Slack 教程 - Slash 命令

本教程演示了如何使用 Cloud Functions 函数来实现搜索 Google Knowledge Graph APISlack Slash 命令

目标

  • 在 Slack 中创建一个 Slash 命令。
  • 编写和部署 HTTP Cloud Functions 函数
  • 使用 Slash 命令搜索 Google Knowledge Graph API。

费用

本教程使用 Cloud Platform 的可计费组件,包括:

  • Google Cloud Functions

您可使用价格计算器根据您的预计使用情况来估算费用。

准备工作

  1. 登录您的 Google Cloud 帐号。如果您是 Google Cloud 新手,请创建一个帐号来评估我们的产品在实际场景中的表现。新客户还可获享 $300 赠金,用于运行、测试和部署工作负载。
  2. 在 Google Cloud Console 的项目选择器页面上,选择或创建一个 Google Cloud 项目。

    转到“项目选择器”

  3. 确保您的 Cloud 项目已启用结算功能。 了解如何确认您的项目是否已启用结算功能

  4. 启用 Cloud Functions, Cloud Build, and Google Knowledge Graph Search API。

    启用 API

  5. 安装并初始化 Cloud SDK
  6. 在 Google Cloud Console 的项目选择器页面上,选择或创建一个 Google Cloud 项目。

    转到“项目选择器”

  7. 确保您的 Cloud 项目已启用结算功能。 了解如何确认您的项目是否已启用结算功能

  8. 启用 Cloud Functions, Cloud Build, and Google Knowledge Graph Search API。

    启用 API

  9. 安装并初始化 Cloud SDK
  10. 如果您已安装 Cloud SDK,请运行以下命令进行更新:

    gcloud components update
  11. 准备开发环境。

直观呈现数据流

Slack Slash 命令教程应用中的数据流涉及以下几个步骤:

  1. 用户在 Slack 频道中执行 /kg <search_query> Slash 命令。
  2. Slack 将命令载荷发送到 Cloud Functions 函数的触发器端点。
  3. Cloud Functions 函数将包含用户的搜索查询的请求发送给 Knowledge Graph API。
  4. Knowledge Graph API 返回所有匹配的结果作为响应。
  5. Cloud Functions 函数将响应的格式设置为 Slack 消息
  6. Cloud Functions 函数将消息发送回 Slack。
  7. 用户在 Slack 频道中看到经过格式化的响应。

直观展示上述步骤可能有所帮助:

创建 Knowledge Graph API 密钥

Google Cloud Console 凭据页面中,点击创建凭据按钮,然后选择 API 密钥。记住此密钥,因为您将在下一部分中使用该密钥访问 Knowledge Graph API。

准备函数

  1. 将示例应用代码库克隆到本地机器:

    Node.js

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/nodejs-docs-samples.git

    或者,您也可以下载该示例的 zip 文件并将其解压缩。

    Python

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/python-docs-samples.git

    或者,您也可以下载该示例的 zip 文件并将其解压缩。

    Go

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples.git

    或者,您也可以下载该示例的 zip 文件并将其解压缩。

    Java

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/java-docs-samples.git

    或者,您也可以下载该示例的 zip 文件并将其解压缩。

    C#

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/dotnet-docs-samples.git

    或者,您也可以下载该示例的 zip 文件并将其解压缩。

    Ruby

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/ruby-docs-samples.git

    或者,您也可以下载该示例的 zip 文件并将其解压缩。

    PHP

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/php-docs-samples.git

    或者,您也可以下载该示例的 zip 文件并将其解压缩。

  2. 切换到包含 Cloud Functions 函数示例代码的目录:

    Node.js

    cd nodejs-docs-samples/functions/slack/

    Python

    cd python-docs-samples/functions/slack/

    Go

    cd golang-samples/functions/slack/

    Java

    cd java-docs-samples/functions/slack/

    C#

    cd dotnet-docs-samples/functions/slack/SlackKnowledgeGraphSearch/

    Ruby

    cd ruby-docs-samples/functions/slack/

    PHP

    cd php-docs-samples/functions/slack_slash_command/

部署函数

如需部署在您(或 Slack)向函数的端点发出 HTTP POST 请求时执行的函数,请在包含示例代码(如果是 Java,则为 pom.xml 文件)的目录中运行以下命令:

YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET 替换为应用配置的基本信息页面中由 Slack 提供的签名密钥,并将 YOUR_KG_API_KEY 替换为您刚刚创建的 Knowledge Graph API 密钥。

Node.js

gcloud functions deploy kgSearch \
--runtime nodejs14 \
--trigger-http \
--set-env-vars "SLACK_SECRET=YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET,KG_API_KEY=YOUR_KG_API_KEY" \
--allow-unauthenticated
您可以使用 --runtime 标志的以下值来指定偏好的 Node.js 版本:
  • nodejs16(预览版)
  • nodejs14(推荐)
  • nodejs12
  • nodejs10

Python

gcloud functions deploy kg_search \
--runtime python39 \
--trigger-http \
--set-env-vars "SLACK_SECRET=YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET,KG_API_KEY=YOUR_KG_API_KEY" \
--allow-unauthenticated
您可以使用 --runtime 标志的以下值来指定偏好的 Python 版本:
  • python39(推荐)
  • python38
  • python37

Go

gcloud functions deploy KGSearch \
--runtime go113 \
--trigger-http \
--set-env-vars "SLACK_SECRET=YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET,KG_API_KEY=YOUR_KG_API_KEY" \
--allow-unauthenticated
您可以使用 --runtime 标志的以下值来指定偏好的 Go 版本:
  • go116(预览版)
  • go113(推荐)
  • go111

Java

gcloud functions deploy java-slack-function \
--entry-point functions.SlackSlashCommand \
--runtime java11 \
--memory 512MB \
--trigger-http \
--set-env-vars "SLACK_SECRET=YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET,KG_API_KEY=YOUR_KG_API_KEY" \
--allow-unauthenticated

C#

gcloud functions deploy csharp-slack-function \
--entry-point SlackKnowledgeGraphSearch.Function \
--runtime dotnet3 \
--trigger-http \
--set-env-vars "SLACK_SECRET=YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET,KG_API_KEY=YOUR_KG_API_KEY" \
--allow-unauthenticated

Ruby

gcloud functions deploy kg_search --runtime ruby27 \
--trigger-http \
--set-env-vars "SLACK_SECRET=YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET,KG_API_KEY=YOUR_KG_API_KEY" \
--allow-unauthenticated
您可以使用 --runtime 标志的以下值来指定偏好的 Ruby 版本:
  • ruby27(推荐)
  • ruby26

PHP

gcloud functions deploy searchKnowledgeGraph --runtime php74 \
--trigger-http \
--set-env-vars "SLACK_SECRET=YOUR_SLACK_SIGNING_SECRET,KG_API_KEY=YOUR_KG_API_KEY" \
--allow-unauthenticated

配置应用

在部署函数后,您需要创建一个 Slack Slash 命令。每次该命令被触发时,都会将查询发送给您的 Cloud Functions 函数:

  1. 创建一个 Slack 应用来托管您的 Slack Slash 命令。将该应用关联至您有权安装集成的 Slack 团队。

  2. 转到 Slash commands 并点击 Create new command 按钮。

  3. 输入 /kg 作为该命令的名称。

  4. 输入该命令的网址:

    Node.js

    https://YOUR_REGION-YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloudfunctions.net/kgSearch

    Python

    https://YOUR_REGION-YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloudfunctions.net/kg_search

    Go

    https://YOUR_REGION-YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloudfunctions.net/KGSearch

    Java

    https://YOUR_REGION-YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloudfunctions.net/java-slack-function

    C#

    https://YOUR_REGION-YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloudfunctions.net/csharp-slack-function

    Ruby

    https://YOUR_REGION-YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloudfunctions.net/kg_search

    PHP

    https://YOUR_REGION-YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloudfunctions.net/searchKnowledgeGraph

    其中,YOUR_REGION 是部署 Cloud Functions 函数的区域,YOUR_PROJECT_ID 是您的 Cloud 项目 ID。

    当您的函数完成部署后,这两个值会显示在您的终端。

  5. 点击保存

  6. 转到基本信息

  7. 点击将应用安装到工作区 (Install your app to your workspace),然后按照屏幕上的说明为工作区启用应用。

    您的 Slack Slash 命令应该很快就能使用。

了解代码

导入依赖项

应用必须导入多个依赖项才能与 Google Cloud Platform 服务进行通信:

Node.js

const google = require('@googleapis/kgsearch');
const {verifyRequestSignature} = require('@slack/events-api');

// Get a reference to the Knowledge Graph Search component
const kgsearch = google.kgsearch('v1');

Python

import os

from flask import jsonify
import googleapiclient.discovery
from slack.signature import SignatureVerifier

kgsearch = googleapiclient.discovery.build(
    'kgsearch',
    'v1',
    developerKey=os.environ['KG_API_KEY'],
    cache_discovery=False)

Go


package slack

import (
	"context"
	"log"
	"os"

	"google.golang.org/api/kgsearch/v1"
	"google.golang.org/api/option"
)

var (
	entitiesService *kgsearch.EntitiesService
	kgKey           string
	slackSecret     string
)

func setup(ctx context.Context) {
	kgKey = os.Getenv("KG_API_KEY")
	slackSecret = os.Getenv("SLACK_SECRET")

	if entitiesService == nil {
		kgService, err := kgsearch.NewService(ctx, option.WithAPIKey(kgKey))
		if err != nil {
			log.Fatalf("kgsearch.NewService: %v", err)
		}
		entitiesService = kgsearch.NewEntitiesService(kgService)
	}
}

Java

private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(SlackSlashCommand.class.getName());
private static final String API_KEY = getenv("KG_API_KEY");
private static final String SLACK_SECRET = getenv("SLACK_SECRET");
private static final Gson gson = new Gson();

private final String apiKey;
private final Kgsearch kgClient;
private final SlackSignature.Verifier verifier;

public SlackSlashCommand() throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
  this(new SlackSignature.Verifier(new SlackSignature.Generator(SLACK_SECRET)));
}

SlackSlashCommand(SlackSignature.Verifier verifier) throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
  this(verifier, API_KEY);
}

SlackSlashCommand(SlackSignature.Verifier verifier, String apiKey)
    throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
  this.verifier = verifier;
  this.apiKey = apiKey;
  this.kgClient = new Kgsearch.Builder(
      GoogleNetHttpTransport.newTrustedTransport(), new JacksonFactory(), null).build();
}

// Avoid ungraceful deployment failures due to unset environment variables.
// If you get this warning you should redeploy with the variable set.
private static String getenv(String name) {
  String value = System.getenv(name);
  if (value == null) {
    logger.warning("Environment variable " + name + " was not set");
    value = "MISSING";
  }
  return value;
}

C#

using Google.Apis.Kgsearch.v1;
using Google.Apis.Services;
using Google.Cloud.Functions.Hosting;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;
using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
using System;

// Specify a startup class to use for dependency injection.
// This can also be specified on the function type.
[assembly: FunctionsStartup(typeof(SlackKnowledgeGraphSearch.Startup))]

namespace SlackKnowledgeGraphSearch
{
    public class Startup : FunctionsStartup
    {
        private static readonly TimeSpan SlackTimestampTolerance = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(5);

        public override void ConfigureServices(WebHostBuilderContext context, IServiceCollection services)
        {
            // These can come from an environment variable or a configuration file.
            string kgApiKey = context.Configuration["KG_API_KEY"];
            string slackSigningSecret = context.Configuration["SLACK_SECRET"];

            services.AddSingleton(new KgsearchService(new BaseClientService.Initializer
            {
                ApiKey = kgApiKey
            }));
            services.AddSingleton(new SlackRequestVerifier(slackSigningSecret, SlackTimestampTolerance));
            base.ConfigureServices(context, services);
        }
    }
}

Ruby

require "functions_framework"
require "slack-ruby-client"
require "google/apis/kgsearch_v1"

# This block is executed during cold start, before the function begins
# handling requests. This is the recommended way to create shared resources
# and objects.
FunctionsFramework.on_startup do
  # Create a global handler object, configured with the environment-provided
  # API key and signing secret.
  kg_search = KGSearch.new kg_api_key:     ENV["KG_API_KEY"],
                           signing_secret: ENV["SLACK_SECRET"]
  set_global :kg_search, kg_search
end

# The KGSearch class implements the logic of validating and responding
# to requests. More methods of this class are shown below.
class KGSearch
  def initialize kg_api_key:, signing_secret:
    # Create the global client for the Knowledge Graph Search Service,
    # configuring it with your API key.
    @client = Google::Apis::KgsearchV1::KgsearchService.new
    @client.key = kg_api_key

    # Save signing secret for use by the signature validation method.
    @signing_secret = signing_secret
  end

PHP

use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Response;

接收网络钩子

以下函数会在您(或 Slack)向其端点发出 HTTP POST 请求时执行:

Node.js

/**
 * Receive a Slash Command request from Slack.
 *
 * Trigger this function by creating a Slack slash command with this URL:
 * https://[YOUR_REGION]-[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloudfunctions.net/kgSearch
 *
 * @param {object} req Cloud Function request object.
 * @param {object} req.body The request payload.
 * @param {string} req.rawBody Raw request payload used to validate Slack's message signature.
 * @param {string} req.body.text The user's search query.
 * @param {object} res Cloud Function response object.
 */
exports.kgSearch = async (req, res) => {
  try {
    if (req.method !== 'POST') {
      const error = new Error('Only POST requests are accepted');
      error.code = 405;
      throw error;
    }

    // Verify that this request came from Slack
    verifyWebhook(req);

    // Make the request to the Knowledge Graph Search API
    const response = await makeSearchRequest(req.body.text);

    // Send the formatted message back to Slack
    res.json(response);

    return Promise.resolve();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error(err);
    res.status(err.code || 500).send(err);
    return Promise.reject(err);
  }
};

Python

def kg_search(request):
    if request.method != 'POST':
        return 'Only POST requests are accepted', 405

    verify_signature(request)
    kg_search_response = make_search_request(request.form['text'])
    return jsonify(kg_search_response)

Go


// Package slack is a Cloud Function which recieves a query from
// a Slack command and responds with the KG API result.
package slack

import (
	"bytes"
	"crypto/hmac"
	"crypto/sha256"
	"encoding/hex"
	"encoding/json"
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"strconv"
	"strings"
	"time"
)

type oldTimeStampError struct {
	s string
}

func (e *oldTimeStampError) Error() string {
	return e.s
}

const (
	version                     = "v0"
	slackRequestTimestampHeader = "X-Slack-Request-Timestamp"
	slackSignatureHeader        = "X-Slack-Signature"
)

type attachment struct {
	Color     string `json:"color"`
	Title     string `json:"title"`
	TitleLink string `json:"title_link"`
	Text      string `json:"text"`
	ImageURL  string `json:"image_url"`
}

// Message is the a Slack message event.
// see https://api.slack.com/docs/message-formatting
type Message struct {
	ResponseType string       `json:"response_type"`
	Text         string       `json:"text"`
	Attachments  []attachment `json:"attachments"`
}

// KGSearch uses the Knowledge Graph API to search for a query provided
// by a Slack command.
func KGSearch(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	setup(r.Context())

	bodyBytes, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r.Body)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Couldn't read request body: %v", err)
	}
	r.Body = ioutil.NopCloser(bytes.NewBuffer(bodyBytes))

	if r.Method != "POST" {
		http.Error(w, "Only POST requests are accepted", 405)
	}
	if err := r.ParseForm(); err != nil {
		http.Error(w, "Couldn't parse form", 400)
		log.Fatalf("ParseForm: %v", err)
	}

	// Reset r.Body as ParseForm depletes it by reading the io.ReadCloser.
	r.Body = ioutil.NopCloser(bytes.NewBuffer(bodyBytes))
	result, err := verifyWebHook(r, slackSecret)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("verifyWebhook: %v", err)
	}
	if !result {
		log.Fatalf("signatures did not match.")
	}

	if len(r.Form["text"]) == 0 {
		log.Fatalf("empty text in form")
	}
	kgSearchResponse, err := makeSearchRequest(r.Form["text"][0])
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("makeSearchRequest: %v", err)
	}
	w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "application/json")
	if err = json.NewEncoder(w).Encode(kgSearchResponse); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("json.Marshal: %v", err)
	}
}

Java

/**
 * Receive a Slash Command request from Slack.
 *
 * @param request Cloud Function request object.
 * @param response Cloud Function response object.
 * @throws IOException if Knowledge Graph request fails
 */
@Override
public void service(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response) throws IOException {

  // Validate request
  if (!"POST".equals(request.getMethod())) {
    response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_BAD_METHOD);
    return;
  }

  // reader can only be read once per request, so we preserve its contents
  String bodyString = request.getReader().lines().collect(Collectors.joining());

  // Slack sends requests as URL-encoded strings
  //   Java 11 doesn't have a standard library
  //   function for this, so do it manually
  Map<String, String> body = new HashMap<>();
  for (String keyValuePair : bodyString.split("&")) {
    String[] keyAndValue = keyValuePair.split("=");
    if (keyAndValue.length == 2) {
      String key = keyAndValue[0];
      String value = keyAndValue[1];

      body.put(key, value);
    }
  }

  if (body == null || !body.containsKey("text")) {
    response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_BAD_REQUEST);
    return;
  }

  if (!isValidSlackWebhook(request, bodyString)) {
    response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED);
    return;
  }

  String query = body.get("text");

  // Call knowledge graph API
  JsonObject kgResponse = searchKnowledgeGraph(query);

  // Format response to Slack
  // See https://api.slack.com/docs/message-formatting
  BufferedWriter writer = response.getWriter();

  writer.write(formatSlackMessage(kgResponse, query));

  response.setContentType("application/json");
}

C#

private readonly ILogger _logger;
private readonly KgsearchService _kgService;
private readonly SlackRequestVerifier _verifier;

public Function(ILogger<Function> logger, KgsearchService kgService, SlackRequestVerifier verifier) =>
    (_logger, _kgService, _verifier) = (logger, kgService, verifier);

public async Task HandleAsync(HttpContext context)
{
    var request = context.Request;
    var response = context.Response;

    // Validate request
    if (request.Method != "POST")
    {
        _logger.LogWarning("Unexpected request method '{method}'", request.Method);
        response.StatusCode = (int) HttpStatusCode.MethodNotAllowed;
        return;
    }

    if (!request.HasFormContentType)
    {
        _logger.LogWarning("Unexpected content type '{contentType}'", request.ContentType);
        response.StatusCode = (int) HttpStatusCode.BadRequest;
        return;
    }

    // We need to read the request body twice: once to validate the signature,
    // and once to read the form content. We copy it into a memory stream,
    // so that we can rewind it after reading.
    var bodyCopy = new MemoryStream();
    await request.Body.CopyToAsync(bodyCopy);
    request.Body = bodyCopy;
    bodyCopy.Position = 0;

    if (!_verifier.VerifyRequest(request, bodyCopy.ToArray()))
    {
        _logger.LogWarning("Slack request verification failed");
        response.StatusCode = (int) HttpStatusCode.Unauthorized;
        return;
    }

    var form = await request.ReadFormAsync();
    if (!form.TryGetValue("text", out var query))
    {
        _logger.LogWarning("Slack request form did not contain a text element");
        response.StatusCode = (int) HttpStatusCode.BadRequest;
        return;
    }

    var kgResponse = await SearchKnowledgeGraphAsync(query);
    string formattedResponse = FormatSlackMessage(kgResponse, query);
    response.ContentType = "application/json";
    await response.WriteAsync(formattedResponse);
}

Ruby

# Handler for the function endpoint.
FunctionsFramework.http "kg_search" do |request|
  # Return early if the request is not a POST.
  unless request.post?
    return [405, {}, ["Only POST requests are accepted."]]
  end

  # Access the global Knowledge Graph Search client
  kg_search = global :kg_search

  # Verify the request signature and return early if it failed.
  unless kg_search.signature_valid? request
    return [401, {}, ["Signature validation failed."]]
  end

  # Query the Knowledge Graph and format a Slack message with the response.
  # This method returns a nested hash, which the Functions Framework will
  # convert to JSON automatically.
  kg_search.make_search_request request.params["text"]
end

PHP

/**
 * Receive a Slash Command request from Slack.
 */
function receiveRequest(ServerRequestInterface $request): ResponseInterface
{
    // Validate request
    if ($request->getMethod() !== 'POST') {
        // [] = empty headers
        return new Response(405);
    }

    // Parse incoming URL-encoded requests from Slack
    // (Slack requests use the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format)
    $bodyStr = $request->getBody();
    parse_str($bodyStr, $bodyParams);

    if (!isset($bodyParams['text'])) {
        // [] = empty headers
        return new Response(400);
    }

    if (!isValidSlackWebhook($request, $bodyStr)) {
        // [] = empty headers
        return new Response(403);
    }

    $query = $bodyParams['text'];

    // Call knowledge graph API
    $kgResponse = searchKnowledgeGraph($query);

    // Format response to Slack
    // See https://api.slack.com/docs/message-formatting
    $formatted_message = formatSlackMessage($kgResponse, $query);

    return new Response(
        200,
        ['Content-Type' => 'application/json'],
        $formatted_message
    );
}

以下函数通过验证 Slack 提供的 X-Slack-Signature 标头对传入的请求进行身份验证:

Node.js

/**
 * Verify that the webhook request came from Slack.
 *
 * @param {object} req Cloud Function request object.
 * @param {string} req.headers Headers Slack SDK uses to authenticate request.
 * @param {string} req.rawBody Raw body of webhook request to check signature against.
 */
const verifyWebhook = req => {
  const signature = {
    signingSecret: process.env.SLACK_SECRET,
    requestSignature: req.headers['x-slack-signature'],
    requestTimestamp: req.headers['x-slack-request-timestamp'],
    body: req.rawBody,
  };

  // This method throws an exception if an incoming request is invalid.
  verifyRequestSignature(signature);
};

Python

def verify_signature(request):
    request.get_data()  # Decodes received requests into request.data

    verifier = SignatureVerifier(os.environ['SLACK_SECRET'])

    if not verifier.is_valid_request(request.data, request.headers):
        raise ValueError('Invalid request/credentials.')

Go


// verifyWebHook verifies the request signature.
// See https://api.slack.com/docs/verifying-requests-from-slack.
func verifyWebHook(r *http.Request, slackSigningSecret string) (bool, error) {
	timeStamp := r.Header.Get(slackRequestTimestampHeader)
	slackSignature := r.Header.Get(slackSignatureHeader)

	t, err := strconv.ParseInt(timeStamp, 10, 64)
	if err != nil {
		return false, fmt.Errorf("strconv.ParseInt(%s): %v", timeStamp, err)
	}

	if ageOk, age := checkTimestamp(t); !ageOk {
		return false, &oldTimeStampError{fmt.Sprintf("checkTimestamp(%v): %v %v", t, ageOk, age)}
		// return false, fmt.Errorf("checkTimestamp(%v): %v %v", t, ageOk, age)
	}

	if timeStamp == "" || slackSignature == "" {
		return false, fmt.Errorf("either timeStamp or signature headers were blank")
	}

	body, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r.Body)
	if err != nil {
		return false, fmt.Errorf("ioutil.ReadAll(%v): %v", r.Body, err)
	}

	// Reset the body so other calls won't fail.
	r.Body = ioutil.NopCloser(bytes.NewBuffer(body))

	baseString := fmt.Sprintf("%s:%s:%s", version, timeStamp, body)

	signature := getSignature([]byte(baseString), []byte(slackSigningSecret))

	trimmed := strings.TrimPrefix(slackSignature, fmt.Sprintf("%s=", version))
	signatureInHeader, err := hex.DecodeString(trimmed)

	if err != nil {
		return false, fmt.Errorf("hex.DecodeString(%v): %v", trimmed, err)
	}

	return hmac.Equal(signature, signatureInHeader), nil
}

func getSignature(base []byte, secret []byte) []byte {
	h := hmac.New(sha256.New, secret)
	h.Write(base)

	return h.Sum(nil)
}

// Arbitrarily trusting requests time stamped less than 5 minutes ago.
func checkTimestamp(timeStamp int64) (bool, time.Duration) {
	t := time.Since(time.Unix(timeStamp, 0))

	return t.Minutes() <= 5, t
}

Java

/**
 * Verify that the webhook request came from Slack.
 *
 * @param request Cloud Function request object in {@link HttpRequest} format.
 * @param requestBody Raw body of webhook request to check signature against.
 * @return true if the provided request came from Slack, false otherwise
 */
boolean isValidSlackWebhook(HttpRequest request, String requestBody) {
  // Check for headers
  Optional<String> maybeTimestamp = request.getFirstHeader("X-Slack-Request-Timestamp");
  Optional<String> maybeSignature = request.getFirstHeader("X-Slack-Signature");
  if (!maybeTimestamp.isPresent() || !maybeSignature.isPresent()) {
    return false;
  }

  Long nowInMs = ZonedDateTime.now().toInstant().toEpochMilli();

  return verifier.isValid(maybeTimestamp.get(), requestBody, maybeSignature.get(), nowInMs);
}

C#

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;
using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;

namespace SlackKnowledgeGraphSearch
{
    public class SlackRequestVerifier
    {
        private const string Version = "v0";
        private const string SignaturePrefix = Version + "=";
        private static readonly byte[] VersionBytes = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(Version);
        private static readonly byte[] ColonBytes = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(":");

        private readonly byte[] _signingKeyBytes;
        private readonly TimeSpan _timestampTolerance;

        public SlackRequestVerifier(string signingKey, TimeSpan timestampTolerance) =>
            (_signingKeyBytes, _timestampTolerance) =
            (Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(signingKey), timestampTolerance);

        /// <summary>
        /// Verifies a request signature with the given content, which would
        /// normally have been read from the request beforehand.
        /// </summary>
        public bool VerifyRequest(HttpRequest request, byte[] content)
        {
            if (!request.Headers.TryGetValue("X-Slack-Request-Timestamp", out var timestampHeader) ||
                !request.Headers.TryGetValue("X-Slack-Signature", out var signatureHeader))
            {
                return false;
            }

            // Validate that the request isn't too old.
            if (!int.TryParse(timestampHeader, out var unixSeconds))
            {
                return false;
            }
            var timestamp = DateTimeOffset.FromUnixTimeSeconds(unixSeconds);
            if (timestamp + _timestampTolerance < DateTimeOffset.UtcNow)
            {
                return false;
            }

            // Hash the version:timestamp:content
            using var hmac = new HMACSHA256(_signingKeyBytes);
            AddToHash(VersionBytes);
            AddToHash(ColonBytes);
            AddToHash(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(timestampHeader));
            AddToHash(ColonBytes);
            byte[] hash = hmac.ComputeHash(content);
            void AddToHash(byte[] bytes) => hmac.TransformBlock(bytes, 0, bytes.Length, null, 0);

            // Compare the resulting signature with the signature in the request.
            return CreateSignature(hash) == (string) signatureHeader;
        }

        private const string Hex = "0123456789abcdef";
        private static string CreateSignature(byte[] hash)
        {
            var builder = new StringBuilder(SignaturePrefix, SignaturePrefix.Length + hash.Length * 2);
            foreach (var b in hash)
            {
                builder.Append(Hex[b >> 4]);
                builder.Append(Hex[b & 0xf]);
            }
            return builder.ToString();
        }
    }
}

Ruby

# slack-ruby-client expects a Rails-style request object with a "headers"
# method, but the Functions Framework provides only a Rack request.
# To avoid bringing in Rails as a dependency, we'll create a simple class
# that implements the "headers" method and delegates everything else back to
# the Rack request object.
require "delegate"
class RequestWithHeaders < SimpleDelegator
  def headers
    env.each_with_object({}) do |(key, val), result|
      if /^HTTP_(\w+)$/ =~ key
        header = Regexp.last_match(1).split("_").map(&:capitalize).join("-")
        result[header] = val
      end
    end
  end
end

# This is a method of the KGSearch class.
# It determines whether the given request's signature is valid.
def signature_valid? request
  # Wrap the request with our class that provides the "headers" method.
  request = RequestWithHeaders.new request

  # Validate the request signature.
  slack_request = Slack::Events::Request.new request,
                                             signing_secret: @signing_secret
  slack_request.valid?
end

PHP

/**
 * Verify that the webhook request came from Slack.
 */
function isValidSlackWebhook(ServerRequestInterface $request): bool
{
    $SLACK_SECRET = getenv('SLACK_SECRET');

    // Check for headers
    $timestamp = $request->getHeaderLine('X-Slack-Request-Timestamp');
    $signature = $request->getHeaderLine('X-Slack-Signature');
    if (!$timestamp || !$signature) {
        return false;
    }

    // Compute signature
    $plaintext = sprintf('v0:%s:%s', $timestamp, $request->getBody());
    $hash = sprintf('v0=%s', hash_hmac('sha256', $plaintext, $SLACK_SECRET));

    return $hash === $signature;
}

查询 Knowledge Graph API

以下函数会向 Knowledge Graph API 发送一个包含用户搜索查询的请求:

Node.js

/**
 * Send the user's search query to the Knowledge Graph API.
 *
 * @param {string} query The user's search query.
 */
const makeSearchRequest = query => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    kgsearch.entities.search(
      {
        auth: process.env.KG_API_KEY,
        query: query,
        limit: 1,
      },
      (err, response) => {
        console.log(err);
        if (err) {
          reject(err);
          return;
        }

        // Return a formatted message
        resolve(formatSlackMessage(query, response));
      }
    );
  });
};

Python

def make_search_request(query):
    req = kgsearch.entities().search(query=query, limit=1)
    res = req.execute()
    return format_slack_message(query, res)

Go

func makeSearchRequest(query string) (*Message, error) {
	res, err := entitiesService.Search().Query(query).Limit(1).Do()
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("Do: %v", err)
	}
	return formatSlackMessage(query, res)
}

Java

/**
 * Send the user's search query to the Knowledge Graph API.
 *
 * @param query The user's search query.
 * @return The Knowledge graph API results as a {@link JsonObject}.
 * @throws IOException if Knowledge Graph request fails
 */
JsonObject searchKnowledgeGraph(String query) throws IOException {
  Kgsearch.Entities.Search kgRequest = kgClient.entities().search();
  kgRequest.setQuery(query);
  kgRequest.setKey(apiKey);

  return gson.fromJson(kgRequest.execute().toString(), JsonObject.class);
}

C#

private async Task<SearchResponse> SearchKnowledgeGraphAsync(string query)
{
    _logger.LogInformation("Performing Knowledge Graph search for '{query}'", query);
    var request = _kgService.Entities.Search();
    request.Limit = 1;
    request.Query = query;
    return await request.ExecuteAsync();
}

Ruby

# This is a method of the KGSearch class.
# It makes an API call to the Knowledge Graph Search Service, and formats
# a Slack message as a nested Hash object.
def make_search_request query
  response = @client.search_entities query: query, limit: 1
  format_slack_message query, response
end

PHP

/**
 * Send the user's search query to the Knowledge Graph API.
 */
function searchKnowledgeGraph(string $query): Google_Service_Kgsearch_SearchResponse
{
    $API_KEY = getenv('KG_API_KEY');

    $apiClient = new Google\Client();
    $apiClient->setDeveloperKey($API_KEY);

    $service = new Google_Service_Kgsearch($apiClient);

    $params = ['query' => $query];

    $kgResults = $service->entities->search($params);

    return $kgResults;
}

设置 Slack 消息的格式

最后,以下函数会将来自 Knowledge Graph 的结果转换为将向用户显示的富格式 Slack 消息:

Node.js

/**
 * Format the Knowledge Graph API response into a richly formatted Slack message.
 *
 * @param {string} query The user's search query.
 * @param {object} response The response from the Knowledge Graph API.
 * @returns {object} The formatted message.
 */
const formatSlackMessage = (query, response) => {
  let entity;

  // Extract the first entity from the result list, if any
  if (
    response &&
    response.data &&
    response.data.itemListElement &&
    response.data.itemListElement.length > 0
  ) {
    entity = response.data.itemListElement[0].result;
  }

  // Prepare a rich Slack message
  // See https://api.slack.com/docs/message-formatting
  const slackMessage = {
    response_type: 'in_channel',
    text: `Query: ${query}`,
    attachments: [],
  };

  if (entity) {
    const attachment = {
      color: '#3367d6',
    };
    if (entity.name) {
      attachment.title = entity.name;
      if (entity.description) {
        attachment.title = `${attachment.title}: ${entity.description}`;
      }
    }
    if (entity.detailedDescription) {
      if (entity.detailedDescription.url) {
        attachment.title_link = entity.detailedDescription.url;
      }
      if (entity.detailedDescription.articleBody) {
        attachment.text = entity.detailedDescription.articleBody;
      }
    }
    if (entity.image && entity.image.contentUrl) {
      attachment.image_url = entity.image.contentUrl;
    }
    slackMessage.attachments.push(attachment);
  } else {
    slackMessage.attachments.push({
      text: 'No results match your query...',
    });
  }

  return slackMessage;
};

Python

def format_slack_message(query, response):
    entity = None
    if response and response.get('itemListElement') is not None and \
       len(response['itemListElement']) > 0:
        entity = response['itemListElement'][0]['result']

    message = {
        'response_type': 'in_channel',
        'text': 'Query: {}'.format(query),
        'attachments': []
    }

    attachment = {}
    if entity:
        name = entity.get('name', '')
        description = entity.get('description', '')
        detailed_desc = entity.get('detailedDescription', {})
        url = detailed_desc.get('url')
        article = detailed_desc.get('articleBody')
        image_url = entity.get('image', {}).get('contentUrl')

        attachment['color'] = '#3367d6'
        if name and description:
            attachment['title'] = '{}: {}'.format(entity["name"],
                                                  entity["description"])
        elif name:
            attachment['title'] = name
        if url:
            attachment['title_link'] = url
        if article:
            attachment['text'] = article
        if image_url:
            attachment['image_url'] = image_url
    else:
        attachment['text'] = 'No results match your query.'
    message['attachments'].append(attachment)

    return message

Go


package slack

import (
	"fmt"

	"google.golang.org/api/kgsearch/v1"
)

func formatSlackMessage(query string, response *kgsearch.SearchResponse) (*Message, error) {
	if response == nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("empty response")
	}

	if response.ItemListElement == nil || len(response.ItemListElement) == 0 {
		message := &Message{
			ResponseType: "in_channel",
			Text:         fmt.Sprintf("Query: %s", query),
			Attachments: []attachment{
				{
					Color: "#d6334b",
					Text:  "No results match your query.",
				},
			},
		}
		return message, nil
	}

	entity, ok := response.ItemListElement[0].(map[string]interface{})
	if !ok {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("could not parse response entity")
	}
	result, ok := entity["result"].(map[string]interface{})
	if !ok {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("error formatting response result")
	}

	attach := attachment{Color: "#3367d6"}
	if name, ok := result["name"].(string); ok {
		if description, ok := result["description"].(string); ok {
			attach.Title = fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", name, description)
		} else {
			attach.Title = name
		}
	}
	if detailedDesc, ok := result["detailedDescription"].(map[string]interface{}); ok {
		if url, ok := detailedDesc["url"].(string); ok {
			attach.TitleLink = url
		}
		if article, ok := detailedDesc["articleBody"].(string); ok {
			attach.Text = article
		}
	}
	if image, ok := result["image"].(map[string]interface{}); ok {
		if imageURL, ok := image["contentUrl"].(string); ok {
			attach.ImageURL = imageURL
		}
	}

	message := &Message{
		ResponseType: "in_channel",
		Text:         fmt.Sprintf("Query: %s", query),
		Attachments:  []attachment{attach},
	}
	return message, nil
}

Java

/**
 * Helper method to copy properties between {@link JsonObject}s
 */
void addPropertyIfPresent(
    JsonObject target, String targetName, JsonObject source, String sourceName) {
  if (source.has(sourceName)) {
    target.addProperty(targetName, source.get(sourceName).getAsString());
  }
}

/**
 * Format the Knowledge Graph API response into a richly formatted Slack message.
 *
 * @param kgResponse The response from the Knowledge Graph API as a {@link JsonObject}.
 * @param query The user's search query.
 * @return The formatted Slack message as a JSON string.
 */
String formatSlackMessage(JsonObject kgResponse, String query) {
  JsonObject attachmentJson = new JsonObject();

  JsonObject responseJson = new JsonObject();
  responseJson.addProperty("response_type", "in_channel");
  responseJson.addProperty("text", String.format("Query: %s", query));

  JsonArray entityList = kgResponse.getAsJsonArray("itemListElement");

  // Extract the first entity from the result list, if any
  if (entityList.size() == 0) {
    attachmentJson.addProperty("text", "No results match your query...");
    responseJson.add("attachments", attachmentJson);

    return gson.toJson(responseJson);
  }

  JsonObject entity = entityList.get(0).getAsJsonObject().getAsJsonObject("result");

  // Construct Knowledge Graph response attachment
  String title = entity.get("name").getAsString();
  if (entity.has("description")) {
    title = String.format("%s: %s", title, entity.get("description").getAsString());
  }
  attachmentJson.addProperty("title", title);

  if (entity.has("detailedDescription")) {
    JsonObject detailedDescJson = entity.getAsJsonObject("detailedDescription");
    addPropertyIfPresent(attachmentJson, "title_link", detailedDescJson, "url");
    addPropertyIfPresent(attachmentJson, "text", detailedDescJson, "articleBody");
  }

  if (entity.has("image")) {
    JsonObject imageJson = entity.getAsJsonObject("image");
    addPropertyIfPresent(attachmentJson, "image_url", imageJson, "contentUrl");
  }

  JsonArray attachmentList = new JsonArray();
  attachmentList.add(attachmentJson);

  responseJson.add("attachments", attachmentList);

  return gson.toJson(responseJson);
}

C#

private string FormatSlackMessage(SearchResponse kgResponse, string query)
{
    JObject attachment = new JObject();
    JObject response = new JObject();

    response["response_type"] = "in_channel";
    response["text"] = $"Query: {query}";

    var element = kgResponse.ItemListElement?.FirstOrDefault() as JObject;
    if (element is object && element.TryGetValue("result", out var entityToken) &&
        entityToken is JObject entity)
    {
        string title = (string) entity["name"];
        if (entity.TryGetValue("description", out var description))
        {
            title = $"{title}: {description}";
        }
        attachment["title"] = title;
        if (entity.TryGetValue("detailedDescription", out var detailedDescriptionToken) &&
            detailedDescriptionToken is JObject detailedDescription)
        {
            AddPropertyIfPresent(detailedDescription, "url", "title_link");
            AddPropertyIfPresent(detailedDescription, "articleBody", "text");
        }
        if (entity.TryGetValue("image", out var imageToken) &&
            imageToken is JObject image)
        {
            AddPropertyIfPresent(image, "contentUrl", "image_url");
        }
    }
    else
    {
        attachment["text"] = "No results match your query...";
    }
    response["attachments"] = new JArray { attachment };
    return response.ToString();

    void AddPropertyIfPresent(JObject parent, string sourceProperty, string targetProperty)
    {
        if (parent.TryGetValue(sourceProperty, out var propertyValue))
        {
            attachment[targetProperty] = propertyValue;
        }
    }
}

Ruby

# This is a method of the KGSearch class.
# It takes a raw SearchResponse from the Knowledge Graph Search Service,
# and formats a Slack message.
def format_slack_message query, response
  result = response.item_list_element&.first&.fetch "result", nil
  attachment =
    if result
      name = result.fetch "name", nil
      description = result.fetch "description", nil
      details = result.fetch "detailedDescription", {}
      { "title"      => name && description ? "#{name}: #{description}" : name,
        "title_link" => details.fetch("url", nil),
        "text"       => details.fetch("articleBody", nil),
        "image_url"  => result.fetch("image", nil)&.fetch("contentUrl", nil) }
    else
      { "text" => "No results match your query." }
    end
  { "response_type" => "in_channel",
    "text"          => "Query: #{query}",
    "attachments"   => [attachment.compact] }
end

PHP

/**
 * Format the Knowledge Graph API response into a richly formatted Slack message.
 */
function formatSlackMessage(Google_Service_Kgsearch_SearchResponse $kgResponse, string $query): string
{
    $responseJson = [
        'response_type' => 'in_channel',
        'text' => 'Query: ' . $query
    ];

    $entityList = $kgResponse['itemListElement'];

    // Extract the first entity from the result list, if any
    if (empty($entityList)) {
        $attachmentJson = ['text' => 'No results match your query...'];
        $responseJson['attachments'] = $attachmentJson;

        return json_encode($responseJson);
    }

    $entity = $entityList[0]['result'];

    // Construct Knowledge Graph response attachment
    $title = $entity['name'];
    if (isset($entity['description'])) {
        $title = $title . ' ' . $entity['description'];
    }
    $attachmentJson = ['title' => $title];

    if (isset($entity['detailedDescription'])) {
        $detailedDescJson = $entity['detailedDescription'];
        $attachmentJson = array_merge([
            'title_link' => $detailedDescJson[ 'url'],
            'text' => $detailedDescJson['articleBody'],
        ], $attachmentJson);
    }

    if (isset($entity['image'])) {
        $imageJson = $entity['image'];
        $attachmentJson['image_url'] = $imageJson['contentUrl'];
    }

    $responseJson['attachments'] = array($attachmentJson);

    return json_encode($responseJson);
}

Slack API 超时

Slack API 预期您的函数在收到 webhook 请求后的 3 秒内响应

本教程中的命令通常不需要 3 秒便能响应。对于运行时间较长的命令,我们建议配置一个函数来推送请求(包括其 response_url),以将其发布到充当任务队列的 Pub/Sub 主题。

然后,您可以再创建一个由 Pub/Sub 触发的函数来处理这些任务并将结果发送回 Slack 的 response_url

使用 Slash 命令

  1. 在 Slack 频道中输入命令:

    /kg giraffe
  2. 查看日志以确保执行完成:

    gcloud functions logs read --limit 100
    

清除数据

为避免因本教程中使用的资源导致您的 Google Cloud 帐号产生费用,请删除包含这些资源的项目,或者保留项目但删除各个资源。

删除项目

为了避免产生费用,最简单的方法是删除您为本教程创建的项目。

要删除项目,请执行以下操作:

  1. 在 Cloud Console 中,转到管理资源页面。

    转到“管理资源”

  2. 在项目列表中,选择要删除的项目,然后点击删除
  3. 在对话框中输入项目 ID,然后点击关闭以删除项目。

删除 Cloud Functions 函数

如需删除您在本教程中部署的 Cloud Functions 函数,请运行以下命令:

Node.js

gcloud functions delete kgSearch 

Python

gcloud functions delete kg_search 

Go

gcloud functions delete KGSearch 

Java

gcloud functions delete java-slack-function 

C#

gcloud functions delete csharp-slack-function 

Ruby

gcloud functions delete kg_search 

PHP

gcloud functions delete searchKnowledgeGraph 

您也可以通过 Google Cloud Console 删除 Cloud Functions 函数。