Committed Use Discounts

Compute Engine offers the ability to purchase committed use contracts in return for deeply discounted prices for VM usage. These discounts are referred to as committed use discounts.

If your workload is stable and predictable, you can purchase a specific amount of vCPUs, memory, GPUs, and local SSDs for a discount off of normal prices in return for committing to a usage term of 1 year or 3 years. The discount is up to 57% for most resources types like machine types or GPUs. The discount is up to 70% for memory-optimized machine types.

Upon purchase, you will be billed a monthly fee for the duration of the term you selected, whether or not you use the services.

Committed use discounts work on all Compute Engine non-shared core machine types, including predefined and custom machine types. Committed use discounts are:

  • Simple and flexible: Discounts apply to the aggregate number of vCPUs, memory, GPUs and local SSDs within a region so they are not affected by changes to your instance's machine shape.

  • No upfront costs: There are no upfront costs for committed use discounts. Committed use discounts are applied to your bill every month.

Before you begin

How does a committed use discount work?

To use committed use discounts, you must purchase commitments through the Compute Engine API, the gcloud command-line tool, or the Google Cloud Platform Console. Once you have purchased commitments, they are automatically applied to your project for concurrent usage.

Purchase commitments for specific resources you know you will utilize. For example, if you purchase a commitment for 8 cores, and you run 24 cores during the month, you will receive committed use discounts for 8 cores. The other 16 cores will be billed at standard, non-committed use rates. Keep in mind that once you purchase a set amount of commitments, you are billed for those commitments monthly, even if you might not use them. So, if you purchased commitments for 8 cores, you will be billed the committed use rates for those 8 cores for the whole month, even if you might have only run these cores for a part of the month. As such, it is to your advantage to purchase commitments only in increments you know you will use.

Committed use discounts apply to vCPUs and memory simultaneously. You cannot buy a committed use discount for vCPUs or memory independently. As with custom machine types, when you buy a committed use discount, you must purchase memory in specific increments.

Commitments cannot be stacked for burst scenarios. For example, if you purchased 10 cores for the month and then ran 20 cores for half the month, commitments would not apply for the full 20 cores just because the usage was half the month.

Committed use discounts are subject to Google Cloud Platform's Service Specific Terms. By purchasing a committed use discount, you agree to these terms. Committed use discounts do not renew so you must create a new commitment to continue receiving discounts.

Specifications

  • You can only purchase commitments if you have quota for commitments. Check the Quotas page to ensure you have enough quota to create a commitment. If commitments are not listed on the quotas page or you require additional quota, request a quota increase.

  • Commitments must be purchased on a per-region basis.

  • To use the gcloud tool to manage commitments, you must be running gcloud version 147.0.0 or later. To update the gcloud tool to the latest version:

    gcloud components update
    

    To check the version of the gcloud tool you are running:

    gcloud version
    
  • Any remaining vCPUs and memory that are not covered by committed use discounts will be eligible for sustained use discounts.

Restrictions

  • Committed use discounts automatically apply to VMs by Google Kubernetes Engine, Google Cloud Dataproc, and Google Compute Engine. Committed use discounts do not apply to VMs created using App Engine Flexible Environment, Google Cloud Dataflow, or Google Cloud SQL.
  • Projects that are in the free tier period with free tier credit and projects that do not have any payment history do not qualify for committed use discounts.
  • You can purchase commitments only on a per-region basis.
  • Committed use discounts apply to usage in the project in which those discounts are purchased.
  • Committed use discounts do not apply to preemptible VM instances, shared-core machine types, or extended memory.

  • You must purchase commitments for vCPUs and memory together:

    • For general purpose commitments, you must purchase between 0.9 GB and 6.5 GB per vCPU. The total memory must be a multiple of 256 MB.
    • (Alpha) For memory-optimized commitments, you must purchase between 14 GB and 40 GB per vCPU to accommodate the range of available memory-optimized machine types. The total memory must be a multiple of 256 MB.
    • (Beta) For compute-optimized commitments, you must purchase between 2 GB and 4 GB per vCPU to accommodate the range of available compute-optimized machine types. The total memory must be a multiple of 256 MB.
  • For committed use discounted pricing for GPUs and local SSDs, you must create a reservation when purchasing the commitment.

  • If a reservation is attached to a committed use discount, the reservation cannot be deleted for the duration of the commitment.

  • You can only buy a 1-year commitment on K80 GPUs.

Pricing

Committed use discount pricing for VM instances, with or without GPUs or local SSDs, differs depending on the region. See the Pricing page for current rates.

Commitment types

You can purchase commitments for the following resources.

Group Resources for which you can purchase discounts Applicable to the following
General-purpose commitments
  • vCPUs
  • Memory
  • NVIDIA® Tesla® V100
  • NVIDIA® Tesla® P100
  • NVIDIA® Tesla® P4
  • NVIDIA® Tesla® K80
  • Local SSD
  • n1-standard, n1-highmem, n1-highcpu machine types
  • Custom machine types
  • Sole-tenant nodes
(Alpha) Memory-optimized commitments
  • vCPUs
  • Memory
n1-ultramem, n1-megamem
(Beta) Compute-optimized commitments
  • vCPUs
  • Memory
c2-standard

You cannot purchase commitments for f1-micro machine types, g1-small machine types, or the sole-tenant premium charge.

Commitments for machine types

Purchase the appropriate commitment type for the machine types you are using. For example, if you plan to use any of the n1-standard, n1-highmem, or n1-highcpu machine types and want to purchase commitments for these machine types, purchase a general-purpose commitment type.

General-purpose commitments

Purchase a general-purpose commitment type if you want the commitment to apply to custom machine types, sole-tenant nodes, or the n1 predefined machine types. For this commitment type, you must purchase between 0.9 GB and 6.5 GB of memory per vCPU, inclusive.

Discounts for general-purpose commitments are applied to resources in the following order:

  1. Custom machine types
  2. Sole-tenant node
  3. n1 predefined machine types

For example, assume you have a region with the following mix:

  • 10 custom machine type vCPUs
  • 30 GB of custom machine type memory
  • 2 n1-standard-4 predefined machine types

You purchase 15 vCPUs and 13.5 GB of memory for committed use. The committed use discounts would be applied first to the custom machine types and any remaining discounts would be applied to the predefined machine types. In this case, all 10 vCPUs of the custom machine types would be charged at committed use prices and 13.5 GB of custom machine type memory would be charged at committed use prices.

Finally, the remaining 5 vCPUs of committed use would apply to 5 random vCPUs across the two n1-standard-4 machine types. Any resources that aren't covered by committed use discounts would qualify for sustained use discounts.

Read Purchasing commitments for machine types to purchase a commitment for general-purpose machine types.

Memory-optimized commitments

Purchase memory-optimized commitments if you intend to use memory-optimized machine types. For memory-optimized machine types, you must purchase between 14 GB and 40 GB of memory per vCPU, inclusive.

When you purchase a memory-optimized commitment, the discount is applied without any ordering to the following machine types:

  1. n1-ultramem machine types
  2. n1-megam machine types

Read Purchasing commitments for machine types to purchase a commitment for memory-optimized machine types.

Compute-optimized commitments

Purchase compute-optimized commitments if you intend to use compute-optimized machine types. For compute-optimized machine types, you must purchase between 2 GB and 4 GB of memory per vCPU, inclusive. Compute-optimized machine types include all of the c2-standard machine types.

Read Purchasing commitments for machine types to purchase a commitment for compute-optimized machine types.

Commitments for GPUs and local SSD

To purchase commitments for GPUs or local SSDs, you must also reserve the resources when purchasing the commitment. Reserving these resources is required to ensure that the resources are always available for you (whether you use them or not). There are no additional charges for reserving the resources.

You must purchase commitments by specific GPU types. For example, you can purchase GPUs for either Tesla P100s or Tesla V100s, but you cannot purchase commitments for Tesla P100 GPUs and expect to apply them to other GPU types.

Read Purchasing commitments for GPUs and local SSD to purchase a commitment for GPUs and local SSDs.

To learn more about reservations, read Reserving zonal resources.

Committed and sustained use discounts

You cannot combine sustained use and committed use discounts. The two different discount types never apply to the same portion of a vCPU or GB of memory.

Resources that are not covered by committed use discounts will automatically qualify for sustained use discounts on a machine type family basis.

For example:

You run an n1-standard-2 for a portion of the month and run an n1-standard-8 for another portion of the same month, Compute Engine combines the two and applies sustained use discounts for the portion not covered by committed use discounts because both machine types belong to the n1-standard family.

Requesting quota for commitments

You can only purchase commitments if you have quota for commitments. Check the Quotas page to ensure you have enough quota to create a commitment.

When making a request using the gcloud tool or the API, the server returns the following error if you have no commitment quota:

"Quota 'COMMITMENTS' exceeded. Limit: 0.0"

To check quota in the console:

  1. Go to the Quota Information page in the Google Cloud Platform Console.

    Go to the Quota Information page

  2. Expand the Quota type dropdown menu and select All quotas.
  3. Expand the Metric dropdown menu.
  4. Click None to hide all quotas and then type commitments in the search box to search for commitments quota.
  5. Select Commitments from the results list.

    Screenshot of commitments screenshot

  6. Check the quota for commitments in your desired region. If you do not have quota for commitments, the quota will list 0.

    Screenshot of no commitments

To request quota for commitments

  1. Go to the Quota Increase page in the Google Cloud Platform Console.

    Go to the Quota Increase page

  2. Expand the Quota type dropdown menu and select All quotas.
  3. Expand the Metric dropdown menu.
  4. Click None to hide all quotas and then type commitments in the search box to search for commitments quota.
  5. Select Commitments from the results list.

    Screenshot of commitments screenshot

  6. Select the checkbox next to commitments for the desired region and click the Edit Quotas button.

  7. If prompted, fill in your first and last name, and phone number. Click Next.

  8. Fill out the request form and click Next.

  9. Click Submit Request to submit your request.

Increasing the COMMITTED_CPUS quota

If you do not have enough quota for COMMITTED_CPUS request a quota increase for COMMITMENTS to match your total CPUS quota. You can request this quota increase at any time.

Purchasing commitments for machine types

Purchasing commitments for machine types can be done in the GCP Console, the gcloud command-line tool, or programmatically through the API. To purchase commitments for GPUs or local SSDs, see Purchasing commitments for GPUs and local SSDs.

After purchasing a commitment, the commitment is effective starting at midnight the following day. For example, a commitment purchased on Monday afternoon at 3PM PST would be effective on Tuesday at 12AM PST. The discounts will automatically be applied to applicable instances in the region you specified.

Once a commitment is purchased, you cannot cancel the commitment.

Console

  1. Go to the Committed Use Discounts page in the GCP Console.

    Go to the Committed Use Discounts page

  2. Click Purchase to purchase a new commitment.
  3. Name your commitment and choose the region where you want it to apply.
  4. Choose the commitment type. Select either General Purpose or Memory-optimized depending on what machine types you want to use.
  5. Choose a duration amount of the commitment, either 1 or 3 years.
  6. Choose the input mode for the commitment:

    • (Recommended) Custom input allows you to customize the number of vCPUs and the of memory.

    • Basic input allows you to choose the number of vCPUs and Compute Engine will automatically populate the amount of memory for the number of vCPUs.

  7. Enter the quantities of vCPU and memory that you want to purchase. Memory per vCPU must be a specific ratio depending on the discount type that you select. Use between 0.9 GB and 6.5 GB per vCPU for general-purpose committed use discounts. For memory-optimized committed use discounts, specify either 14 GB per vCPU or 40 GB per vCPU depending on the memory-optimized machine types that you plan to use. The total memory must be a multiple of 256 MB.

  8. Click the Purchase button to purchase the commitment.

  9. Read the terms of purchase and click Purchase again once you are ready to purchase the commitment.

gcloud

Using the gcloud tool, run the compute commitments create command:

gcloud compute commitments create [COMMITMENT_NAME] --region [REGION] \
    --resources vcpu=[NUMBER_VCPUS],memory=[MEMORY] --plan [DURATION] \
    --type [COMMITMENT_TYPE]

where:

  • [COMMITMENT_NAME is the name you want to identify this commitment with.
  • [REGION] is the region this commitment applies to. Each region has different commitment prices. See the price sheet for current prices.
  • [NUMBER_VCPUS] is the number of vCPUs you are willing to purchase commitments for. The number of vCPUs must be 1 or higher and can be even or odd.
  • [MEMORY] is the amount of memory in MB or GB you are willing to purchase commitments for. For example, 1000MB. If units are not specified, the default unit used is GB. Depending on the type of the commitment, specify the following memory:

    • GENERAL_PURPOSE: Use between 0.9 GB and 6.5 GB per vCPU.
    • (Alpha) MEMORY_OPTIMIZED: Use between 14 GB and 40 GB per vCPU.
    • (Beta) COMPUTE_OPTIMIZED: Use between 2 GB and 4 GB per vCPU.
  • [DURATION] is the term of the commitment, either 12-month or 36-month.

  • [COMMITMENT_TYPE] is one of:

    • GENERAL_PURPOSE for general-purpose commitments.
    • (Alpha) MEMORY_OPTIMIZED for the memory-optimized commitments.
    • (Beta) COMPUTE_OPTIMIZED for compute-optimized commitments.

      If you do not specify this flag, GENERAL_PURPOSE is the default value.

To create a general-purpose commitment, you might use the following example:

gcloud compute commitments create example-commitment --region us-central1 \
    --resources vcpu=5,memory=33280MB --plan 12-month

To create a compute-optimized commitment, use the gcloud beta compute commitments create command, which purchases a 3 year commitment for a compute-optimized machine type:

gcloud beta compute commitments create example-compute-optimized-commitment \
    --region us-central1 --resources vcpu=X,memory=YMB --plan 12-month \
    --type COMPUTE_OPTIMIZED

To create a memory-optimized commitment, use the gcloud alpha compute commitments create command, similar to the following example, which purchases a 1 year commitment for a n1-megamem-96 machine type:

gcloud alpha compute commitments create example-memory-optimized-commitment \
    --region us-central1 --resources vcpu=96,memory=1434MB \
    --plan 12-month --type MEMORY_OPTIMIZED

To create a GPU or local SSD commitment, you must create a reservation when purchasing the commitment using the gcloud beta compute commitments create command. For example, the following commitment includes 4 GPUs and a reservation for those GPUs to be used in 2 instances in us-central1-a.

gcloud beta compute commitments create example-reservation-commitment \
    --region=us-central1 \
    --resources=vcpu=96,memory=624GB \
    --resources-accelerator=type=nvidia-tesla-v100,count=4 \
    --plan 12-month \
    --reservation=reservation-01 \
    --reservation-zone=us-central1-a \
    --machine-type=n1-standard-32
    --accelerator=type=nvidia-tesla-v100,count=2 \
    --vm-count=2

API

In the API, make a POST request to the following URL, with a request body that contains information about the commitment:

https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/[PROJECT_ID]/regions/[REGION]/commitments?requestId=[OPTIONAL_UNIQUE_ID]

The resource body should contain:

  • name for the name of the commitment.
  • plan for the term of the commitment, either TWELVE_MONTH or THIRTY_SIX_MONTH.
  • resources to specify the amount of memory and vCPU. Memory must be be specified in MB. You must specify both VCPU and MEMORY in the resources section.

For example, the following creates a commitment for 1 year with 5 vCPUs and 18.75 GB of memory:

{
  "name": "example-commitment",
  "plan": "TWELVE_MONTH",
  "type": "GENERAL_PURPOSE",
  "resources": [
    {
    "amount": "5",
    "type": "VCPU"
    },
    {
    "amount": "18750",
    "type": "MEMORY"
    }
  ]
}

To create a memory-optimized commitment, use the Alpha API and include the type property. The following example, purchases a 1 year commitment for a n1-megamem-96 machine type:

{
  "name": "example-memory-optimized-commitment",
  "plan": "TWELVE_MONTH",
  "type": "MEMORY_OPTIMIZED",
  "resources": [
    {
    "amount": "96",
    "type": "VCPU"
    },
    {
    "amount": "1434",
    "type": "MEMORY"
    }
  ]
}

To create a compute-optimized commitment, use the Beta API and include the type property. The following example, purchases a 1 year commitment for a c2-standard-16 machine type:

{
  "name": "example-compute-optimized-commitment",
  "plan": "TWELVE_MONTH",
  "type": "COMPUTE_OPTIMIZED",
  "resources": [
    {
    "amount": "16",
    "type": "VCPU"
    },
    {
    "amount": "1434",
    "type": "MEMORY"
    }
  ]
}

Purchasing commitments for GPUs and local SSDs

To purchase a commitment for GPUs or local SSDs:

  • You must purchase a general-purpose commitment.
  • You must create a reservation that includes either GPUs or local SSDs at the same time when you are purchasing your commitment.

When purchasing commitments for GPUs, each GPU type is its own commitment type. For example, you can purchase GPUs for either Tesla P100s or Tesla V100s, but you cannot purchase commitments for Tesla P100 GPUs and expect to apply them to other GPU types.

The amount of GPUs and local SSDs that you reserve must be equal to the amount that you commit to. For example, if you want to reserve 2 V100 GPUs, then you must also commit to 2 V100 GPUs.

gcloud

Use the gcloud beta compute commmitments create command to purchase a commitment, and include flags to create a reservation.

For example, the following commitment includes 4 GPUs and a new reservation for those 4 GPUs to be used across 2 n1-standard-32 instances in us-central1-a.

gcloud beta compute commitments create commitment-01 \
    --region=us-central1 \
    --resources=vcpu=96,memory=624GB \
    --resources-accelerator=type=nvidia-tesla-v100,count=4 \
    --plan 12-month \
    --reservation=reservation-01 \
    --reservation-zone=us-central1-a \
    --machine-type=n1-standard-16 \
    --accelerator=type=nvidia-tesla-v100,count=2 \
    --vm-count=2

You can also create multiple reservations when purchasing a commitment by using a YAML file.

gcloud beta compute commitments create commitment-01 \
    --region=us-central1 \
    --resources=vcpu=96,memory=624,local-ssd=750 \
    --resources-accelerator=type=nvidia-tesla-v100,count=1 \
    --plan 12-month \
    --reservations-from-file=[YAML_FILE]

Where [YAML_FILE] contains the reservation properties.

For example, the following YAML file contains 2 reservations. The first reservation, res-01, contains 1 n1-standard-1 instance with 1 GPU, and it is a targeted reservation, which means that you must specifically target that reservation by name to use its reserved instances. The second reservation, res-02, contains 1 n1-standard-1 VM instance with 2 types of attached local SSDs.

- reservation: res-01
  reservation_zone: us-central1-a
  require_specific_reservation: true
  vm_count: 1
  machine_type: n1-standard-1
  accelerator:
  - count: 1
    type: nvidia-tesla-v100
- reservation: res-02
  reservation_zone: us-central1-a
  vm_count: 1
  machine_type: n1-standard-1
  local_ssd:
  - interface: scsi
    size: 375
  - interface: nvme
    size: 375

API

Use the regionCommitments.insert API and include the reservations field to define the reservation's properties. For example, the following commitment includes 4 GPUs and a reservation for those 4 GPUs to be used across 2 instances in us-central1-a.

POST https://www.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/[PROJECT_ID]/regions/[REGION]/commitments

{
  "name": "commitment-01",
  "plan": "TWELVE_MONTH",
  "resources":
  [
    {
      "amount": "96",
      "type": "VCPU"
    },
    {
      "amount": "638976",
      "type": "MEMORY"
    },
    {
      "acceleratorType": "nvidia-tesla-v100",
      "amount": "4",
      "type": "ACCELERATOR"
    }
  ],
  "reservations":
  [
    {
      "name": "reservation-01",
      "specificReservation":
      {
        "count": "2",
        "instanceProperties":
        {
          "guestAccelerators":
          [
            {
              "acceleratorCount": 2,
              "acceleratorType": "nvidia-tesla-v100"
            }
          ],
          "machineType": "n1-standard-8"
        }
      },
      "specificReservationRequired": false,
      "zone": "us-central1-a"
    }
  ]
}

The commitment will be successfully created only if there are enough resources in the target zone, and sufficient quota, at the time of the request.

When you create a commitment with an attached reservation, you cannot delete the reservation for the duration of the commitment. When your commitment expires, Compute Engine automatically deletes any attached reservations.

Combining reservations with commitments

A committed use discount provides a 1- or 3-year discounted price agreement, but it does not reserve capacity in a specific zone. A reservation ensures that capacity is held in a specific zone even if the reserved VMs are not running. By combining a reservation with a commitment, you get discounted, reserved resources.

For GPUs and local SSDs, in order to purchase a commitment and get discounted prices, you must create a reservation when purchasing the commitment. For these resources, the location and size of the reservation cannot be changed for the duration of your commitment.

See Reserving zonal resources for more information on reservations.

Modifying a commitment

Once you purchase a commitment, you cannot change it. If you need to modify a commitment, purchase a new commitment with a new expiration date for the incremental amount.

For example, if you want to increase the amount of vCPUs for a commitment from 10 vCPUs to 15 vCPUs, purchase a new commitment for the difference. In this case, purchase a new commitment for 5 vCPUs.

You cannot decrease the resources already purchased in a commitment. For example, you cannot change a commitment for 15 vCPUs to 10 vCPUs.

Viewing active commitments

View commitments in the console or the API.

Console

View a list of commitments in the Committed Use Discounts page in the Google Cloud Platform Console.

Go to the Committed Use Discounts page

gcloud

Make a request using the commitments list command:

gcloud compute commitments list

The tool returns a list of commitments:

 NAME              REGION    END_TIMESTAMP                  STATUS
 my-commitment     us-east1  2018-03-17T00:00:00.000-07:00  NOT_YET_ACTIVE

API

You can get a list of commitments across all regions by making an aggregatedList request to the following URL:

https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/[PROJECT_ID]/aggregated/commitments

Which returns a list of commitments:

"commitments": [
{
  "kind": "compute#commitment",
  "id": "3294122326373778983",
  "creationTimestamp": "2017-02-09T15:18:32.411-08:00",
  "name": "example-commitment",
  "region": "https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/example-project/regions/us-central1",
  "selfLink": "https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/example-project/regions/us-central1/commitments/example-commitment",
  "status": "NOT_YET_ACTIVE",
  "statusMessage": "The commitment is not yet active (its startTimestamp is in the future). It will not apply to current resource usage.",
  "plan": "TWELVE_MONTH",
  "startTimestamp": "2017-02-10T00:00:00.000-08:00",
  "endTimestamp": "2018-02-10T00:00:00.000-08:00",
  "resources": [
    {
      "type": "VCPU",
      "amount": "5"
    },
    {
      "type": "MEMORY",
      "amount": "32500"
    }]
  }
]

A commitment can have one of the following statuses:

  • CREATING: The commitment is being created.
  • NOT_YET_ACTIVE: The commitment has been created but is not yet active. Commitments are effective at midnight the following day.
  • ACTIVE: The commitment is active.
  • EXPIRED: The commitment has expired. Compute Engine reserves the right to remove expired commitments older than 210 days from the expiration date.

Canceling a commitment

Once you create a commitment, it is not possible to cancel it. You must pay the agreed upon monthly amount for the duration of the commitment. Commitments are not affected by future pricing changes to the standard prices for Compute Engine resources.

If you accidentally purchased a commitment or made a mistake configuring your commitment, contact the Google Cloud Billing team for help.

Understanding your bill with committed use discounts

Google Cloud Platform uses a balance sheet billing format. When you compare your bill, the full charges for your resources appear as a line item, followed by credits to offset the amount that is actually covered by committed use, and then finally, the committed use charges you would actually pay. Use the following example bills to understand the charges on your own bill.

Example

In this scenario, the customer has purchased a commitment that covers all their usage. Row A displays the standard (non-committed use) charges for these resources. Row B are credits that fully offset row A because all usage is covered by a commitment. Row C is the discounted committed use price that the customer is actually charged. The total bill amount is the sum of debits minus the credits. In this case, the final bill amount would be $7.17 since a commitment covered all usage.

Screenshot of example committed use bill

Example

In this scenario, the customer has purchased commitments that cover a portion of their bill. Row A.1 and A.2 displays the standard (non-committed use) charges for vCPU and memory. Row B.1 and B.2 are credits that offset the portion of charges that are covered by committed use. Row C.1 and C.2 is the discounted committed use price for portion of resources described in rows B.1 and B.2. The total of this bill would be the sum of the committed use charges in rows C.1 and C.2 and the remaining portion of the bill not covered by committed usage.

Screenshot of complex example committed use bill

Support

If you have any questions regarding committed use discounts on your bill, you can contact Google Cloud Platform for support.

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