Best practices for using Terraform

This document provides guidelines and recommendations for effective development with Terraform across multiple team members and work streams.

This guide is not an introduction to Terraform. For an introduction to using Terraform with Google Cloud, see Get started with Terraform.

General style and structure guidelines

The following recommendations cover basic style and structure for your Terraform configurations. The recommendations apply to reusable Terraform modules and to root configurations.

Follow a standard module structure

  • Terraform modules must follow the standard module structure.
  • Start every module with a main.tf file, where resources are located by default.
  • In every module, include a README.md file in Markdown format. In the README.md file, include basic documentation about the module.
  • Place examples in an examples/ folder, with a separate subdirectory for each example. For each example, include a detailed README.md file.
  • Create logical groupings of resources with their own files and descriptive names, such as network.tf, instances.tf, or loadbalancer.tf.
    • Avoid giving every resource its own file. Group resources by their shared purpose. For example, combine google_dns_managed_zone and google_dns_record_set in dns.tf.
  • In the module's root directory, include only Terraform (*.tf) and repository metadata files (such as README.md and CHANGELOG.md).
  • Place any additional documentation in a docs/ subdirectory.

Adopt a naming convention

  • Name all configuration objects using underscores to delimit multiple words. This practice ensures consistency with the naming convention for resource types, data source types, and other predefined values. This convention does not apply to name arguments.

    Recommended:

    resource "google_compute_instance" "web_server" {
      name = "web-server"
    }
    

    Not recommended:

    resource "google_compute_instance" "web-server" {
      name = "web-server"
    }
    
  • To simplify references to a resource that is the only one of its type (for example, a single load balancer for an entire module), name the resource main.

    • It takes extra mental work to remember some_google_resource.my_special_resource.id versus some_google_resource.main.id.
  • To differentiate resources of the same type from each other (for example, primary and secondary), provide meaningful resource names.

  • Make resource names singular.

  • In the resource name, don't repeat the resource type. For example:

    Recommended:

    resource "google_compute_global_address" "main" { ... }
    

    Not recommended:

    resource "google_compute_global_address" "main_global_address" { … }
    

Use variables carefully

  • Declare all variables in variables.tf.
  • Give variables descriptive names that are relevant to their usage or purpose.
    • Inputs, local variables, and outputs representing numeric values—such as disk sizes or RAM size—must be named with units (like ram_size_gb). Google Cloud APIs don't have standard units, so naming variables with units makes the expected input unit clear for configuration maintainers.
    • For units of storage, use binary (powers of 1024) unit prefixes (kilo, mega, giga). For all other units of measurement, use decimal (powers of 1000) unit prefixes. This usage matches the usage within Google Cloud.
    • To simplify conditional logic, give boolean variables positive names (for example, enable_external_access).
  • Variables must have descriptions. Descriptions are automatically included in a published module's auto-generated documentation. Descriptions add additional context for new developers that descriptive names cannot provide.
  • Give variables defined types.
  • When appropriate, provide default values:
    • For variables that have environment-independent values (such as disk size), provide default values.
    • For variables that have environment-specific values (such as project_id), don't provide default values. This way, the calling module must provide meaningful values.
  • Use empty defaults for variables (like empty strings or lists) only when leaving the variable empty is a valid preference that the underlying APIs don't reject.
  • Be judicious in your use of variables. Only parameterize values that must vary for each instance or environment. When deciding whether to expose a variable, ensure that you have a concrete use case for changing that variable. If there's only a small chance that a variable might be needed, don't expose it.
    • Adding a variable with a default value is backwards-compatible.
    • Removing a variable is backwards-incompatible.
    • In cases where a literal is reused in multiple places, you can use a local value without exposing it as a variable.

Expose outputs

  • Organize all outputs in an outputs.tf file.
  • Provide meaningful descriptions for all outputs.
  • Document output descriptions in the README.md file. Auto-generate descriptions on commit with tools like terraform-docs.
  • Output all useful values that root modules might need to refer to or share. Especially for open source or heavily used modules, expose all outputs that have potential for consumption.
  • Don't pass outputs directly through input variables, because doing so prevents them from being properly added to the dependency graph. To ensure that implicit dependencies are created, make sure that outputs reference attributes from resources. Instead of referencing an input variable for an instance directly, pass the attribute through as shown here:

    Recommended:

    output "name" {
      description = "Name of instance"
      value       = google_compute_instance.main.name
    }
    

    Not recommended:

    output "name" {
      description = "Name of instance"
      value       = var.name
    }
    

Use data sources

  • Put data sources next to the resources that reference them. For example, if you are fetching an image to be used in launching an instance, place it alongside the instance instead of collecting data resources in their own file.
  • If the number of data sources becomes large, consider moving them to a dedicated data.tf file.
  • To fetch data relative to the current environment, use variable or resource interpolation.

Limit the use of custom scripts

  • Use scripts only when necessary. The state of resources created through scripts is not accounted for or managed by Terraform.
    • Avoid custom scripts, if possible. Use them only when Terraform resources don't support the desired behavior.
    • Any custom scripts used must have a clearly documented reason for existing and ideally a deprecation plan.
  • Terraform can call custom scripts through provisioners, including the local-exec provisioner.
  • Put custom scripts called by Terraform in a scripts/ directory.

Include helper scripts in a separate directory

  • Organize helper scripts that aren't called by Terraform in a helpers/ directory.
  • Document helper scripts in the README.md file with explanations and example invocations.
  • If helper scripts accept arguments, provide argument-checking and --help output.

Put static files in a separate directory

  • Static files that Terraform references but doesn't execute (such as startup scripts loaded onto Compute Engine instances) must be organized into a files/ directory.
  • Place lengthy HereDocs in external files, separate from their HCL. Reference them with the file() function.
  • For files that are read in by using the Terraform templatefile function, use the file extension .tftpl.
    • Templates must be placed in a templates/ directory.

Protect stateful resources

For stateful resources, such as databases, ensure that deletion protection is enabled. For example:

resource "google_sql_database_instance" "main" {
  name = "primary-instance"
  settings {
    tier = "D0"
  }

  lifecycle {
    prevent_destroy = true
  }
}

Use built-in formatting

All Terraform files must conform to the standards of terraform fmt.

Limit the complexity of expressions

  • Limit the complexity of any individual interpolated expressions. If many functions are needed in a single expression, consider splitting it out into multiple expressions by using local values.
  • Never have more than one ternary operation in a single line. Instead, use multiple local values to build up the logic.

Use count for conditional values

To instantiate a resource conditionally, use the count meta-argument. For example:

variable "readers" {
  description = "..."
  type        = list
  default     = []
}

resource "resource_type" "reference_name" {
  // Do not create this resource if the list of readers is empty.
  count = length(var.readers) == 0 ? 0 : 1
  ...
}

Be sparing when using user-specified variables to set the count variable for resources. If a resource attribute is provided for such a variable (like project_id) and that resource does not yet exist, Terraform can't generate a plan. Instead, Terraform reports the error value of count cannot be computed. In such cases, use a separate enable_x variable to compute the conditional logic.

Use for_each for iterated resources

If you want to create multiple copies of a resource based on an input resource, use the for_each meta-argument.

Publish modules to a registry

Reusable modules

For modules that are meant for reuse, use the following guidelines in addition to the previous guidelines.

Activate required APIs in modules

Terraform modules can activate any required services by using the google_project_service resource or the project_services module. Including API activation makes demonstrations easier.

  • If API activation is included in a module, then the API activation must be disableable by exposing an enable_apis variable that defaults to true.
  • If API activation is included in a module, then the API activation must set disable_services_on_destroy to false, because this attribute can cause issues when working with multiple instances of the module.

    For example:

    module "project-services" {
      source  = "terraform-google-modules/project-factory/google//modules/project_services"
      version = "~> 12.0"
    
      project_id  = var.project_id
      enable_apis = var.enable_apis
    
      activate_apis = [
        "compute.googleapis.com",
        "pubsub.googleapis.com",
      ]
      disable_services_on_destroy = false
    }
    

Include an owners file

For all shared modules, include an OWNERS file (or CODEOWNERS on GitHub), documenting who is responsible for the module. Before any pull request is merged, an owner should approve it.

Release tagged versions

Sometimes modules require breaking changes and you need to communicate the effects to users so that they can pin their configurations to a specific version.

Make sure that shared modules follow SemVer v2.0.0 when new versions are tagged or released.

When referencing a module, use a version constraint to pin to the major version. For example:

module "gke" {
  source  = "terraform-google-modules/kubernetes-engine/google"
  version = "~> 20.0"
}

Don't declare providers or backends

Shared modules must not declare providers or backends. Instead, declare providers and backends in root modules.

For shared modules, define the minimum required provider versions in a required_providers block, as follows:

terraform {
  required_providers {
    google = {
      source  = "hashicorp/google"
      version = ">= 4.0.0"
    }
  }
}

Unless proven otherwise, assume that new provider versions will work.

Expose labels as a variable

Allow flexibility in the labeling of resources through the module's interface. Consider providing a labels variable with a default value of an empty map, as follows:

variable "labels" {
  description = "A map of labels to apply to contained resources."
  default     = {}
  type        = "map"
}

Expose outputs for all resources

Variables and outputs let you infer dependencies between modules and resources. Without any outputs, users cannot properly order your module in relation to their Terraform configurations.

For every resource defined in a shared module, include at least one output that references the resource.

Use inline submodules for complex logic

  • Inline modules let you organize complex Terraform modules into smaller units and de-duplicate common resources.
  • Place inline modules in modules/$modulename.
  • Treat inline modules as private, not to be used by outside modules, unless the shared module's documentation specifically states otherwise.
  • Terraform doesn't track refactored resources. If you start with several resources in the top-level module and then push them into submodules, Terraform tries to recreate all refactored resources. To mitigate this behavior, use moved blocks when refactoring.
  • Outputs defined by internal modules aren't automatically exposed. To share outputs from internal modules, re-export them.

Terraform root modules

Root configurations (root modules) are the working directories from which you run the Terraform CLI. Make sure that root configurations adhere to the following standards (and to the previous Terraform guidelines where applicable). Explicit recommendations for root modules supersede the general guidelines.

Minimize the number of resources in each root module

It is important to keep a single root configuration from growing too large, with too many resources stored in the same directory and state. All resources in a particular root configuration are refreshed every time Terraform is run. This can cause slow execution if too many resources are included in a single state. A general rule: Don't include more than 100 resources (and ideally only a few dozen) in a single state.

Use separate directories for each application

To manage applications and projects independently of each other, put resources for each application and project in their own Terraform directories. A service might represent a particular application or a common service such as shared networking. Nest all Terraform code for a particular service under one directory (including subdirectories).

Split applications into environment-specific subdirectories

When deploying services in Google Cloud, split the Terraform configuration for the service into two top-level directories: a modules directory that contains the actual configuration for the service, and an environments directory that contains the root configurations for each environment.

-- SERVICE-DIRECTORY/
   -- OWNERS
   -- modules/
      -- <service-name>/
         -- main.tf
         -- variables.tf
         -- outputs.tf
         -- provider.tf
         -- README
      -- ...other…
   -- environments/
      -- dev/
         -- backend.tf
         -- main.tf

      -- qa/
         -- backend.tf
         -- main.tf

      -- prod/
         -- backend.tf
         -- main.tf

Use environment directories

Each environment directory (dev, qa, prod) corresponds to a default Terraform workspace and deploys a version of the service to that environment. Use only the default workspace. Workspaces alone are insufficient for modeling different environments.

To share code across environments, reference modules. Typically, this might be a service module that includes the base shared Terraform configuration for the service. In service modules, hard-code common inputs and only require environment-specific inputs as variables.

This environment directory must contain the following files:

  • A backend.tf file, declaring the Terraform backend state location (typically, Cloud Storage)
  • A main.tf file that instantiates the service module

Expose outputs through remote state

Export as outputs information from a root module that other root modules might depend on. In particular, make sure to re-export nested module outputs that are useful as remote state.

Other Terraform environments and applications can reference root module-level outputs only.

By using remote state, you can reference root module outputs. To allow use by other dependent apps for configuration, export to remote state information that's related to a service's endpoints.

Sometimes, such as when invoking a shared service module from environment directories, it is appropriate to re-export the entire child module, as follows:

output "service" {
  value       = module.service
  description = "The service module outputs"
}

Pin to minor provider versions

In root modules, declare each provider and pin to a minor version. This allows automatic upgrade to new patch releases while still keeping a solid target. For consistency, name the versions file versions.tf.

terraform {
  required_providers {
    google = {
      source  = "hashicorp/google"
      version = "~> 4.0.0"
    }
  }
}

Store variables in a tfvars file

For root modules, provide variables by using a .tfvars variables file. For consistency, name variable files terraform.tfvars.

Don't specify variables by using alternative var-files or var='key=val' command-line options. Command-line options are ephemeral and easy to forget. Using a default variables file is more predictable.

Check in .terraform.lock.hcl file

For root modules, the .terraform.lock.hcl dependency lock file should be checked into source control. This allows for tracking and reviewing changes in provider selections for a given configuration.

Cross-configuration communication

A common problem that arises when using Terraform is how to share information across different Terraform configurations (possibly maintained by different teams). Generally, information can be shared between configurations without requiring that they be stored in a single configuration directory (or even a single repository).

The recommended way to share information between different Terraform configurations is by using remote state to reference other root modules. Cloud Storage or Terraform Enterprise are the preferred state backends.

For querying resources that are not managed by Terraform, use data sources from the Google provider. For example, the default Compute Engine service account can be retrieved using a data source. Don't use data sources to query resources that are managed by another Terraform configuration. Doing so can create implicit dependencies on resource names and structures that normal Terraform operations might unintentionally break.

Working with Google Cloud resources

Best practices for provisioning Google Cloud resources with Terraform, are integrated into the Cloud Foundation Toolkit modules that Google maintains. This section reiterates some of these best practices.

Bake virtual machine images

In general, we recommend that you bake virtual machine images using a tool like Packer. Terraform then only needs to launch machines using the pre-baked images.

If pre-baked images are not available, Terraform can hand off new virtual machines to a configuration management tool with a provisioner block. We recommend that you avoid this method and only use it as a last resort. To clean up old state associated with the instance, provisioners that require teardown logic should use a provisioner block with when = destroy.

Terraform should provide VM configuration information to configuration management with instance metadata.

Manage Identity and Access Management

When provisioning IAM associations with Terraform, several different resources are available:

  • google_*_iam_policy (for example, google_project_iam_policy)
  • google_*_iam_binding (for example, google_project_iam_binding)
  • google_*_iam_member (for example, google_project_iam_member)

google_*_iam_policy and google_*_iam_binding create authoritative IAM associations, where the Terraform resources serve as the only source of truth for what permissions can be assigned to the relevant resource.

If the permissions change outside of Terraform, Terraform on its next execution overwrites all permissions to represent the policy as defined in your configuration. This might make sense for resources that are wholly managed by a particular Terraform configuration, but it means that roles that are automatically managed by Google Cloud are removed—potentially disrupting the functionality of some services.

To prevent this, we recommend using either google_*_iam_member resources directly or the IAM module from Google.

Version control

As with other forms of code, store infrastructure code in version control to preserve history and allow easy rollbacks.

Use a default branching strategy

For all repositories that contain Terraform code, use the following strategy by default:

  • The main branch is the primary development branch and represents the latest approved code. The main branch is protected.
  • Development happens on feature and bug-fix branches that branch off of the main branch.
    • Name feature branches feature/$feature_name.
    • Name bug-fix branches fix/$bugfix_name.
  • When a feature or bug fix is complete, merge it back into the main branch with a pull request.
  • To prevent merge conflicts, rebase branches before merging them.

Use environment branches for root configurations

For repositories that include root configurations that are directly deployed to Google Cloud, a safe rollout strategy is required. We recommend having a separate branch for each environment. Thus, changes to the Terraform configuration can be promoted by merging changes between the different branches.

Separate branch for each environment

Allow broad visibility

Make Terraform source code and repositories broadly visible and accessible across engineering organizations, to infrastructure owners (for example, SREs) and infrastructure stakeholders (for example, developers). This ensures that infrastructure stakeholders can have a better understanding of the infrastructure that they depend on.

Encourage infrastructure stakeholders to submit merge requests as part of the change request process.

Never commit secrets

Never commit secrets to source control, including in Terraform configuration. Instead, upload them to a system like Secret Manager and reference them by using data sources.

Keep in mind that such sensitive values might still end up in the state file and might also be exposed as outputs.

Organize repositories based on team boundaries

Although you can use separate directories to manage logical boundaries between resources, organizational boundaries and logistics determine repository structure. In general, use the design principle that configurations with different approval and management requirements are separated into different source control repositories. To illustrate this principle, these are some possible repository configurations:

  • One central repository: In this model, all Terraform code is centrally managed by a single platform team. This model works best when there is a dedicated infrastructure team responsible for all cloud management and approves any changes requested by other teams.

  • Team repositories: In this model, each team is responsible for their own Terraform repository where they manage everything related to the infrastructure they own. For example, the security team might have a repository where all security controls are managed, and application teams each have their own Terraform repository to deploy and manage their application.

    Organizing repositories along team boundaries is the best structure for most enterprise scenarios.

  • Decoupled repositories: In this model, each logical Terraform component is split into its own repository. For example, networking might have a dedicated repository, and there might be a separate project factory repository for project creation and management. This works best in highly decentralized environments where responsibilities frequently shift between teams.

Sample repository structure

You can combine these principles to split Terraform configuration across different repository types:

  • Foundational
  • Application and team-specific
Foundational repository

A foundational repository that contains major central components, such as folders or org IAM. This repository can be managed by the central cloud team.

  • In this repository, include a directory for each major component (for example, folders, networks, and so on).
  • In the component directories, include a separate folder for each environment (reflecting the directory structure guidance mentioned earlier).

Foundational repository structure

Application and team-specific repositories

Deploy application and team-specific repositories separately for each team to manage their unique application-specific Terraform configuration.

Application and team-specific repository structure

Operations

Keeping your infrastructure secure depends on having a stable and secure process for applying Terraform updates.

Always plan first

Always generate a plan first for Terraform executions. Save the plan to an output file. After an infrastructure owner approves it, execute the plan. Even when developers are locally prototyping changes, they should generate a plan and review the resources to be added, modified, and destroyed before applying the plan.

Implement an automated pipeline

To ensure consistent execution context, execute Terraform through automated tooling. If a build system (like Jenkins) is already in use and widely adopted, use it to run the terraform plan and terraform apply commands automatically. If no existing system is available, adopt either Cloud Build or Terraform Cloud.

Use service account credentials for continuous integration

When Terraform is executed from a machine in a CI/CD pipeline, it should inherit the service account credentials from the service executing the pipeline. Wherever possible, run CI pipelines on Google Cloud because Cloud Build, Google Kubernetes Engine, or Compute Engine let you use tools like Workload Identity to inject credentials without downloading service account keys. For pipelines that run elsewhere, prefer workload identity federation to obtain credentials. Use downloaded service account keys as a last resort.

Avoid importing existing resources

Where possible, avoid importing existing resources (using terraform import), because doing so can make it challenging to fully understand the provenance and configuration of manually created resources. Instead, create new resources through Terraform and delete the old resources.

In cases where deleting old resources would create significant toil, use the terraform import command with explicit approval. After a resource is imported into Terraform, manage it exclusively with Terraform.

Google provides a tool that you can use to import your Google Cloud resources into Terraform state. For more information, see Import your Google Cloud resources into Terraform state.

Don't modify Terraform state manually

The Terraform state file is critical for maintaining the mapping between Terraform configuration and Google Cloud resources. Corruption can lead to major infrastructure problems. When modifications to the Terraform state are necessary, use the terraform state command.

Regularly review version pins

Pinning versions ensures stability but prevents bug fixes and other improvements from being incorporated into your configuration. Therefore, regularly review version pins for Terraform, Terraform providers, and modules.

To automate this process, use a tool such as Dependabot.

Use application default credentials when running locally

When developers are locally iterating on Terraform configuration, they should authenticate by running gcloud auth application-default login to generate application default credentials. Don't download service account keys, because downloaded keys are harder to manage and secure.

Set aliases to Terraform

To make local development easier, you can add aliases to your command shell profile:

  • alias tf="terraform"
  • alias terrafrom="terraform"

Security

Terraform requires sensitive access to your cloud infrastructure to operate. Following these security best practices can help to minimize the associated risks and improve your overall cloud security.

Use remote state

For Google Cloud customers, we recommend using the Cloud Storage state backend. This approach locks the state to allow for collaboration as a team. It also separates the state and all the potentially sensitive information from version control.

Make sure that only the build system and highly privileged administrators can access the bucket that is used for remote state.

To prevent accidentally committing development state to source control, use gitignore for Terraform state files.

Encrypt state

Though Google Cloud buckets are encrypted at rest, you can use customer-supplied encryption keys to provide an added layer of protection. Do this by using the GOOGLE_ENCRYPTION_KEY environment variable. Even though no secrets should be in the state file, always encrypt the state as an additional measure of defense.

Don't store secrets in state

There are many resources and data providers in Terraform that store secret values in plaintext in the state file. Where possible, avoid storing secrets in state. Following are some examples of providers that store secrets in plaintext:

Mark sensitive outputs

Instead of attempting to manually encrypt sensitive values, rely on Terraform's built-in support for sensitive state management. When exporting sensitive values to output, make sure that the values are marked as sensitive.

Ensure separation of duties

If you can't run Terraform from an automated system where no users have access, adhere to a separation of duties by separating permissions and directories. For example, a network project would correspond with a network Terraform service account or user whose access is limited to this project.

Run pre-apply checks

When running Terraform in an automated pipeline, use a tool like gcloud terraform vet to check plan output against policies before it is applied. Doing so can detect security regressions before they happen.

Run continuous audits

After the terraform apply command has executed, run automated security checks. These checks can help to ensure that infrastructure doesn't drift into an insecure state. The following tools are valid choices for this type of check:

Testing

Testing Terraform modules and configurations sometimes follows different patterns and conventions from testing application code. While testing application code primarily involves testing the business logic of applications themselves, fully testing infrastructure code requires deploying real cloud resources to minimize the risk of production failures. There are a few considerations when running Terraform tests:

  • Running a Terraform test creates, modifies, and destroys real infrastructure, so your tests can potentially be time-consuming and expensive.
  • You cannot purely unit test an end-to-end architecture. The best approach is to break up your architecture into modules and test those individually. The benefits of this approach include faster iterative development due to faster test runtime, reduced costs for each test, and reduced chances of test failures from factors beyond your control.
  • Avoid reusing state if possible. There may be situations where you are testing with configurations that share data with other configurations, but ideally each test should be independent and should not reuse state across tests.

Use less expensive test methods first

There are multiple methods that you can use to test Terraform. In ascending order of cost, run time, and depth, they include the following:

  • Static analysis: Testing the syntax and structure of your configuration without deploying any resources, using tools such as compilers, linters, and dry runs. To do so, use terraform validate.
  • Module integration testing: To ensure that modules work correctly, test individual modules in isolation. Integration testing for modules involves deploying the module into a test environment and verifying that expected resources are created. There are several testing frameworks that make it easier to write tests, as follows:
  • End-to-end testing: By extending the integration testing approach to an entire environment, you can confirm that multiple modules work together. In this approach, deploy all modules that make up the architecture in a fresh test environment. Ideally, the test environment is as similar as possible to your production environment. This is costly but provides the greatest confidence that changes don't break your production environment.

Start small

Make sure that your tests iteratively build on each other. Consider running smaller tests first and then working up to more complex tests, using a fail fast approach.

Randomize project IDs and resource names

To avoid naming conflicts, make sure that your configurations have a globally unique project ID and non-overlapping resource names within each project. To do this, use namespaces for your resources. Terraform has a built-in random provider for this.

Use a separate environment for testing

During testing, many resources are created and deleted. Ensure that the environment is isolated from development or production projects to avoid accidental deletions during resource cleanup. The best approach is to have each test create a fresh project or folder. To avoid misconfiguration, consider creating service accounts specifically for each test execution.

Clean up all resources

Testing infrastructure code means that you are deploying actual resources. To avoid incurring charges, consider implementing a clean-up step.

To destroy all remote objects managed by a particular configuration, use the terraform destroy command. Some testing frameworks have a built-in cleanup step for you. For example, if you are using Terratest, add defer terraform.Destroy(t, terraformOptions) to your test. If you're using Kitchen-Terraform, delete your workspace using terraform kitchen delete WORKSPACE_NAME.

After you run the terraform destroy command, also run additional clean-up procedures to remove any resources that Terraform failed to destroy. Do this by deleting any projects used for test execution or by using a tool like cloud-nuke.

Optimize test runtime

To optimize your test execution time, use the following approaches:

  • Run tests in parallel. Some testing frameworks support running multiple Terraform tests simultaneously.
    • For example, with Terratest you can do this by adding t.Parallel() after the test function definition.
  • Test in stages. Separate your tests into independent configurations that can be tested separately. This approach removes the need to go through all stages when running a test, and accelerates the iterative development cycle.
    • For example, in Kitchen-Terraform, split tests into separate suites. When iterating, execute each suite independently.
    • Similarly, using Terratest, wrap each stage of your test with stage(t, STAGE_NAME, CORRESPONDING_TESTFUNCTION). Set environment variables that indicate which tests to run. For example, SKIPSTAGE_NAME="true".
    • The blueprint testing framework supports staged execution.

What's next