Package (2.9.4)

A JDBC driver for Cloud Spanner - A no-compromise relational database service.

Example for creating a JDBC connection to Cloud Spanner.

 String projectId = "my-project";
 String instanceId = "my-instance";
 String databaseId = "my-database";

 try (Connection connection =
             projectId, instanceId, databaseId))) {
   try (Statement statement = connection.createStatement()) {
     try (ResultSet rs = statement.executeQuery("SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP()")) {
       while ( {
             "Connected to Cloud Spanner at [%s]%n", rs.getTimestamp(1).toString());

See Also: Cloud Spanner JDBC Driver, JdbcDriver java doc for all supported connection URL properties.



Constants for special values used by the Cloud Spanner JDBC driver.


DataSource implementation for Google Cloud Spanner.


JDBC Driver for Google Cloud Spanner.


 String url = "jdbc:cloudspanner:/projects/my_project_id/"
            + "instances/my_instance_id/databases/my_database_name?"
            + "credentials=/home/cloudspanner-keys/my-key.json;autocommit=false";
 try (Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(url)) {
   try(ResultSet rs = connection.createStatement().executeQuery("SELECT SingerId, AlbumId, MarketingBudget FROM Albums")) {
     while( {
       // do something

The connection that is returned will implement the interface CloudSpannerJdbcConnection. The JDBC connection URL must be specified in the following format:


The property-value strings should be url-encoded.

The project-id part of the URI may be filled with the placeholder DEFAULT_PROJECT_ID. This placeholder is replaced by the default project id of the environment that is requesting a connection.

The supported properties are:

  • credentials (String): URL for the credentials file to use for the connection. If you do not specify any credentials at all, the default credentials of the environment as returned by GoogleCredentials#getApplicationDefault() is used.
  • autocommit (boolean): Sets the initial autocommit mode for the connection. Default is true.
  • readonly (boolean): Sets the initial readonly mode for the connection. Default is false.
  • autoConfigEmulator (boolean): Automatically configure the connection to try to connect to the Cloud Spanner emulator. You do not need to specify any host or port in the connection string as long as the emulator is running on the default host/port (localhost:9010). The instance and database in the connection string will automatically be created if these do not yet exist on the emulator. This means that you do not need to execute any gcloud commands on the emulator to create the instance and database before you can connect to it.
  • usePlainText (boolean): Sets whether the JDBC connection should establish an unencrypted connection to the server. This option can only be used when connecting to a local emulator that does not require an encrypted connection, and that does not require authentication.
  • optimizerVersion (string): The query optimizer version to use for the connection. The value must be either a valid version number or LATEST. If no value is specified, the query optimizer version specified in the environment variable SPANNER_OPTIMIZER_VERSION is used. If no query optimizer version is specified in the connection URL or in the environment variable, the default query optimizer version of Cloud Spanner is used.
  • oauthtoken (String): A valid OAuth2 token to use for the JDBC connection. The token must have been obtained with one or both of the scopes '' and/or ''. If you specify both a credentials file and an OAuth token, the JDBC driver will throw an exception when you try to obtain a connection.
  • retryAbortsInternally (boolean): Sets the initial retryAbortsInternally mode for the connection. Default is true. @see for more information.
  • minSessions (int): Sets the minimum number of sessions in the backing session pool. Defaults to 100.
  • maxSessions (int): Sets the maximum number of sessions in the backing session pool. Defaults to 400.
  • numChannels (int): Sets the number of gRPC channels to use. Defaults to 4.
  • rpcPriority (String): Sets the priority for all RPC invocations from this connection. Defaults to HIGH.


Factory class for creating SQLExceptions for Cloud Spanner


Custom SQL type for Spanner JSON data type. This type (or the vendor type number) must be used when setting a JSON parameter using PreparedStatement#setObject(int, Object, SQLType).



See Also:



JDBC connection with a number of additional Cloud Spanner specific methods. JDBC connections that are returned by the Cloud Spanner JdbcDriver will implement this interface.

Calling Connection#unwrap(Class) with CloudSpannerJdbcConnection#getClass() as input on a Connection returned by the Cloud Spanner JDBC Driver will return a CloudSpannerJdbcConnection instance.


Base interface for all Cloud Spanner SQLExceptions. All SQLExceptions that are thrown by the Cloud Spanner JDBC driver implement this interface.








Specific SQLException that is thrown when a transaction was aborted and could not be retried due to a concurrent modification.


Specific SQLException that is thrown when a transaction was aborted and could not be successfully retried.


Specific SQLException that is thrown when a SpannerBatchUpdateException occurs.


Specific SQLException that is thrown when setting client info on a connection


Base SQLException for Cloud Spanner


Specific SQLException that is thrown for unsupported methods and values


Specific SQLException that is thrown when a statement times out