Connect to a public source from a private instance

This page describes how to connect to software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications like Salesforce, and third-party cloud services like Amazon S3, from a private Cloud Data Fusion instance when you develop a pipeline.

Throughout this guide, the terms egress and egress control are used:

  • Egress refers to the network traffic exiting Google Cloud over the public internet. Usually, this happens when you create a pipeline that reads from or writes to a SaaS service like Salesforce, or a public cloud service like Amazon S3.

  • Egress control defines guardrails for egress traffic using a proxy VM, that allows egress traffic to a set of preconfigured domains to succeed, and all others to fail. It enables a higher security perimeter for egress traffic, and can prevent unwanted egress from a private instance.

The following system architecture diagram shows how a private Cloud Data Fusion instance connects with the public internet when you develop a pipeline:

Private instance architecture diagram

When you design your pipeline in this scenario, Cloud Data Fusion routes egress traffic through your customer project in Cloud Data Fusion Preview or Wrangler. This process uses the following resources:

  • A custom VPC network route: A custom VPC network routes traffic through an imported custom route to gateway VMs, which export to a tenant project VPC using VPC peering.

  • A gateway VM: A gateway VM routes egress traffic out of Google Cloud from the Cloud Data Fusion tenant project to a SaaS or third-party cloud over the public internet. You manage this VM in your customer project. You can configure it in a High-Availability (HA) environment using an Internal Load Balancer (ILB). It is recommended that you reuse the VM for multiple private Cloud Data Fusion instances within the same VPC.

For information about setting up egress control in your design and execution environments, see Control egress in a private instance.

Before you begin

Set up internet connectivity

The following steps describe how to access an Amazon S3 bucket from a private Cloud Data Fusion instance in Wrangler. The same steps apply to accessing any data source over the public internet when you design a pipeline in Preview or Wrangler.

Only a single VM is used in this guide, but for mission-critical applications, we recommend that you create load balanced VMs. For more information, see Set up High Availability VM.

Create an NAT gateway

Create a Cloud NAT gateway in the same region and VPC network as your Cloud Data Fusion private instance.

Go to the Cloud NAT page

Create a gateway VM instance and firewall rules

Console

  1. Go to the VM instances page.

    Go to the VM instances page

  2. Click Create instance. (It is recommended to use a VM with no external IP.)

  3. Use the same VPC that has network peering set up with the private Cloud Data Fusion instance. For more information about VPC network peering in this scenario, see Before you begin.

  4. Enable IP forwarding for the instance in the same network as the Cloud Data Fusion instance.

  5. In the Startup script field, enter the following script:

    #! /bin/bash
    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
    iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 0.0.0.0/0 -j MASQUERADE
    echo net.ipv4.ip_forward=1 > /etc/sysctl.d/11-gce-network-security.conf
    iptables-save
    

    For more information, see Running startup scripts.

    To get the allocated IP range for the Cloud Data Fusion instance, go to the Cloud Data Fusion Instance details page.

    Staging egress interface

gcloud

To create the gateway VM and firewall rules, run the following script in the gcloud command-line tool:

export CDF_PROJECT=CDF_PROJECT
export GATEWAY_VM=GATEWAY_VM_NAME
export ZONE=VM_ZONE
export SUBNET=SUBNET
export VPC_NETWORK=VPC_NETWORK
export COMPUTE_ENGINE_SA=COMPUTE_ENGINE_SA

gcloud beta compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT instances create $GATEWAY_VM --zone=$ZONE --machine-type=e2-medium --subnet=$SUBNET --network-tier=PREMIUM --metadata=startup-script=\#\!\ /bin/bash$'\n'echo\ 1\ \>\ /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward$'\n'iptables\ -t\ nat\ -A\ POSTROUTING\ -s\ 0.0.0.0/0\ -j\ MASQUERADE$'\n'echo\ net.ipv4.ip_forward=1\ \>\ /etc/sysctl.d/11-gce-network-security.conf$'\n'iptables-save  --can-ip-forward --no-address --maintenance-policy=MIGRATE --service-account=$COMPUTE_ENGINE_SA --scopes=https://www.googleapis.com/auth/devstorage.read_only,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/monitoring.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/servicecontrol,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/service.management.readonly,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/trace.append --tags=http-server,https-server --image=debian-10-buster-v20210316 --image-project=debian-cloud --boot-disk-size=10GB --boot-disk-type=pd-balanced --boot-disk-device-name=$GATEWAY_VM --no-shielded-secure-boot --shielded-vtpm --shielded-integrity-monitoring --reservation-affinity=any

gcloud compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT firewall-rules create egress-allow-http --direction=INGRESS --priority=1000 --network= --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:80 --source-ranges=0.0.0.0/0 --target-tags=http-server

gcloud compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT firewall-rules create egress-allow-https --direction=INGRESS --priority=1000 --network= --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:443 --source-ranges=0.0.0.0/0 --target-tags=https-server
  • Replace CDF_PROJECT with the customizable unique identifier for your project
  • Replace GATEWAY_VM with the name of the VM you want to configure.
  • Replace ZONE with the zone of your VM.
  • Replace SUBNET with your subnet.
  • Replace VPC_NETWORK with the name of your VM.
  • Replace COMPUTE_ENGINE_SA with the name of your Compute Engine service account.

Using a shared VPC

If you use a shared VPC to connect your private Cloud Data Fusion instance to sources on the public internet, create a gateway VM in the host project where VPC network peering is set up with the tenant project.

Create a custom route

Create a custom route to connect to the gateway VM instance that you created.

Console

To create your route in the Cloud Console, see Adding a static route.

When you configure the route:

  • Set the Priority to greater than or equal to 1001. Set the destination to 0.0.0.0/0.
  • Use the same project and VPC as the private Cloud Data Fusion instance.
  • Be sure that your VPC network peering configuration allows exporting routes. This lets the Cloud Data Fusion tenant project VPC import this custom route through VPC network peering.

gcloud

To create your route in gcloud tool:

export ROUTE=ROUTE
gcloud beta compute routes create $ROUTE --project=$CDF_PROJECT \
    --network=$VPC_NETWORK --priority=1001 \
    --destination-range=0.0.0.0/0 \
    --next-hop-instance=$GATEWAY_VM \
    --next-hop-instance-zone=$ZONE

Replace ROUTE with the name of the custom route.

Verify your setup

After performing the previous steps, verify that you can access S3 bucket services (or other Saas or public cloud service) in Preview and Wrangler.

Set up a highly available Gateway

Recommended: For mission-critical applications, we recommend that you create load balanced VMs.

Create firewall rules for health checks

Create firewall rules to allow:

  • Port 80 (HTTP) and port 443 (HTTPS) from all source ranges.
  • TCP, UDP and ICMP traffic from health check prober IP addresses. For example: 130.211.0.0/22,35.191.0.0/16.

Console

Create Firewall rules to allow ports from all source ranges and firewall rules to allow TCP, UDP, and ICMP traffic from health check prober IP addresses such as 130.211.0.0/22,35.191.0.0/16.

See Creating health checks.

gcloud

Create a firewall rule for health checks:

export CDF_PROJECT=PROJECT_ID
export VPC_NETWORK=VPC_NETWORK

gcloud compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT firewall-rules create vpc-allow-http \
    --direction=INGRESS --priority=1000  \
    --network=$VPC_NETWORK \
    --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:80  \
    --source-ranges=0.0.0.0/0  \
    --target-tags=http-server

gcloud compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT firewall-rules create vpc-allow-https \
    --direction=INGRESS --priority=1000 --network=$VPC_NETWORK \
    --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:443 --source-ranges=0.0.0.0/0 \
    --target-tags=https-server

gcloud compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT firewall-rules create allow-health-checks \
    --network=$VPC_NETWORK \
    --action=allow --direction=ingress \
    --target-tags=allow-health-checks \
    --source-ranges=130.211.0.0/22,35.191.0.0/16 \
    --rules=tcp,udp,icmp

Create gateway VM instance template

Console

When you create an instance template in the console:

  • Create it in the same VPC as the Cloud Data Fusion instance.
  • Recommended: Use a VM with a private IP address.
  • Enable HTTP/HTTPS ports.
  • Enable IP forwarding
  • In the Startup script field, enter the following script:

    #! /bin/bash
    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
    iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 0.0.0.0/0 -j MASQUERADE
    echo net.ipv4.ip_forward=1 > /etc/sysctl.d/11-gce-network-security.conf
    iptables-save
    

    For more information, see Running startup scripts.

    To get the allocated IP range for the Cloud Data Fusion instance, go to the Cloud Data Fusion Instance details page.

gcloud

Create an instance template:

export TEMPLATE_NAME=TEMPLATE_NAME
export REGION=REGION
export SUBNET=SUBNET
export SERVICE_ACCOUNT=SERVICE_ACCOUNT

gcloud beta compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT instance-templates create $TEMPLATE_NAME \
--machine-type=e2-medium \
--subnet=projects/$CDF_PROJECT/regions/$REGION/subnetworks/$SUBNET \
--network-tier=PREMIUM --metadata=startup-script=sudo\ bash\ -c\ \"echo\ 1\ \>\ /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward\"$'\n'sudo\ iptables\ -t\ nat\ -A\ POSTROUTING\ -s\ 0.0.0.0/0\ -j\ MASQUERADE$'\n'sudo\ bash\ -c\ \"echo\ net.ipv4.ip_forward=1\ \>\ /etc/sysctl.d/11-gce-network-security.conf\"$'\n'sudo\ iptables-save \
--can-ip-forward --no-address --maintenance-policy=MIGRATE \
--service-account=$SERVICE_ACCOUNT \
--scopes=https://www.googleapis.com/auth/devstorage.read_only,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/monitoring.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/servicecontrol,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/service.management.readonly,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/trace.append \
--region=$REGION --tags=http-server,https-server,allow-health-checks \
--image=debian-10-buster-v20210316 \
--image-project=debian-cloud --boot-disk-size=10GB \
--boot-disk-type=pd-balanced \
--boot-disk-device-name=$TEMPLATE_NAME \
--no-shielded-secure-boot --no-shielded-vtpm \
--no-shielded-integrity-monitoring \
--reservation-affinity=any

Create a health check

No service runs on this gateway VM instance, so you can use port 22 for your health check.

Console

See Creating health checks.

gcloud

Create a health check:

export HEATH_CHECK=HEALTH_CHECK_NAME

gcloud beta compute health-checks create tcp $HEATH_CHECK --project=$CDF_PROJECT \
--port=22 --proxy-header=NONE --no-enable-logging \
--check-interval=5 --timeout=5 \
--unhealthy-threshold=2 --healthy-threshold=2

Create an instance group

Using the health check created in the previous step, create an instance group:

Console

See Creating managed instance groups.

gcloud

Create an instance group:

export INSTANCE_GROUP=INSTANCE_GROUP
gcloud beta compute --project=$CDF_PROJECT instance-groups managed create $INSTANCE_GROUP \
--base-instance-name=$INSTANCE_GROUP \
--template=$TEMPLATE_NAME --size=1 --zone=$ZONE \
--health-check=test --initial-delay=300

gcloud beta compute --project "$CDF_PROJECT" instance-groups managed set-autoscaling "$INSTANCE_GROUP" \
--zone "$ZONE" --cool-down-period "60" \
--max-num-replicas "10" --min-num-replicas "1" \
--target-cpu-utilization "0.6" --mode "on"

Create a load balancer

Create TCP load balancer (ILB) from the instance group created in the previous step.

Add the custom route to the load balancer

Add the custom route to the Internal Load Balancer (ILB) in the same VPC as the Cloud Data Fusion instance.

Console

Go to the VPC network page.

Go to the VPC network page

In the Routes tab, click Create Route.

Add custome route

gcloud

Add the custom route to the internal load balancer:

export ROUTE=ROUTE_NAME
export ILB_FRONTEND=<ip_of_ilb_frontend>
gcloud beta compute routes create $ROUTE --project=$CDF_PROJECT \
--network=$VPC_NETWORK --priority=1001 \
--destination-range=0.0.0.0/0 \
--next-hop-ilb=$ILB_FRONTEND \
--next-hop-ilb-region=$REGION

Troubleshooting

Getting Connection Timeout errors in Preview or Wrangler

When setting up egress controls you might get a Connection Timeout error.

To fix the issue, check that the following settings are in place:

Instance group health checks are not successful

Check that firewall rules to allow TCP, UDP, and ICMP traffic from the 130.211.0.0/22,35.191.0.0/16 source range are present.

Pipeline fails while executing in Dataproc

Enable Cloud NAT in the same region and network as the Dataproc cluster to access public internet at execution time.

What's next