)

    # Encrypt the data using the public key.
    ciphertext = rsa_key.encrypt(plaintext_bytes, pad)
    print('Ciphertext: {}'.format(base64.b64encode(ciphertext)))
    return ciphertext

Ruby

要运行此代码,请先设置 Ruby 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Ruby SDK

# Ruby has limited support for asymmetric encryption operations. Specifically,
# public_encrypt() does not allow customizing the MGF hash algorithm. Thus, it
# is not currently possible to use Ruby core for asymmetric encryption
# operations on RSA keys from Cloud KMS.
#
# Third party libraries may provide the required functionality. Google does
# not endorse these external libraries.

解密数据

使用 Cloud KMS 执行解密。

命令行

要在命令行上使用 Cloud KMS,请先安装或升级到最新版本的 Cloud SDK

gcloud kms asymmetric-decrypt \
    --version key-version \
    --key key \
    --keyring key-ring \
    --location location  \
    --ciphertext-file file-path-with-encrypted-data \
    --plaintext-file file-path-to-store-plaintext

key-version 替换为密钥版本,或省略 --version 标志以自动检测版本。将 key 替换为要用于解密的密钥的名称。将 key-ring 替换为密钥将要存放到的密钥环的名称。将 location 替换为密钥环的 Cloud KMS 位置。将 file-path-with-encrypted-datafile-path-to-store-plaintext 替换为本地文件路径,以读取加密数据并保存解密输出。

如需了解所有标志和可能值,请使用 --help 标志运行命令。

要显示解密文件的内容,请在您的编辑器或终端中打开它。以下是使用 cat 命令显示文件内容的示例:

cat ./my-file.txt

C#

要运行此代码,请先设置 C# 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS C# SDK


using Google.Cloud.Kms.V1;
using Google.Protobuf;
using System.Text;

public class DecryptAsymmetricSample
{
    public string DecryptAsymmetric(
      string projectId = "my-project", string locationId = "us-east1", string keyRingId = "my-key-ring", string keyId = "my-key", string keyVersionId = "123",
      byte[] ciphertext = null)
    {
        // Create the client.
        KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.Create();

        // Build the key version name.
        CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName = new CryptoKeyVersionName(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

        // Call the API.
        AsymmetricDecryptResponse result = client.AsymmetricDecrypt(keyVersionName, ByteString.CopyFrom(ciphertext));

        // Get the plaintext. Cryptographic plaintexts and ciphertexts are
        // always byte arrays.
        byte[] plaintext = result.Plaintext.ToByteArray();

        // Return the result.
        return Encoding.UTF8.GetString(plaintext);
    }
}

Go

要运行此代码,请先设置 Go 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Go SDK

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"hash/crc32"
	"io"

	kms "cloud.google.com/go/kms/apiv1"
	kmspb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/kms/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/types/known/wrapperspb"
)

// decryptAsymmetric will attempt to decrypt a given ciphertext with an
// 'RSA_DECRYPT_OAEP_2048_SHA256' key from Cloud KMS.
func decryptAsymmetric(w io.Writer, name string, ciphertext []byte) error {
	// name := "projects/my-project/locations/us-east1/keyRings/my-key-ring/cryptoKeys/my-key/cryptoKeyVersions/123"
	// ciphertext := []byte("...")  // result of an asymmetric encryption call

	// Create the client.
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := kms.NewKeyManagementClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to create kms client: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Optional but recommended: Compute ciphertext's CRC32C.
	crc32c := func(data []byte) uint32 {
		t := crc32.MakeTable(crc32.Castagnoli)
		return crc32.Checksum(data, t)
	}
	ciphertextCRC32C := crc32c(ciphertext)

	// Build the request.
	req := &kmspb.AsymmetricDecryptRequest{
		Name:             name,
		Ciphertext:       ciphertext,
		CiphertextCrc32C: wrapperspb.Int64(int64(ciphertextCRC32C)),
	}

	// Call the API.
	result, err := client.AsymmetricDecrypt(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to decrypt ciphertext: %v", err)
	}

	// Optional, but recommended: perform integrity verification on result.
	// For more details on ensuring E2E in-transit integrity to and from Cloud KMS visit:
	// https://cloud.google.com/kms/docs/data-integrity-guidelines
	if result.VerifiedCiphertextCrc32C == false {
		return fmt.Errorf("AsymmetricDecrypt: request corrupted in-transit")
	}
	if int64(crc32c(result.Plaintext)) != result.PlaintextCrc32C.Value {
		return fmt.Errorf("AsymmetricDecrypt: response corrupted in-transit")
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Decrypted plaintext: %s", result.Plaintext)
	return nil
}

Java

要运行此代码,请先设置 Java 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Java SDK

import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.AsymmetricDecryptResponse;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.CryptoKeyVersionName;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.KeyManagementServiceClient;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import java.io.IOException;

public class DecryptAsymmetric {

  public void decryptAsymmetric() throws IOException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String locationId = "us-east1";
    String keyRingId = "my-key-ring";
    String keyId = "my-key";
    String keyVersionId = "123";
    byte[] ciphertext = null;
    decryptAsymmetric(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId, ciphertext);
  }

  // Decrypt data that was encrypted using the public key component of the given
  // key version.
  public void decryptAsymmetric(
      String projectId,
      String locationId,
      String keyRingId,
      String keyId,
      String keyVersionId,
      byte[] ciphertext)
      throws IOException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only
    // needs to be created once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After
    // completing all of your requests, call the "close" method on the client to
    // safely clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.create()) {
      // Build the key version name from the project, location, key ring, key,
      // and key version.
      CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName =
          CryptoKeyVersionName.of(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

      // Decrypt the ciphertext.
      AsymmetricDecryptResponse response =
          client.asymmetricDecrypt(keyVersionName, ByteString.copyFrom(ciphertext));
      System.out.printf("Plaintext: %s%n", response.getPlaintext().toStringUtf8());
    }
  }
}

Node.js

要运行此代码,请先设置 Node.js 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Node.js SDK

//
// TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
//
// const projectId = 'my-project';
// const locationId = 'us-east1';
// const keyRingId = 'my-key-ring';
// const keyId = 'my-key';
// const versionId = '123';
// const ciphertext = Buffer.from('...');

// Imports the Cloud KMS library
const {KeyManagementServiceClient} = require('@google-cloud/kms');

// Instantiates a client
const client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

// Build the key version name
const versionName = client.cryptoKeyVersionPath(
  projectId,
  locationId,
  keyRingId,
  keyId,
  versionId
);

// Optional, but recommended: compute plaintext's CRC32C.
const crc32c = require('fast-crc32c');
const ciphertextCrc32c = crc32c.calculate(ciphertext);

async function decryptAsymmetric() {
  const [decryptResponse] = await client.asymmetricDecrypt({
    name: versionName,
    ciphertext: ciphertext,
    ciphertextCrc32c: {
      value: ciphertextCrc32c,
    },
  });

  // Optional, but recommended: perform integrity verification on decryptResponse.
  // For more details on ensuring E2E in-transit integrity to and from Cloud KMS visit:
  // https://cloud.google.com/kms/docs/data-integrity-guidelines
  if (!decryptResponse.verifiedCiphertextCrc32c) {
    throw new Error('AsymmetricDecrypt: request corrupted in-transit');
  }
  if (
    crc32c.calculate(decryptResponse.plaintext) !==
    Number(decryptResponse.plaintextCrc32c.value)
  ) {
    throw new Error('AsymmetricDecrypt: response corrupted in-transit');
  }

  // NOTE: The ciphertext must be properly formatted. In Node < 12, the
  // crypto.publicEncrypt() function does not properly consume the OAEP
  // padding and thus produces invalid ciphertext. If you are using Node to do
  // public key encryption, please use version 12+.
  const plaintext = decryptResponse.plaintext.toString('utf8');

  console.log(`Plaintext: ${plaintext}`);
  return plaintext;
}

return decryptAsymmetric();

PHP

要运行此代码,请先了解如何在 Google Cloud 上使用 PHP安装 Cloud KMS PHP SDK

use Google\Cloud\Kms\V1\KeyManagementServiceClient;

function decrypt_asymmetric_sample(
    string $projectId = 'my-project',
    string $locationId = 'us-east1',
    string $keyRingId = 'my-key-ring',
    string $keyId = 'my-key',
    string $versionId = '123',
    string $ciphertext = '...'
) {
    // Create the Cloud KMS client.
    $client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

    // Build the key version name.
    $keyVersionName = $client->cryptoKeyVersionName($projectId, $locationId, $keyRingId, $keyId, $versionId);

    // Call the API.
    $decryptResponse = $client->asymmetricDecrypt($keyVersionName, $ciphertext);
    printf('Plaintext: %s' . PHP_EOL, $decryptResponse->getPlaintext());
    return $decryptResponse;
}

Python

要运行此代码,请先设置 Python 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Python SDK

def decrypt_asymmetric(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id, ciphertext):
    """
    Decrypt the ciphertext using an asymmetric key.

    Args:
        project_id (string): Google Cloud project ID (e.g. 'my-project').
        location_id (string): Cloud KMS location (e.g. 'us-east1').
        key_ring_id (string): ID of the Cloud KMS key ring (e.g. 'my-key-ring').
        key_id (string): ID of the key to use (e.g. 'my-key').
        version_id (string): ID of the key version to use (e.g. '1').
        ciphertext (bytes): Encrypted bytes to decrypt.

    Returns:
        DecryptResponse: Response including plaintext.

    """

    # Import the client library.
    from google.cloud import kms

    # Create the client.
    client = kms.KeyManagementServiceClient()

    # Build the key version name.
    key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id)

    # Optional, but recommended: compute ciphertext's CRC32C.
    # See crc32c() function defined below.
    ciphertext_crc32c = crc32c(ciphertext)

    # Call the API.
    decrypt_response = client.asymmetric_decrypt(
        request={'name': key_version_name, 'ciphertext': ciphertext, 'ciphertext_crc32c': ciphertext_crc32c})

    # Optional, but recommended: perform integrity verification on decrypt_response.
    # For more details on ensuring E2E in-transit integrity to and from Cloud KMS visit:
    # https://cloud.google.com/kms/docs/data-integrity-guidelines
    if not decrypt_response.verified_ciphertext_crc32c:
        raise Exception('The request sent to the server was corrupted in-transit.')
    if not decrypt_response.plaintext_crc32c == crc32c(decrypt_response.plaintext):
        raise Exception('The response received from the server was corrupted in-transit.')
    # End integrity verification

    print('Plaintext: {}'.format(decrypt_response.plaintext))
    return decrypt_response

def crc32c(data):
    """
    Calculates the CRC32C checksum of the provided data.
    Args:
        data: the bytes over which the checksum should be calculated.
    Returns:
        An int representing the CRC32C checksum of the provided bytes.
    """
    import crcmod
    import six
    crc32c_fun = crcmod.predefined.mkPredefinedCrcFun('crc-32c')
    return crc32c_fun(six.ensure_binary(data))

Ruby

要运行此代码,请先设置 Ruby 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Ruby SDK

# TODO(developer): uncomment these values before running the sample.
# project_id  = "my-project"
# location_id = "us-east1"
# key_ring_id = "my-key-ring"
# key_id      = "my-key"
# version_id  = "123"
# ciphertext  = "..."

# Require the library.
require "google/cloud/kms"

# Create the client.
client = Google::Cloud::Kms.key_management_service

# Build the key version name.
key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path project:            project_id,
                                                  location:           location_id,
                                                  key_ring:           key_ring_id,
                                                  crypto_key:         key_id,
                                                  crypto_key_version: version_id

# Call the API.
response = client.asymmetric_decrypt key_version_name, ciphertext
puts "Plaintext: #{response.plaintext}"

API

这些示例使用 curl 作为 HTTP 客户端来演示如何使用 API。如需详细了解访问权限控制,请参阅访问 Cloud KMS API

使用 CryptoKeyVersions.asymmetricDecrypt 方法。

问题排查

incorrect key purpose: ASYMMETRIC_SIGN

您只能使用密钥用途ASYMMETRIC_DECRYPT 的密钥解密数据。

在 macOS 上解密时使用 invalid parameter

安装在 macOS 上的 OpenSSL 版本不支持在本主题中用于解密数据的标志。要在 macOS 上按照以下步骤操作,请从 Homebrew 安装 OpenSSL。

data too large for key size

用于 RSA 解密的载荷大小上限取决于密钥大小和填充算法。Cloud KMS 使用的所有 RSA 加密格式都使用 RFC 2437 中标准化的 OAEP。以下算法支持以下载荷大小上限 (maxMLen),可作为快速参考:

算法 参数 消息长度上限
RSA_DECRYPT_OAEP_2048_SHA256 k = 256; hLen = 32; maxMLen = 190
RSA_DECRYPT_OAEP_3072_SHA256 k = 384; hLen = 32; maxMLen = 318
RSA_DECRYPT_OAEP_4096_SHA256 k = 512; hLen = 32; maxMLen = 446
RSA_DECRYPT_OAEP_4096_SHA512 k = 512; hLen = 64; maxMLen = 382

对于可能大于这些限制的各种长度的消息,建议不要使用非对称加密。请考虑改用混合加密。 Tink 是使用此方法的加密库。