This page explains how to provide routes and define your Google Cloud firewall rules for the network associated with your Dataflow jobs.
Internet access for Dataflow
Dataflow worker virtual machines (VMs) need to be able to reach Google Cloud APIs and services. You can either configure worker VMs with an external IP address so that they meet the Internet access requirements, or you can use Private Google Access.
With Private Google Access, VMs that have only internal IP addresses can access select public IPs for Google Cloud and services. Read Configuring Private Google Access for information about the routing and firewall rules requirements and configuration steps.
Jobs that access APIs and services outside of Google Cloud require internet access. For example, Python SDK jobs need access to the Python Package Index (PyPI). In this case, you must either configure worker VMs with external IP addresses or use a Network Address Translation solution, such as Cloud NAT. Read Managing Python Pipeline Dependencies on the Apache Beam website for more details.
Domain Name System (DNS) limitations
Custom BIND is not supported when using Dataflow. To customize DNS resolution when using Dataflow with VPC Service Controls, use Cloud DNS private zones instead of using custom BIND servers. To use your own on-premises DNS resolution, consider using a Google Cloud DNS forwarding method.
Firewall rules let you allow or deny traffic to and from your VMs. This page assumes familiarity with how Google Cloud firewall rules work as described on the Firewall Rules Overview and Using Firewall Rules pages, including the implied firewall rules.
Firewall rules required by Dataflow
Dataflow requires that worker VMs communicate with one another using specific TCP ports within the VPC network that you specify in your pipeline options. You need to configure firewall rules in your VPC network to allow this type of communication.
Some VPC networks, like the automatically created
network, include a
default-allow-internal rule that meets the firewall
requirement for Dataflow.
Because all worker VMs have a network tag with the value
dataflow, you can
create a more specific firewall rule for Dataflow. A project
owner, editor, or Security
Admin can use the following
gcloud command to create an ingress allow rule that permits traffic on TCP
ports 12345 and 12346 from VMs with the network tag
dataflow to VMs with the
gcloud compute firewall-rules create FIREWALL_RULE_NAME \ --network NETWORK \ --action allow \ --direction DIRECTION \ --target-tags dataflow \ --source-tags dataflow \ --priority 0 \ --rules tcp:12345-12346
In the preceding example, replace the following variables:
- FIREWALL_RULE_NAME with a name for the firewall rule
- NETWORK with the name of the network that your worker VMs use
- DIRECTION with the direction of the firewall rule
For further guidance about firewall rules, refer to Using Firewall
Rules. For specific TCP ports used by
Dataflow, you can view the project container
The container manifest explicitly specifies the ports in order to map host ports
into the container. You can also view network configuration and activity by
SSH session on one of your workers
iproute2. Read the
for more information.
SSH access to worker VMs
Dataflow does not require SSH; however, SSH is useful for troubleshooting.
If your worker VM has an external IP address, you can connect to
the VM through either
the Cloud Console or by using
gcloud command-line tool. To connect
using SSH, you must have a firewall rule that allows incoming connections on TCP
port 22 from at least the IP address of the system on which you're running
gcloud or the system running the web browser you use to access the
If you need to connect to a worker VM that only has an internal IP address, see Connecting to instances that do not have external IP addresses.