Google Cloud uses quotas to restrict how much of a particular shared Google Cloud resource that you can use. Each quota represents a specific countable resource, such as API calls to a particular service, the number of load balancers used concurrently by your project, or the number of projects that you can create.
This page describes how to work with quotas in your projects, including how to find and modify your existing quota limits, how to request higher quota, and how to monitor quota usage.
Many services also have limits that are unrelated to the quota system. These are fixed constraints, such as maximum file sizes or database schema limitations, which cannot be increased or decreased. You can find out about these on the relevant service's Quotas and limits page (for example, Cloud Storage quotas and limits).
The following links provide additional information related to resource usage:
- For resource pricing, refer to the Pricing page for the relevant service (for example, Cloud Storage pricing).
- For other API usage metrics, see Monitoring API usage.
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Before learning about how to monitor and manage your quota, it's useful to understand the basics of how Google Cloud's quota system works. This section introduces some key quota concepts, including quota types, quota limits, and quota increase requests.
Why do we enforce quotas?
Quotas are enforced for a variety of reasons, including:
- To protect the community of Google Cloud users by preventing unforeseen spikes in usage and overloaded services.
- To help you manage resources. For example, you can set your own limits on service usage while developing and testing your applications to avoid unexpected bills from using expensive resources.
Types of quota
There are two categories for quotas:
- Rate quotas are typically used for limiting the number of requests you can make to an API or service. Rate quotas reset after a time interval that is specific to the service—for example, the number of API requests per day.
- Allocation quotas are used to restrict the use of resources that don't have a rate of usage, such as the number of VMs used by your project at a given time. Allocation quotas don't reset over time, instead you must explicitly release the resource when you no longer want to use it—for example, by deleting a GKE cluster.
Within these categories, some quotas are global and apply to your usage of the resource anywhere in Google Cloud, while others are regional or zonal and apply to your usage of the resource in a specific Google Cloud region (both quota types) or zone (allocation quotas only). For example, there are separate limits for how many Compute Engine VM instances that you can create in each Google Cloud region.
Quotas are enforced on a per-project basis, with the exception of the number of projects that you can create, which is enforced per user account and billing account.
Viewing quota information
There are several ways to view and manage your Google Cloud quota:
- In the Google Cloud console
- Using the Google Cloud CLI
- Using the Service Usage API
- As quota metrics in Cloud Monitoring
You can see details of how to use these approaches in the rest of this document. Each product or service also has its own quotas and limits page with specific information about that service’s quotas—for example, the GKE Quotas and limits page.
Understanding quota limits
While many services have default quotas for some resources, the set of quota limits that apply to your applications are specific to you, your project, or your organization. For example, if you are using a free trial account to explore the platform, you might have very low quota for some resources compared to even the lowest quotas for a billed account. Enabling billing for your project increases quotas for most services. Quotas can also increase as your use of Google Cloud expands over time.
If your project needs more of a particular resource than your quotas allow, you can request more quota for a specific service. You can find out more about how quota increase requests work in About quota increase requests. You can also add your own limits for certain quotas if you want to impose spending limits, particularly when developing or testing an application that uses expensive resources.
Some quotas are unlimited for particular users. In this case, you can use as much of that resource as you want.
Finally, a small number of quotas cannot be increased from their default values—for example where higher usage constitutes an antipattern or where resources are very limited. These are typically documented in the relevant service's Quotas and limits page, as in this example from Cloud Functions.
Running out of quota
In most cases, if you run out of quota the task that you are trying to perform, such as deploying an application, creating a new project, or calling an API, fails and you get a quota error. The task continues to fail until you free up resources (for allocation quota), the time period resets (for rate quota), or you request and are granted a quota increase.
How the quota error appears depends on the tool or client that you use to interact with Google Cloud. You can see details of quota errors in Quota errors.
You can avoid getting quota errors by setting up monitoring to alert you when you are nearing quota limits. You can find out more about monitoring your quotas in Monitoring and alerting on quota metrics, later in this document.
About quota increase requests
Most quota increase requests are evaluated by automated systems based on strict criteria, including the availability of resources, the length of time you've used Google Cloud, and other factors. Requests that don't meet specific criteria are denied. Evaluation criteria for automated reviews is not disclosed to ensure fairness for all customers and prevent attempts to manipulate the process. In some cases, quota increase requests are escalated to human reviewers, who also follow strict criteria but can consider your unique circumstances.
You might be asked to pay in advance for some quota increases. For example, you might be asked to make a payment if you request more projects that will use paid cloud services. The payment can be applied to any charges you incur in the future and will be visible as a credit in your account.
Quota increase requests are handled by Cloud Customer Care (not Billing), who process your request, typically within 2-3 business days. You are sent an email when your request is received, to which you can respond if you have questions or want to provide additional information about your request (for example, if your increase request is urgent). You then get another email after the request is processed, notifying you whether the quota increase was approved or denied. The email provides the effective date of the increase, if applicable.
You can find out more about how to request more quota in Requesting a higher quota limit.
Permissions for viewing project quota
To view your project quota in the Google Cloud console or to access project quota programmatically, you must have the following IAM permissions:
resourcemanager.folders.get(if you want to view quota for an entire Folder)
resourcemanager.organizations.get(if you want to view quota for an entire Organization)
Permissions for changing project quota
To change your quota at the project, folder, or organization level, you must have the following permission:
This permission is included by default for the following roles: Owner, Editor, Quota Administrator, and Service Usage Admin.
Viewing your quota in the Cloud console
You can view your current quota limits in two different areas of the Google Cloud console:
- The Quotas page, which lists all quota usage and limits for your project
- The Cloud console API dashboard, which lists quota information for a particular API, including resource usage over time
Viewing all project quotas
To view quota usage and limits for all resources in your project, follow these steps:
In the Google Cloud console, go to the Quotas page.
The page displays a list of quotas.
To focus on the information you need, you can filter and sort the list as follows:
- To filter the list, enter the desired properties and values in the Filter field. For example, to view the BigQuery API quotas, select Service, and then select BigQuery API.
To sort the list, click the heading of the column you want to sort by. For example, to sort alphabetically by the quota name, click the Quota column heading.
By default, the list is sorted to show your most used quotas first, which helps you see limits that are at risk of being exceeded.
The quotas usage metrics listed on the Quotas page are calculated as follows:
- Rate quotas:
- For day-rate quotas, the number listed represents the total usage so far in the current 24-hour period.
- For per-minute or per-100-seconds quotas, the number listed in the Current usage percentage column represents the average usage in the past 10 minutes.
- Allocation quotas: The number listed represents the resource quantity (such as the number of load balancers) currently in use by your project.
You can learn more about quotas for a specific service by reading the documentation for that service. For example, Compute Engine quota is documented in Resource quotas.
Viewing API-specific quota
To view detailed quota information for a particular API, including usage over time, visit the API's quota page in the Cloud console. Depending on the API, these limits can include requests per day, requests per minute, and requests per minute per user. Some APIs set very low limits until you enable billing on your project.
You can view the current limits for a particular API in two different areas of the Cloud console:
On the Cloud console APIs & Services Dashboard page. On this page, select your project, click the API name, and then click Quotas. The Quotas page shows the quota names for the API. You can expand each quota to see detailed usage over time, as well as your current limit. By default, the limits displayed are those imposed by Google. You can cap usage as described in the Capping usage section. If there is no Google-imposed limit on a given quota, the limit is displayed as Unlimited.
Some quotas do not appear on an API-specific quota page. For example, requests to the Compute Engine API have an API-specific quota page, but this doesn't include Compute Engine compute resource usage (allocation quota). In addition, if you are using a service in multiple locations, the API-specific quota page does not show regional or zonal quota limits and their usage. For a complete list of your project's quota usage that you can filter by location, see the project Quotas page.
Viewing the number of projects that you can create
Each user account (including service accounts) and billing account has a limit to the number of projects that they can create. If you have fewer than 30 projects remaining in your quota, a notification displays the number of projects remaining in your quota on the New Project page. You can find out more about managing this quota in Managing project quotas and Project quota requests.
Managing your quota using the Cloud console
Depending on your resource usage, you might want to adjust your project's quota limits up or down. This section describes how to change your provided quota limits. To see your quota limits, in the Details column, click All Quotas.
To filter the list of quotas by specific properties:
Go to the Quotas page in the Google Cloud console:
ClickFilter to query your quota by a specific property.
Requesting a higher quota limit
You can request an increase to most quotas in the Google Cloud console.
For step-by-step guidance on this task directly in the Google Cloud console, click Guide me:
The rest of this section takes you through the same process as clicking Guide me.
To request a higher quota limit by using the Google Cloud console:
Go to the Quotas page:
On the Quotas page, find the quota you want to increase in the Quota column.
You can use the Filter search box to search for your quota.
Select the checkbox to the left of your quota.
ClickEDIT QUOTAS. The Quota changes form displays.
In the Quota changes form, enter the increased quota that you want for your project in the New limit field.
Complete any additional fields in the form, and then click DONE.
Click SUBMIT REQUEST.
While the above procedure applies to most quota increase requests, you might encounter one of the following exceptions:
- In some cases, the Google Cloud console redirects you to a separate form to request an increased limit. After you submit the form, Google Cloud acknowledges your request by email.
- Some quotas cannot be updated using the Google Cloud console. If you find that you cannot change a quota from the console, request the increase from Cloud Customer Care. The Billing team does not handle quota limit increases.
If your quota increase request requires approval, you can expect to receive an email from Google Cloud acknowledging receipt of your request. You can respond to this email if you need further assistance. Cloud Customer Care processes your request, typically within 2-3 business days, and then sends you a second email notifying you whether the quota increase was approved or denied. The email provides the effective date of the increase, if applicable.
To find out more about how the quota increase process works, see About quota increase requests.
Viewing quota increase requests
You can see currently pending and past quota increase requests in the Google Cloud console.
To see pending quota increase requests:
Go to the Quotas page:
On the Quotas page,Pending is shown next to the quota limits that are currently pending a decision on previously submitted increase requests. You can click Pending to view details of the pending requests.
Pending requests are also shown in the Quota changes form when a new quota increase request is about to be submitted.
To view all quota increase requests (currently pending and past requests):
Go to the Quotas page:
Click the Increase Requests tab
ClickFilter to query your quota increase requests by a specific property.
You might want to limit usage of a particular resource by setting your own quota limits. For example, to prevent getting billed for usage beyond the free courtesy usage limits, you can request per-day caps. To cap a quota, follow these steps:
In the Google Cloud console, go to the Quotas page.
To find the quota you want to cap, enter the appropriate properties and values in theFilter field. For example, to find the Subnetworks quota, enter Quota:Subnetworks.
Click the checkbox next to the quota you want to cap, and then clickEDIT QUOTAS.
Complete the request form that appears, including the new limit that you want to set.
Click SUBMIT REQUEST.
Capping usage with quotas does not apply to all services. Check the specific service's quota page for more information.
Managing your quota using the Google Cloud CLI (alpha)
To use this approach, first ensure that you have installed and initialized the latest version of the Google Cloud CLI, including the alpha commands component. If you are using Cloud Shell to interact with Google Cloud, the Google Cloud CLI is installed for you.
To view a project's quota for a particular service, run the following command, substituting your project ID and service name:
gcloud alpha services quota list \ --service=SERVICE_NAME.googleapis.com \ --consumer=projects/PROJECT_ID
To view the same service's quota details for an organization:
gcloud alpha services quota list \ --service=SERVICE_NAME.googleapis.com \ --consumer=organizations/ORG_ID
For a complete list of
gcloud quota commands and flags, see the
Google Cloud CLI reference.
In addition to
gcloud quota, some services have their own command-line access to quota and resource usage
information. For example, Compute Engine lets you access quota information
Managing your quota using the Service Usage API
You can use the Service Usage APIs to get current quotas and limit the quota usage for some Google Cloud APIs and services. For more information about Service Usage, see the following:
- For an overview, see What is Service Usage?
- For an API reference, see APIs and reference.
- For usage guides, see How-to guides.
You cannot use the Service Usage API to request a higher quota. For this activity, you must use the Cloud console.
Monitoring and alerting on quota metrics
The Cloud Monitoring API and UI lets you monitor quota usage, limits, and errors in greater depth. You can use these metrics to create custom dashboards and alerts, so you can monitor quota usage over time and receive alerts when, for example, you are approaching a quota limit.
Cloud Monitoring supports a wide variety of metrics that you can combine
with filters and aggregations for new and insightful views into your quota
usage. For example, you can combine a metric for allocation quota usage with a
quota_metric filter on Cloud TPU names.
To use Metrics Explorer to view the metrics for a monitored resource, follow these steps:
- In the Google Cloud console, go to the Metrics Explorer page within Monitoring.
- In the toolbar, select the Explorer tab.
- Select the Configuration tab.
- Expand the Select a metric menu, enter
quota usagein the filter bar, and then use the submenus to select a specific resource type and metric:
- In the Active resources menu, select Consumer Quota.
- In the Active metric categories menu, select Quota.
- In the Active metrics menu, select Allocation quota usage or Rate quota usage.
- Click Apply.
- Optional: To configure how the data is viewed, add filters and use the Group By, Aggregator, and chart-type menus. For example, you can group by resource or metric labels. For more information, see Select metrics when using Metrics Explorer.
- Optional: Change the graph settings:
- For quota and other metrics that report one sample per day, set the time frame to at least one week and set the plot type to Stacked bar chart.
- For distribution valued metrics, set the plot type to Heatmap chart.
Similarly, to see quota limits or exceeded errors, first select Consumer Quota as the resource type and then select Quota limit or Quota exceeded error.
After you've found the quota usage information you want, you can use Cloud Monitoring to create custom dashboards and alerts to help you monitor and maintain a robust application. For more information, see the following documents:
For examples of common quota-specific alerting policies, see Using quota metrics.
The Cloud Monitoring reference guide includes a detailed reference for quota metrics.
Checking quota metric support
Not all services support quota metrics in Cloud Monitoring. To see applicable quota metrics for supported services, select Consumer Quota as the resource type when building a chart or creating an alerting policy. Services that don't support quota metrics aren't displayed.
Common services that support quota metrics include Compute Engine, Dataflow, Cloud Spanner, Pub/Sub, Cloud Vision, Speech-to-Text, Cloud Monitoring, and Cloud Logging.
Common services that do not support quota metrics include App Engine, Cloud Storage, and Cloud SQL.
If your project exceeds a quota while using a service, Google Cloud returns an error based on how you accessed the service:
- If you exceeded a quota with an HTTP/REST request, Google Cloud returns an
429 TOO MANY REQUESTSstatus code.
- If you exceed a quota with an API request, Google Cloud returns an HTTP
413 REQUEST ENTITY TOO LARGEstatus code.
- If you exceeded a quota using gRPC, Google Cloud
ResourceExhaustederror. How this error appears to you depends on the service.
- If you exceeded a quota using a Google Cloud CLI command, the
gcloud CLI outputs a quota-exceeded error message and returns
with the exit code
Rate quotas reset after a predefined time interval that is specific to each service. For more information, see the quotas documentation for the specific service.
If you want to be alerted when errors happen in future, you can create custom alerts for specific quota errors, as described in Monitoring quota metrics.