General-purpose machine family

This document describes the features of the general-purpose machine family. The general-purpose machine family has the best price-performance with the most flexible vCPU to memory ratios, and provides features that target most standard and cloud-native workloads.

The general-purpose machine family has predefined and custom machine types to align with your workload, depending on your requirements. E2, E2 shared-core, N2, N2D, and Tau T2D are second generation machine series in this family; N1 and its related shared-core machine types are first generation machine series.

Machine series Workloads
E2
  • Web serving
  • Small to medium databases
  • App serving
  • Back office apps
  • Microservices
  • Virtual desktops
  • Development environments
N2, N2D, Tau T2D, N1
  • Web serving
  • Medium to large databases
  • App serving
  • Back office apps
  • Cache
  • Media/streaming
Tau T2A
  • App serving, web serving, and game serving
  • Embedded systems development
  • Development on CI/CD on Arm
  • Video and image encoding, transcoding, and processing
  • Digital advertising exchanges and serving
  • Cache servers
  • Computational drug discovery
  • Android development
  • Autonomous or conventional automotive software development

To learn how your selection affects the performance of persistent disks attached to your VMs, see Configuring your persistent disks and VMs.

E2 machine series

The cost-optimized E2 machine series have between 2 to 32 vCPUs with a ratio of 0.5 GB to 8 GB of memory per vCPU for standard VMs, and 0.25 to 1 vCPUs with 0.5 GB to 8 GB of memory for shared-core E2 machine types. The E2 machine series offers both Intel and AMD EPYC Rome processors. The processor is selected for you at the time of VM creation. Machine types in this series are available in all regions and zones and support a virtio memory balloon device.

In summary, the E2 machine series:

  • Support up to 32 vCPUs and 128 GB of memory.
  • Available in predefined and custom VMs.
  • Offer the lowest on demand pricing across the general-purpose machine types.
  • Does not offer sustained-use discounts; however, they do provide consistently low on demand and committed use pricing.
  • Does not support GPUs, local SSDs, sole-tenant nodes, or nested virtualization.

E2 shared-core machine types

The E2 machine series also contains shared-core machine types that use context- switching to share a physical core between vCPUs for multitasking. Different shared-core machine types sustain different amounts of time on a physical core.

In general, shared-core machine types can be more cost-effective for running small, non-resource intensive applications than standard, high-memory, or high-CPU machine types.

CPU bursting

Shared-core machine types offer bursting capabilities that allow instances to use additional physical CPU for short periods of time. Bursting happens automatically when your VM requires more physical CPU than originally allocated. During these spikes, your VM will opportunistically take advantage of available physical CPU in bursts. Note that bursts are not permanent and are only possible periodically.

  • e2-micro, e2-small, and e2-medium shared-core VMs can burst for dozens of seconds.
  • If the CPU is utilized at 100%, then the burst lasts as follows:
    • e2-micro: 30 seconds
    • e2-small: 60 seconds
    • e2-medium 120 seconds
The exact burst time is determined by a Token bucket meaning utilizing the CPU less than 100% will result in longer bursts. Bursting doesn't incur any additional charges. You are charged the listed on-demand price for e2 shared-core, f1-micro, and g1-small VMs.

E2 Limitations

  • The E2 machine series provides consistently low on-demand and committed-use pricing. They do not offer sustained-use discounts.
  • The E2 machine series does not support GPUs, local SSDs, sole-tenant nodes, or nested virtualization.

The following table lists the features of the E2 series.

E2 standard

E2 standard machine types have 4 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps)
e2-standard-2 2 8 128 257 No 4
e2-standard-4 4 16 128 257 No 8
e2-standard-8 8 32 128 257 No 16
e2-standard-16 16 64 128 257 No 16
e2-standard-32 32 128 128 257 No 16
*Fractional vCPU of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 with 2 vCPUs exposed to the guest operating system.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual See Network bandwidth.

E2 high-mem

E2 high-memory machine types have 8 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps)
e2-highmem-2 2 16 128 257 No 4
e2-highmem-4 4 32 128 257 No 8
e2-highmem-8 8 64 128 257 No 16
e2-highmem-16 16 128 128 257 No 16
*Fractional vCPU of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 with 2 vCPUs exposed to the guest operating system.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.

E2 high-cpu

E2 high-cpu machine types have 1 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps)
e2-highcpu-2 2 2 128 257 No 4
e2-highcpu-4 4 4 128 257 No 8
e2-highcpu-8 8 8 128 257 No 16
e2-highcpu-16 16 16 128 257 No 16
e2-highcpu-32 32 32 128 257 No 16
*Fractional vCPU of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 with 2 vCPUs exposed to the guest operating system.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.

E2 shared-core

E2 shared-core machine types are cost-effective, have a virtio memory balloon device, and are ideal for small workloads. When you use E2 shared-core machine types, your VM runs two vCPUs simultaneously shared on one physical core for a specific fraction of time depending on the machine type. Each vCPU can burst up to 100% of CPU time, for short periods, before returning to the time limitations described in the preceding section.

  • e2-micro sustains 2 vCPUs, each for 12.5% of CPU time totaling 25% vCPU time.
  • e2-small sustains 2 vCPUs, each at 25% of CPU time totaling 50% of vCPU time.
  • e2-medium sustains 2 vCPUs, each at 50% of CPU time totaling 100% vCPU time.

Machine types Description vCPUs Fractional vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps)
e2-micro Micro machine type with 0.25 vCPU and 1 GB of memory, backed by a shared physical core. 2 0.25* 1 16 3 no 1
e2-small Small machine type with 0.5 vCPU and 2 GB of memory, backed by a shared physical core. 2 0.5* 2 16 3 no 1
e2-medium Medium machine type with 1 vCPU and 4 GB of memory, backed by a shared physical core. 2 1* 4 16 3 no 2
*Fractional vCPU of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 with 2 vCPUs exposed to the guest operating system.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.

N2 machine series

The N2 machine series has flexible sizing between 2 to 128 vCPUs and 0.5 to 8 GB of memory per vCPU. Machine types in this series run on the following processors:

  • Ice Lake—offered in specific regions and zones. It is the default processor for larger machine types.

  • Cascade Lake—the default for machine types up to 80 vCPUs. If you want to create VMs with Ice Lake, you must set it as the minimum CPU platform.

You can find more details about these two processors on the CPU platforms page.

Workloads that can take advantage of the higher clock frequency are a good choice for this series. These workloads can get higher per-thread performance while benefiting from all the flexibility that the general-purpose machine family offers.

In summary, the N2 machine series:

  • Support up to 128 vCPUs and 864 GB of memory.
  • Support 50 Gbps, 75 Gbps, and 100 Gbps high-bandwidth network configurations.
  • Available in predefined and custom VMs.
  • Has higher memory-to-core ratios for VMs created with the extended memory feature. Using the extended memory feature helps control per-CPU software licensing costs while providing access to more than 8 GB of memory per vCPU.
  • Support committed use and sustained use discounts.

N2 standard

N2 standard machine types have 4 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Default egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)#
n2-standard-2 2 8 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2-standard-4 4 16 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2-standard-8 8 32 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n2-standard-16 16 64 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2-standard-32 32 128 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2-standard-48 48 192 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2-standard-64 64 256 128 257 Yes 32 75
n2-standard-80 80 320 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2-standard-96 96 384 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2-standard-128 128 512 128 257 Yes 32 100

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware Hyper-thread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#Supports high-bandwidth networking for larger machine types.

N2 high-mem

N2 high-memory machine types have 8 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Default egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)#
n2-highmem-2 2 16 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2-highmem-4 4 32 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2-highmem-8 8 64 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n2-highmem-16 16 128 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2-highmem-32 32 256 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2-highmem-48 48 384 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2-highmem-64 64 512 128 257 Yes 32 75
n2-highmem-80 80 640 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2-highmem-96 96 768 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2-highmem-128 128 864 128 257 Yes 32 100

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware Hyper-thread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#Supports high-bandwidth networking for larger machine types.

N2 high-cpu

N2 high-cpu machine types have 1 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Default egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)#
n2-highcpu-2 2 2 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2-highcpu-4 4 4 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2-highcpu-8 8 8 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n2-highcpu-16 16 16 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2-highcpu-32 32 32 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2-highcpu-48 48 48 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2-highcpu-64 64 64 128 257 Yes 32 75
n2-highcpu-80 80 80 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2-highcpu-96 96 96 128 257 Yes 32 100

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware Hyper-thread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#Supports high-bandwidth networking for larger machine types.

N2D machine series

The N2D machine series can run on either AMD EPYC Milan processor or AMD EPYC Rome processors. The third generation AMD EPYC Milan processor is available only in specific regions and zones. To use AMD Milan as your minimum CPU platform, request it when you create your VM instance.

This series can also run on second generation AMD EPYC Rome processors. The N2D series is the largest general-purpose machine series with up to 224 vCPUs and 896 GB of memory and a vCPU to memory ratios of 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8. The AMD EPYC Rome processors in this series runs with a base frequency of 2.25 GHz, an effective frequency of 2.7 GHz, and a max boost frequency of 3.3 GHz.

In summary, the N2D series:

  • Support up to 224 vCPUs and 896 GB of memory.
  • Support 50 Gbps and 100 Gbps high-bandwidth network configurations.
  • Available in predefined and custom VMs.
  • Offer higher memory-to-core ratios for VMs created with the extended memory feature. Using the extended memory feature helps you avoid per-CPU software licensing costs while providing access to more than 8 GB of memory per vCPU.
  • Powered by third generation AMD EPYC Milan and second generation AMD EPYC Rome processors.
  • Support committed use and sustained use discounts.
  • Does not support GPUs or nested virtualization.
  • Support Confidential VM.

The following table lists the features of the N2D machine series. For some machine types, certain features are not applicable (N/A).

N2D standard

N2D standard machine types have 4 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)#
n2d-standard-2 2 8 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2d-standard-4 4 16 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2d-standard-8 8 32 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n2d-standard-16 16 64 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2d-standard-32 32 128 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2d-standard-48 48 192 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-standard-64 64 256 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-standard-80 80 320 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-standard-96 96 384 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2d-standard-128 128 512 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2d-standard-224 224 896 128 257 Yes 32 100

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware cluster multithread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#Supports high-bandwidth networking for larger machine types.

N2D high-mem

N2D high-mem machine types have 8 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)#
n2d-highmem-2 2 16 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2d-highmem-4 4 32 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2d-highmem-8 8 64 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n2d-highmem-16 16 128 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2d-highmem-32 32 256 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2d-highmem-48 48 384 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-highmem-64 64 512 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-highmem-80 80 640 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-highmem-96 96 786 128 257 Yes 32 100

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware cluster multithread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#Supports high-bandwidth networking for larger machine types.

N2D high-cpu

N2D high-cpu machine types have 1 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)#
n2d-highcpu-2 2 2 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2d-highcpu-4 4 4 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n2d-highcpu-8 8 8 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n2d-highcpu-16 16 16 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2d-highcpu-32 32 32 128 257 Yes 32 N/A
n2d-highcpu-48 48 48 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-highcpu-64 64 64 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-highcpu-80 80 80 128 257 Yes 32 50
n2d-highcpu-96 96 96 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2d-highcpu-128 128 128 128 257 Yes 32 100
n2d-highcpu-224 224 224 128 257 Yes 32 100

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware cluster multithread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#Supports high-bandwidth networking for larger machine types.

Tau T2D machine series

The Tau T2D machine series run on the third generation AMD EPYC Milan processor with a base frequency of 2.45 GHz, an effective frequency of 2.8 GHz, and a max boost frequency of 3.5 GHz. This series has predefined machine types of up to 60 vCPUs, support 4 GB of memory per vCPU, and up to 32 Gbps of network egress. It also supports committed use discounts and reservations.

This series is available only in select regions and zones.

Machine types in the Tau T2D machine series have simultaneous multithreading (SMT) disabled; therefore a vCPU is equivalent to an entire core.

Tau T2D Limitations

  • Tau T2D VMs do not support:
    • Debian 9 OS
    • Local SSD
    • Regional persistent disk
    • Custom VMs
    • Sole-tenant nodes
    • Extreme PD
    • GPUs
    • Nested virtualization
    • Sustained use discounts
    • Confidential VMs

Tau T2D standard machine types have 4 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs)* Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)
t2d-standard-1 1 4 128 257 No 10 N/A
t2d-standard-2 2 8 128 257 No 10 N/A
t2d-standard-4 4 16 128 257 No 10 N/A
t2d-standard-8 8 32 128 257 No 16 N/A
t2d-standard-16 16 64 128 257 No 32 N/A
t2d-standard-32 32 128 128 257 No 32 N/A
t2d-standard-48 48 192 128 257 No 32 N/A
t2d-standard-60 60 240 128 257 No 32 N/A

*Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.

Tau T2A machine series (Preview)

The Tau T2A machine series run on the Ampere Altra Arm processor with a base frequency of 3.0 GHz. Tau T2A offers predefined machine types with 1 to 48 vCPUs, support 4 GB of memory per vCPU, and up to 32 Gbps of network egress.

This series is available only in select regions and zones.

The Tau T2A machine series doesn't support simultaneous multithreading (SMT); each vCPU is equivalent to an entire core.

Tau T2A Limitations

The Tau T2A machine series does not support:

Tau T2A standard machine types have 4 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs)* Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)
t2a-standard-1 1 4 128 257 No 10 N/A
t2a-standard-2 2 8 128 257 No 10 N/A
t2a-standard-4 4 16 128 257 No 10 N/A
t2a-standard-8 8 32 128 257 No 16 N/A
t2a-standard-16 16 64 128 257 No 32 N/A
t2a-standard-32 32 128 128 257 No 32 N/A
t2a-standard-48 48 192 128 257 No 32 N/A

*Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.

N1 machine series

The N1 machine series is Compute Engine's first generation general-purpose machine series available on Skylake, Broadwell, Haswell, Sandy Bridge, and Ivy Bridge CPU platforms.

In summary, the N1 machine series:

  • Support up to 96 vCPUs and 624 GB of memory.
  • Available as both predefined machine types and custom machine types. Custom machine types can be created within a wide range of memory-to-core ratio, ranging from 1 GB per vCPU to 6.5 GB per vCPU.
  • Offer higher memory-to-core ratios for VMs created with the extended memory feature.
  • Offer a larger sustained use discount than the N2 machine series.
  • Support Tensor Processing Units (TPUs) in select zones.
  • Can support up to 8 virtual interfaces per instance.

The following table lists the features of N1 machine types.

N1 standard

N1 standard machine types have 3.75 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)
n1-standard-1 1 3.75 128 257 Yes 2 N/A
n1-standard-2 2 7.50 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n1-standard-4 4 15 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n1-standard-8 8 30 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n1-standard-16 16 60 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-standard-32 32 120 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-standard-64 64 240 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-standard-96 96 360 128 257 Yes 32# N/A

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware Hyper-thread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#32 Gbps for Skylake or later CPU platforms. 16 Gbps for all other platforms.

N1 high-memory

N1 high-memory machine types have 6.5 GB of system memory per vCPU.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)
n1-highmem-2 2 13 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n1-highmem-4 4 26 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n1-highmem-8 8 52 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n1-highmem-16 16 104 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-highmem-32 32 208 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-highmem-64 64 416 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-highmem-96 96 624 128 257 Yes 32# N/A

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware Hyper-thread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#32 Gbps for Skylake or later CPU platforms. 16 Gbps for all other platforms.

N1 high-cpu

N1 high-cpu machine types have 0.9 GB of system memory per vCPU. High-CPU machine types are ideal for tasks that require a moderate increase of vCPUs relative to memory.

Machine types vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps) Tier 1 egress bandwidth (Gbps)
n1-highcpu-2 2 1.80 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n1-highcpu-4 4 3.60 128 257 Yes 10 N/A
n1-highcpu-8 8 7.20 128 257 Yes 16 N/A
n1-highcpu-16 16 14.4 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-highcpu-32 32 28.8 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-highcpu-64 64 57.6 128 257 Yes 32# N/A
n1-highcpu-96 96 86.4 128 257 Yes 32# N/A

*A vCPU is implemented as a single hardware Hyper-thread on one of the available CPU platforms.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from machine type pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.
#32 Gbps for Skylake or later CPU platforms. 16 Gbps for all other platforms.

N1 shared-core

Each vCPU can burst up to 100% of CPU time, for short periods, before returning to their prescribed CPU time limitations.

  • When you run an f1-micro, your VM sustains a single vCPU for up to 20% of CPU time.
  • When you run a g1-small, your VM sustains a single vCPU for up to 50% of CPU time.
Machine types Description vCPUs Fractional vCPUs* Memory (GB) Max number of persistent disks (PDs) Max total PD size (TB) Local SSD Maximum egress bandwidth (Gbps)
f1-micro Micro machine type with 0.2 vCPU and 0.6 GB of memory, backed by a shared physical core. 1 0.2* 0.60 16 3 No 1
g1-small Small machine type with 0.5 vCPU and 1.70 GB of memory, backed by a shared physical core. 1 0.5* 1.70 16 3 No 1
*Fractional vCPU of 0.2 or 0.5, with 1 vCPU exposed to the guest operating system.
Persistent disk usage is charged separately from VM pricing.
Maximum egress bandwidth cannot exceed the number given. Actual egress bandwidth depends on the destination IP address and other factors. See Network bandwidth.

Custom machine types

If none of the predefined machine types in the general-purpose machine family match your workload needs, you can create a VM with a custom machine type.

Creating a VM with a custom machine type is ideal for workloads that require more processing power or more memory, but don't need all of the upgrades that are provided by the next larger predefined machine type.

It costs slightly more to use a custom machine type than an equivalent predefined machine type, and there are limitations in the amount of memory and vCPUs you can select.

It's possible to create a VM with a custom machine type from any machine series in the general-purpose machine family, except the Tau T2D machine series which is not available as custom machine types. Custom machine types are subject to the same persistent disk limits as E2, N2, and N1 predefined machine types. The maximum total persistent disk size for each VM is 257 TB and the max number of persistent disks is 128.

E2 custom machine types

  • E2 custom machine types support predefined platforms with Intel or AMD EPYC Rome processors. You can create E2 custom machine types with vCPUs in multiples of 2, up to 32 vCPUs. The minimum acceptable number of vCPUs for a VM is 2.
  • By default, the general-purpose machine series you choose determines the memory per vCPU that you can select for a custom machine type. For E2, the ratio of memory per vCPU is 0.5 GB to 8 GB inclusive. When creating a standard E2 machine type, the minimum memory you can select is 1 GB.

Examples of invalid machine types:

  • 1 vCPU, 1024 MB of memory. Invalid because the vCPU count is too small. E2 custom machine types require a minimum of 2 vCPUs.
  • 32 vCPUs, 1 GB of total memory. Invalid because the ratio of vCPUs to memory is incorrect. The acceptable ratio is 0.5 GB of memory to 1 vCPU.

Examples of valid machine types:

  • 32 vCPUs, 16 GB of total memory. Valid because the total number of vCPUs is even and the total memory is an acceptable ratio of memory to vCPU.
  • 2 vCPUs, 8 GB of total memory. Valid because it has 2 vCPUs, which is the minimum value, and the total memory is a multiple of 256 MB. The amount of memory per vCPU is also within the acceptable range of 0.5 GB to 8 GB per vCPU.

E2 shared-core custom machine types

  • E2 shared-core machine types support predefined Intel or AMD EPYC Rome processors, which are preselected for you at the time of VM creation. You can create shared-core machine types with a vCPU range of 0.25 to 1 vCPU. The memory range is 1 to 8 GB, with a maximum ratio of 8 GB per vCPU.
    • e2-micro: 0.25 vCPU, 1 to 2 GB of memory
    • e2-small: 0.50 vCPU, 1 to 4 GB of memory
    • e2-medium: 1 vCPU, 1 to 8 GB of memory

N2 custom machine types

  • For N2 custom machine types, you can create a machine type with 2 to 80 vCPUs and memory between 1 and 640 GB. For machine types with up to 32 vCPUs, you can select a vCPU count that is a multiple of 2. For machine types with greater than 32 vCPUs, you must select a vCPU count that is a multiple of 4 (for example, 36, 40, 56, or 80).
  • You can create N2 custom machine types on different processors:
    • Cascade Lake, the 2nd generation of the Intel Xeon processor. This is the default processor for N2 custom machine types with less than 80 vCPUs.
    • Ice Lake, the 3rd generation of the Intel Xeon processor. Ice Lake processors are available in specific regions and zones.
  • By default, the memory per vCPU that you can select for a custom machine type is determined by the machine series you use. For the N2 machine series, select between 0.5 GB and 8.0 GB per vCPU, inclusive. Higher amounts of memory are possible by enabling extended memory.
  • N2 machine types are available in these regions and zones.
  • N2 custom machine types have an option for a higher bandwidth Tier 1 maximum egress of 50 Gbps to 100 Gbps with a minimum of 30 vCPUs.
    • 32 to 62 vCPUs have a total egress of 50 Gbps
    • 64 to 78 vCPUs have a total egress of 75 Gbps
    • 80 vCPUs have a total egress of 100 Gbps

Examples of invalid machine types:

  • 2 vCPUs, 0.5 GB of total memory. Invalid because the total memory is less than the minimum 1 GB for an N2 VM.
  • 34 vCPUs, 34 GB of total memory. Invalid because the total number of vCPUs is not divisible by 4.
  • 1 vCPU, 1024 MB of memory. Invalid because the vCPU count is too small. N2 custom machine types require a minimum of 2 vCPUs.

Examples of valid machine types:

  • 36 vCPUs, 18 GB of total memory. Valid because the total number of vCPUs is even and the total memory is a multiple of 256 MB. The amount of memory per vCPU is also within the acceptable range of 0.5 GB to 8 GB per vCPU. Because the number of vCPUs is larger than 32 vCPUs, the number of vCPUs must be divisible by 4.
  • 2 vCPUs, 7 GB of total memory. Valid because it has 2 vCPUs, which is the minimum value, and the total memory is a multiple of 256 MB. The amount of memory per vCPU is also within the acceptable range of 0.5 GB to 8 GB per vCPU.

N2D custom machine types

  • The maximum number of vCPUs allowed for a custom machine type is determined by the machine series you choose. For the N2D machine series, which support AMD EPYC Rome and Milan platforms, you can deploy custom machine types with 2 to 96 vCPUs.
  • You can create N2D custom machine types with 2, 4, 8, or 16 vCPUs. After 16, you can increment the number of vCPUs by 16, up to 96 vCPUs. The minimum acceptable number of vCPUs is 2.
  • By default, the memory per vCPU that you can select for a custom machine type is determined by the machine series you choose. For N2D machine types, select between 0.5 GB and 8.0 GB per vCPU in 0.256 GB increments. Higher amounts of memory are possible by enabling extended memory.
  • N2D custom machine types are available only in select regions and zones.
  • N2D custom machine types have an option for a higher bandwidth Tier 1 maximum egress of 50 Gbps to 100 Gbps with a minimum of 96 vCPUs.
    • 96 to 222 vCPUs have a total egress of 50 Gbps
    • 224 vCPUs have a total egress of 100 Gbps

Examples of invalid machine types:

  • 2 vCPUs, 0.4 GB of total memory. Invalid because the total memory is less than the minimum 1 GB for an N2D VM.
  • 34 vCPUs, 34 GB of total memory. Invalid because the total number of vCPUs is not divisible by 16.
  • 1 vCPU, 1024 MB of memory. Invalid because the vCPU count is too small. N2D custom machine types require a minimum of 2 vCPUs.

Examples of valid machine types:

  • 32 vCPUs, 16 GB of total memory. Valid because the total number of vCPUs is even and the total memory is a multiple of 256 MB. The amount of memory per vCPU is 1 GB, which satisfies the minimum requirement. Because the number of vCPUs is larger than 8 vCPUs, the number of vCPUs must be divisible by 16.
  • 2 vCPUs, 7 GB of total memory. Valid because it has 2 vCPUs, which is the minimum value, and the total memory is a multiple of 256 MB. The amount of memory per vCPU is also within the acceptable range of 1 GB to 8 GB per vCPU.

N1 custom machine types

  • You can create N1 custom machine types with 1 or more vCPUs. Above 1 vCPU, you must increment the number of vCPUs by 2, up to 96 vCPUs for Skylake platform, or up to 64 vCPUs for Broadwell, Haswell, or Ivy Bridge CPU platforms.
  • By default, the memory per vCPU that you can select for a custom machine type is determined by the machine series you choose. For N1 machine types, select between 1 GB and 6.5 GB per vCPU, inclusive. Higher amounts of memory are possible by enabling extended memory.

Examples of invalid machine types:

  • 1 vCPU, 0.2 GB of total memory. Invalid because the total memory is less than the minimum 1 GB for an N1 VM.
  • 3 vCPU, 1 GB of total memory. Invalid because the number of vCPU cores must be 1 or an even number up to 96.

Examples of valid machine types:

  • 32 vCPUs, 29 GB of total memory. Valid because the total number of vCPUs is even and the total memory is a multiple of 256 MB. The amount of memory per vCPU is 1 GB, which satisfies the minimum requirement.
  • 1 vCPU, 1 GB of total memory. Valid because it has one vCPU, which is the minimum value, and the total memory is a multiple of 256 MB. The amount of memory per vCPU is also within the acceptable range of 1 GB to 6.5 GB per vCPU.

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