ImageMagick Tutorial

This tutorial demonstrates using Cloud Functions, the Google Cloud Vision API, and ImageMagick to detect and blur offensive images that get uploaded to a Cloud Storage bucket.

Objectives

  • Deploy a storage-triggered Background Cloud Function.
  • Use the Cloud Vision API to detect violent or adult content.
  • Use ImageMagick to blur offensive images.
  • Test the function by uploading an image of a flesh-eating zombie.

Costs

This tutorial uses billable components of Cloud Platform, including:

  • Google Cloud Functions
  • Google Cloud Storage
  • Google Cloud Vision API

Use the Pricing Calculator to generate a cost estimate based on your projected usage.

New Cloud Platform users might be eligible for a free trial.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Account.

    If you don't already have one, sign up for a new account.

  2. In the Cloud Console, on the project selector page, select or create a Cloud project.

    Go to the project selector page

  3. Projeniz için faturalandırmanın etkinleştirildiğinden emin olun.

    Faturalandırmayı etkinleştirmeyi öğren

  4. Enable the Cloud Functions, Cloud Build, Cloud Storage, and Cloud Vision APIs.

    Enable the APIs

  5. Install and initialize the Cloud SDK.
  6. Update gcloud components:
    gcloud components update
  7. Prepare your development environment.

Visualizing the flow of data

The flow of data in the ImageMagick tutorial application involves several steps:

  1. An image is uploaded to a Cloud Storage bucket.
  2. The Cloud Function analyzes the image using the Cloud Vision API.
  3. If violent or adult content is detected, the Cloud Function uses ImageMagick to blur the image.
  4. The blurred image is uploaded to another Cloud Storage bucket for use.

Preparing the application

  1. Create a Cloud Storage bucket for uploading images, where YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME is a globally unique bucket name:

    gsutil mb gs://YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME
    
  2. Create a Cloud Storage bucket to receive blurred images, where YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME is a globally unique bucket name:

    gsutil mb gs://YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME
    
  3. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:

    Node.js

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/nodejs-docs-samples.git

    Alternatively, you can download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

    Python

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/python-docs-samples.git

    Alternatively, you can download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

    Go

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples.git

    Alternatively, you can download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

    Java

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/java-docs-samples.git

    Alternatively, you can download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  4. Change to the directory that contains the Cloud Functions sample code:

    Node.js

    cd nodejs-docs-samples/functions/imagemagick/

    Python

    cd python-docs-samples/functions/imagemagick/

    Go

    cd golang-samples/functions/imagemagick/

    Java

    cd java-docs-samples/functions/imagemagick/

Understanding the code

Importing dependencies

The application must import several dependencies in order to interact with Google Cloud Platform services, ImageMagick, and the file system:

Node.js

const gm = require('gm').subClass({imageMagick: true});
const fs = require('fs');
const {promisify} = require('util');
const path = require('path');
const vision = require('@google-cloud/vision');

const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');
const storage = new Storage();
const client = new vision.ImageAnnotatorClient();

const {BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME} = process.env;

Python

import os
import tempfile

from google.cloud import storage, vision
from wand.image import Image

storage_client = storage.Client()
vision_client = vision.ImageAnnotatorClient()

Go


// Package imagemagick contains an example of using ImageMagick to process a
// file uploaded to Cloud Storage.
package imagemagick

import (
	"context"
	"errors"
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"os"
	"os/exec"

	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	vision "cloud.google.com/go/vision/apiv1"
	visionpb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/vision/v1"
)

// Global API clients used across function invocations.
var (
	storageClient *storage.Client
	visionClient  *vision.ImageAnnotatorClient
)

func init() {
	// Declare a separate err variable to avoid shadowing the client variables.
	var err error

	storageClient, err = storage.NewClient(context.Background())
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}

	visionClient, err = vision.NewImageAnnotatorClient(context.Background())
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("vision.NewAnnotatorClient: %v", err)
	}
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.functions.BackgroundFunction;
import com.google.cloud.functions.Context;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Blob;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobId;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobInfo;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.AnnotateImageRequest;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.AnnotateImageResponse;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.BatchAnnotateImagesResponse;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.Feature;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.Feature.Type;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.Image;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.ImageAnnotatorClient;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.ImageSource;
import com.google.cloud.vision.v1.SafeSearchAnnotation;
import functions.eventpojos.GcsEvent;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.logging.Level;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class ImageMagick implements BackgroundFunction<GcsEvent> {

  private static Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();
  private static final String BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME = System.getenv("BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME");
  private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(ImageMagick.class.getName());
}

Analyzing images

The following function is invoked when an image is uploaded to the Cloud Storage bucket you created for storing images. The function uses the Cloud Vision API to detect violent or adult content in uploaded images.

Node.js

// Blurs uploaded images that are flagged as Adult or Violence.
exports.blurOffensiveImages = async (event) => {
  // This event represents the triggering Cloud Storage object.
  const object = event;

  const file = storage.bucket(object.bucket).file(object.name);
  const filePath = `gs://${object.bucket}/${object.name}`;

  console.log(`Analyzing ${file.name}.`);

  try {
    const [result] = await client.safeSearchDetection(filePath);
    const detections = result.safeSearchAnnotation || {};

    if (
      // Levels are defined in https://cloud.google.com/vision/docs/reference/rest/v1/AnnotateImageResponse#likelihood
      detections.adult === 'VERY_LIKELY' ||
      detections.violence === 'VERY_LIKELY'
    ) {
      console.log(`Detected ${file.name} as inappropriate.`);
      return await blurImage(file, BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME);
    } else {
      console.log(`Detected ${file.name} as OK.`);
    }
  } catch (err) {
    console.error(`Failed to analyze ${file.name}.`, err);
    throw err;
  }
};

Python

# Blurs uploaded images that are flagged as Adult or Violence.
def blur_offensive_images(data, context):
    file_data = data

    file_name = file_data['name']
    bucket_name = file_data['bucket']

    blob = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name).get_blob(file_name)
    blob_uri = f'gs://{bucket_name}/{file_name}'
    blob_source = {'source': {'image_uri': blob_uri}}

    # Ignore already-blurred files
    if file_name.startswith('blurred-'):
        print(f'The image {file_name} is already blurred.')
        return

    print(f'Analyzing {file_name}.')

    result = vision_client.safe_search_detection(blob_source)
    detected = result.safe_search_annotation

    # Process image
    if detected.adult == 5 or detected.violence == 5:
        print(f'The image {file_name} was detected as inappropriate.')
        return __blur_image(blob)
    else:
        print(f'The image {file_name} was detected as OK.')

Go


// GCSEvent is the payload of a GCS event.
type GCSEvent struct {
	Bucket string `json:"bucket"`
	Name   string `json:"name"`
}

// BlurOffensiveImages blurs offensive images uploaded to GCS.
func BlurOffensiveImages(ctx context.Context, e GCSEvent) error {
	outputBucket := os.Getenv("BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME")
	if outputBucket == "" {
		return errors.New("BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME must be set")
	}

	img := vision.NewImageFromURI(fmt.Sprintf("gs://%s/%s", e.Bucket, e.Name))

	resp, err := visionClient.DetectSafeSearch(ctx, img, nil)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("AnnotateImage: %v", err)
	}

	if resp.GetAdult() == visionpb.Likelihood_VERY_LIKELY ||
		resp.GetViolence() == visionpb.Likelihood_VERY_LIKELY {
		return blur(ctx, e.Bucket, outputBucket, e.Name)
	}
	log.Printf("The image %q was detected as OK.", e.Name)
	return nil
}

Java

@Override
// Blurs uploaded images that are flagged as Adult or Violence.
public void accept(GcsEvent gcsEvent, Context context) {
  // Validate parameters
  if (gcsEvent.getBucket() == null || gcsEvent.getName() == null) {
    logger.severe("Error: Malformed GCS event.");
    return;
  }

  BlobInfo blobInfo = BlobInfo.newBuilder(gcsEvent.getBucket(), gcsEvent.getName()).build();

  // Construct URI to GCS bucket and file.
  String gcsPath = String.format("gs://%s/%s", gcsEvent.getBucket(), gcsEvent.getName());
  logger.info(String.format("Analyzing %s", gcsEvent.getName()));

  // Construct request.
  ImageSource imgSource = ImageSource.newBuilder().setImageUri(gcsPath).build();
  Image img = Image.newBuilder().setSource(imgSource).build();
  Feature feature = Feature.newBuilder().setType(Type.SAFE_SEARCH_DETECTION).build();
  AnnotateImageRequest request =
      AnnotateImageRequest.newBuilder().addFeatures(feature).setImage(img).build();
  List<AnnotateImageRequest> requests = List.of(request);

  // Send request to the Vision API.
  try (ImageAnnotatorClient client = ImageAnnotatorClient.create()) {
    BatchAnnotateImagesResponse response = client.batchAnnotateImages(requests);
    List<AnnotateImageResponse> responses = response.getResponsesList();
    for (AnnotateImageResponse res : responses) {
      if (res.hasError()) {
        logger.info(String.format("Error: %s", res.getError().getMessage()));
        return;
      }
      // Get Safe Search Annotations
      SafeSearchAnnotation annotation = res.getSafeSearchAnnotation();
      if (annotation.getAdultValue() == 5 || annotation.getViolenceValue() == 5) {
        logger.info(String.format("Detected %s as inappropriate.", gcsEvent.getName()));
        blur(blobInfo);
      } else {
        logger.info(String.format("Detected %s as OK.", gcsEvent.getName()));
      }
    }
  } catch (IOException e) {
    logger.log(Level.SEVERE, "Error with Vision API: " + e.getMessage(), e);
  }
}

Blurring images

The following function is called when violent or adult content is detected in an uploaded image. The function downloads the offensive image, uses ImageMagick to blur the image, and then uploads the blurred image over the original image.

Node.js

// Blurs the given file using ImageMagick, and uploads it to another bucket.
const blurImage = async (file, blurredBucketName) => {
  const tempLocalPath = `/tmp/${path.parse(file.name).base}`;

  // Download file from bucket.
  try {
    await file.download({destination: tempLocalPath});

    console.log(`Downloaded ${file.name} to ${tempLocalPath}.`);
  } catch (err) {
    throw new Error(`File download failed: ${err}`);
  }

  await new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    gm(tempLocalPath)
      .blur(0, 16)
      .write(tempLocalPath, (err, stdout) => {
        if (err) {
          console.error('Failed to blur image.', err);
          reject(err);
        } else {
          console.log(`Blurred image: ${file.name}`);
          resolve(stdout);
        }
      });
  });

  // Upload result to a different bucket, to avoid re-triggering this function.
  const blurredBucket = storage.bucket(blurredBucketName);

  // Upload the Blurred image back into the bucket.
  const gcsPath = `gs://${blurredBucketName}/${file.name}`;
  try {
    await blurredBucket.upload(tempLocalPath, {destination: file.name});
    console.log(`Uploaded blurred image to: ${gcsPath}`);
  } catch (err) {
    throw new Error(`Unable to upload blurred image to ${gcsPath}: ${err}`);
  }

  // Delete the temporary file.
  const unlink = promisify(fs.unlink);
  return unlink(tempLocalPath);
};

Python

# Blurs the given file using ImageMagick.
def __blur_image(current_blob):
    file_name = current_blob.name
    _, temp_local_filename = tempfile.mkstemp()

    # Download file from bucket.
    current_blob.download_to_filename(temp_local_filename)
    print(f'Image {file_name} was downloaded to {temp_local_filename}.')

    # Blur the image using ImageMagick.
    with Image(filename=temp_local_filename) as image:
        image.resize(*image.size, blur=16, filter='hamming')
        image.save(filename=temp_local_filename)

    print(f'Image {file_name} was blurred.')

    # Upload result to a second bucket, to avoid re-triggering the function.
    # You could instead re-upload it to the same bucket + tell your function
    # to ignore files marked as blurred (e.g. those with a "blurred" prefix)
    blur_bucket_name = os.getenv('BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME')
    blur_bucket = storage_client.bucket(blur_bucket_name)
    new_blob = blur_bucket.blob(file_name)
    new_blob.upload_from_filename(temp_local_filename)
    print(f'Blurred image uploaded to: gs://{blur_bucket_name}/{file_name}')

    # Delete the temporary file.
    os.remove(temp_local_filename)

Go


// blur blurs the image stored at gs://inputBucket/name and stores the result in
// gs://outputBucket/name.
func blur(ctx context.Context, inputBucket, outputBucket, name string) error {
	inputBlob := storageClient.Bucket(inputBucket).Object(name)
	r, err := inputBlob.NewReader(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewReader: %v", err)
	}

	outputBlob := storageClient.Bucket(outputBucket).Object(name)
	w := outputBlob.NewWriter(ctx)
	defer w.Close()

	// Use - as input and output to use stdin and stdout.
	cmd := exec.Command("convert", "-", "-blur", "0x8", "-")
	cmd.Stdin = r
	cmd.Stdout = w

	if err := cmd.Run(); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("cmd.Run: %v", err)
	}

	log.Printf("Blurred image uploaded to gs://%s/%s", outputBlob.BucketName(), outputBlob.ObjectName())

	return nil
}

Java

// Blurs the file described by blobInfo using ImageMagick,
// and uploads it to the blurred bucket.
private static void blur(BlobInfo blobInfo) throws IOException {
  String bucketName = blobInfo.getBucket();
  String fileName = blobInfo.getName();

  // Download image
  Blob blob = storage.get(BlobId.of(bucketName, fileName));
  Path download = Paths.get("/tmp/", fileName);
  blob.downloadTo(download);

  // Construct the command.
  Path upload = Paths.get("/tmp/", "blurred-" + fileName);
  List<String> args = List.of("convert", download.toString(), "-blur", "0x8", upload.toString());
  try {
    ProcessBuilder pb = new ProcessBuilder(args);
    Process process = pb.start();
    process.waitFor();
  } catch (Exception e) {
    logger.info(String.format("Error: %s", e.getMessage()));
  }

  // Upload image to blurred bucket.
  BlobId blurredBlobId = BlobId.of(BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME, fileName);
  BlobInfo blurredBlobInfo =
      BlobInfo.newBuilder(blurredBlobId).setContentType(blob.getContentType()).build();

  byte[] blurredFile = Files.readAllBytes(upload);
  storage.create(blurredBlobInfo, blurredFile);
  logger.info(
      String.format("Blurred image uploaded to: gs://%s/%s", BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME, fileName));

  // Remove images from fileSystem
  Files.delete(download);
  Files.delete(upload);
}

Deploying the function

  1. To deploy your Cloud Function with a storage trigger, run the following command in the directory that contains the sample code (or in the case of Java, the pom.xml file):

    Node.js

    gcloud functions deploy blurOffensiveImages \
    --runtime nodejs10 \
    --trigger-bucket YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME \
    --set-env-vars BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME=YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME
    You can use the following values for the --runtime flag to specify your preferred Node.js version:
    • nodejs10
    • nodejs12

    Python

    gcloud functions deploy blur_offensive_images \
    --runtime python37 \
    --trigger-bucket YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME \
    --set-env-vars BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME=YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME
    You can use the following values for the --runtime flag to specify your preferred Python version:
    • python37
    • python38

    Go

    gcloud functions deploy BlurOffensiveImages \
    --runtime go111 \
    --trigger-bucket YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME \
    --set-env-vars BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME=YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME
    You can use the following values for the --runtime flag to specify your preferred Go version:
    • go111
    • go113

    Java

    gcloud functions deploy java-blur-function \
    --entry-point functions.ImageMagick \
    --runtime java11 \
    --memory 512MB \
    --trigger-bucket YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME \
    --set-env-vars BLURRED_BUCKET_NAME=YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME

    where YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME is the name of the Cloud Storage bucket for uploading images, and YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME is the name of the bucket the blurred images should be saved to.

    The --allow-unauthenticated flag lets you reach the function without authentication. To require authentication, omit the flag.

Uploading an image

  1. Upload an offensive image, such as this image of a flesh-eating zombie:

    gsutil cp zombie.jpg gs://YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME
    

    where YOUR_INPUT_BUCKET_NAME is the Cloud Storage bucket you created earlier for uploading images.

  2. Watch the logs to be sure the executions have completed:

    gcloud functions logs read --limit 100
    
  3. You can view the blurred images in the YOUR_OUTPUT_BUCKET_NAME Cloud Storage bucket you created earlier.

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud Platform account for the resources used in this tutorial:

Deleting the project

The easiest way to eliminate billing is to delete the project that you created for the tutorial.

To delete the project:

  1. In the Cloud Console, go to the Manage resources page.

    Go to the Manage resources page

  2. In the project list, select the project that you want to delete and then click Delete .
  3. In the dialog, type the project ID and then click Shut down to delete the project.

Deleting the Cloud Function

Deleting Cloud Functions does not remove any resources stored in Cloud Storage.

To delete the Cloud Function you deployed in this tutorial, run the following command:

Node.js

gcloud functions delete blurOffensiveImages 

Python

gcloud functions delete blur_offensive_images 

Go

gcloud functions delete BlurOffensiveImages 

Java

gcloud functions delete java-blur-function 

You can also delete Cloud Functions from the Google Cloud Console.