Create environments

Cloud Composer 1 | Cloud Composer 2

This page explains how to create a Cloud Composer 1 environment.

A Cloud Composer environment is a self-contained Apache Airflow installation deployed into a managed Google Kubernetes Engine cluster. For more information about environments, see Environment architecture.

You can create one or more environments in a single Google Cloud project.

Before you begin

  • If you create an environment with Terraform, the service account used by Terraform must have a role with the composer.environments.create permission enabled.

    For more information about the service account for Terraform, see Google Provider Configuration Reference.

    For more information about using Terraform to create a Cloud Composer environment, see Terraform documentation.

    For more information about additional parameters, see Terraform Argument Reference.

  • Private IP: There are specific network and peering requirements to create a Private IP environment. For more information, see Configuring private IP.

  • Shared VPC: There are specific network requirements to use Shared VPC with Cloud Composer. For information, see Configuring shared VPC.

  • VPC SC: To deploy Cloud Composer environments inside a security perimeter, see Configuring VPC SC. When used with Cloud Composer, VPC Service Controls have several known limitations.

Step 1. Basic setup

This step creates an environment with default parameters in the specified location.

The environment uses the default Cloud Composer image for Cloud Composer 1.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud Console, go to the Create environment page for Cloud Composer 1.

    Go to Create environment

  2. In the Name field, enter a name for your environment.

    The name must start with a lowercase letter followed by up to 62 lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens, and cannot end with a hyphen. The environment name is used to create subcomponents for the environment, so you must provide a name that is also valid as a Cloud Storage bucket name. See Bucket naming guidelines for a list of restrictions.

  3. In the Location drop-down list, choose a location for your environment.

    A location is the Compute Engine region where the environment's GKE cluster is located.

  4. Continue to the next step, or click Create to create an environment.

gcloud

gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION

Replace:

  • ENVIRONMENT_NAME with the name of the environment.

    The name must start with a lowercase letter followed by up to 62 lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens, and cannot end with a hyphen. The environment name is used to create subcomponents for the environment, so you must provide a name that is also valid as a Cloud Storage bucket name. See Bucket naming guidelines for a list of restrictions.

  • LOCATION with the region for the environment.

    A location is the Compute Engine region where the environment's GKE cluster is located.

Example:

gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
    --location us-central1

API

Construct an environments.create API request. Specify the configuration in the Environment resource.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
}

Replace:

  • PROJECT_ID with the Project ID.

  • LOCATION with the region for the environment.

    A location is the Compute Engine region where the environment's GKE cluster is located.

  • ENVIRONMENT_NAME with the environment name.

    The name must start with a lowercase letter followed by up to 62 lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens, and cannot end with a hyphen. The environment name is used to create subcomponents for the environment, so you must provide a name that is also valid as a Cloud Storage bucket name. See Bucket naming guidelines for a list of restrictions.

Example:

// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment"

}

Terraform

To create an environment with default parameters is a specified location, add the following resource block to your Terraform configuration and run terraform apply.

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"
}

Replace:

  • ENVIRONMENT_NAME with the name of the environment.

    The name must start with a lowercase letter followed by up to 62 lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens, and cannot end with a hyphen. The environment name is used to create subcomponents for the environment, so you must provide a name that is also valid as a Cloud Storage bucket name. See Bucket naming guidelines for a list of restrictions.

  • LOCATION with the region for the environment.

    A location is the Compute Engine region where the environment's GKE cluster is located.

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"
}

Step 2. (Optional) Select Cloud Composer and Airflow versions

To create an environment with a specific version of Cloud Composer and Airflow:

Console

On the Create environment page, in the Node configuration section, in the Image version drop-down list, select a Cloud Composer image with the required version of Airflow.

gcloud

  1. Choose a Cloud Composer image with the required version of Airflow.

  2. When you create an environment, use the --image-version argument.

    gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
        --location LOCATION \
        --image-version IMAGE_VERSION
    

    Replace:

    • IMAGE_VERSION with the name of the Cloud Composer image.

    Example:

    gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
        --location us-central1 \
        --image-version "composer-1.16.5-airflow-1.10.15"
    

API

  1. Choose a Cloud Composer image with the required version of Airflow.

  2. When you create an environment, in the Environment > EnvironmentConfig > SoftwareConfig resource, use the imageVersion field.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "config": {
    "softwareConfig": {
      "imageVersion": "IMAGE_VERSION"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • IMAGE_VERSION with the name of the Cloud Composer image.

Example:

{
  // POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "config": {
    "softwareConfig": {
      "imageVersion": "composer-1.16.5-airflow-1.10.15"
    }
  }
}

Terraform

  1. Choose a Cloud Composer image with the required version of Airflow.

  2. When you create an environment, use the image_version field in the software_config block.

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"

  config {
    software_config {
      image_version = "IMAGE_VERSION"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • IMAGE_VERSION with the name of the Cloud Composer image.

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"

  config {
    software_config {
      image_version = "composer-1.16.5-airflow-1.10.15"
    }
  }
}

Step 3. (Optional) Select a service account for your environment

Nodes in your environment's cluster run as this service account.

By default, Cloud Composer environments use the default Compute Engine service account. We recommend you to set up a user-managed service account for your Cloud Composer environments.

You cannot change the service account of your environment later.

Console

On the Create environment page, in the Node configuration section, in the Service account drop-down list, select a service account for your environment.

gcloud

When you create an environment, the --service-account specifies the service account for your environment.

gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION \
    --service-account "SERVICE_ACCOUNT"

Replace:

  • SERVICE_ACCOUNT with the service account for your environment.

Example:

gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
    --location us-central1 \
    --service-account "example-account@example-project.iam.gserviceaccount.com"

API

When you create an environment, in the Environment > EnvironmentConfig resource, specify a service account for your environment.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "config": {
    "nodeConfig": {
      "serviceAccount": "SERVICE_ACCOUNT"
    }
}

Replace:

  • SERVICE_ACCOUNT with the service account for your environment.

Example:


// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "config": {
    "nodeConfig": {
      "serviceAccount": "example-account@example-project.iam.gserviceaccount.com"
    }
  }
}

Terraform

When you create an environment, use the service_account field in the node_config block.

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"

  config {
    node_config {
      service_account = "SERVICE_ACCOUNT"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • SERVICE_ACCOUNT with the service account for your environment.

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"

  config {
    node_config {
      service_account = "example-account@example-project.iam.gserviceaccount.com"
    }
  }
}

Step 4. (Optional) Configure environment scale and performance parameters

To specify the scale and performance configuration for your environment, provide the number of nodes in your environment's GKE cluster and select machine types for environment components.

Console

On the Create environment page:

  1. In the Node configuration section:

    • Enter the Node count.

      Node count is the number of Google Kubernetes Engine nodes in the environment's GKE cluster. By default, environments have 3 nodes.

      You can change this value after you create your environment.

    • Choose Machine type for nodes.

      The machine type for nodes is Compute Engine machine type used for cluster instances. This parameter determines the number of CPUs and the amount of memory for your environment. The default machine type is n1-standard-1.

      To change this value after you create your environment, you must manually reconfigure the environment cluster.

    • Enter the Disk size.

      The disk size, in GB, for environment nodes. Each node in your environment has this amount of disk space. Select a larger disk size if you expect to store a large volume of data in folders that are synchronized with environment VMs. For example, in the /data folder of your environment's bucket.

      The minimum size is 20 GB. The default size is 100 GB. You cannot change this parameter after you create an environment.

    • Choose the Number of schedulers.

      Your environment can run more than one Airflow scheduler at the same time. Use multiple schedulers to distribute load between several scheduler instances for better performance and reliability. You can specify a number of schedulers up to the number of nodes in your environment.

      Increasing the number of schedulers does not always improve Airflow performance. For example, having only one scheduler might provide better performance than having two. This might happen when the extra scheduler is not utilized, and thus consumes resources of your environment without contributing to overall performance. The actual scheduler performance depends on the number of Airflow workers, the number of DAGs and tasks that run in your environment, and the configuration of both Airflow and the environment.

      We recommend starting with two schedulers and then monitoring the performance of your environment. If you change the number of schedulers, you can always scale your environment back to the original number of schedulers.

      For more information about configuring multiple schedulers, see Airflow documentation.

  2. Expand the Networking, Airflow config overrides, and additional features item.

  3. In the Cloud SQL configuration section, choose Cloud SQL machine type.

    This parameter determines the machine type for the Cloud SQL instance that runs the Airflow database. The default Cloud SQL machine type is db-n1-standard-2.

  4. In the Web server configuration section, choose Web server machine type.

    This parameter determines the machine type for the Compute Engine instance that runs the Airflow web server.

    The default web server machine type is composer-n1-webserver-2.

gcloud

When you create an environment, following arguments control environment scale and performance parameters:

  • --node-count specifies the number of nodes in your environment.

    Node count is the number of Google Kubernetes Engine nodes in the environment's GKE cluster. By default, environments have 3 nodes.

    You can change this value after you create your environment.

  • --scheduler-count specifies the number of schedulers in your environment.

    Your environment can run more than one Airflow scheduler at the same time. Use multiple schedulers to distribute load between several scheduler instances for better performance and reliability. You can specify a number of schedulers up to the number of nodes in your environment.

    Increasing the number of schedulers does not always improve Airflow performance. For example, having only one scheduler might provide better performance than having two. This might happen when the extra scheduler is not utilized, and thus consumes resources of your environment without contributing to overall performance. The actual scheduler performance depends on the number of Airflow workers, the number of DAGs and tasks that run in your environment, and the configuration of both Airflow and the environment.

    We recommend starting with two schedulers and then monitoring the performance of your environment. If you change the number of schedulers, you can always scale your environment back to the original number of schedulers.

    For more information about configuring multiple schedulers, see Airflow documentation.

  • --disk-size specifies the disk size for environment VMs.

    The disk size, in GB, for environment nodes. Each node in your environment has this amount of disk space. Select a larger disk size if you expect to store a large volume of data in folders that are synchronized with environment VMs. For example, in the /data folder of your environment's bucket.

    The minimum size is 20 GB. The default size is 100 GB. You cannot change this parameter after you create an environment.

  • --machine-type specifies the machine type for node VMs.

    The machine type for nodes is Compute Engine machine type used for cluster instances. This parameter determines the number of CPUs and the amount of memory for your environment. The default machine type is n1-standard-1.

    To change this value after you create your environment, you must manually reconfigure the environment cluster.

  • --cloud-sql-machine-type specifies the machine type for the Cloud SQL instance.

    This parameter determines the machine type for the Cloud SQL instance that runs the Airflow database. The default Cloud SQL machine type is db-n1-standard-2.

  • --web-server-machine-type specifies the machine type for the Airflow web server instance.

    This parameter determines the machine type for the Compute Engine instance that runs the Airflow web server.

    The default web server machine type is composer-n1-webserver-2.

gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION \
    --node-count NODE_COUNT \
    --scheduler-count SCHEDULER_COUNT \
    --disk-size DISK_SIZE \
    --machine-type NODE_MACHINE_TYPE \
    --cloud-sql-machine-type SQL_MACHINE_TYPE \
    --web-server-machine-type WS_MACHINE_TYPE

Replace:

Example:

gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
    --location us-central1 \
    --node-count 6 \
    --scheduler-count 1 \
    --disk-size 50 \
    --machine-type n1-standard-2 \
    --cloud-sql-machine-type db-n1-standard-2 \
    --web-server-machine-type composer-n1-webserver-2

API

When you create an environment, in the Environment > EnvironmentConfig resource, specify environment scale and performance parameters.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "config": {
    "nodeCount": NODE_COUNT,
    "nodeConfig": {
      "machineType": "NODE_MACHINE_TYPE",
      "diskSizeGb": DISK_SIZE
    },
    "softwareConfig": {
      "schedulerCount": SCHEDULER_COUNT
    },
    "databaseConfig": {
      "machineType": "SQL_MACHINE_TYPE"
    },
    "webServerConfig": {
      "machineType": "WS_MACHINE_TYPE"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

Example:


// Without preview features:
// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

// With preview features (multiple schedulers):
// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1beta1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "config": {
    "nodeCount": 6,
    "nodeConfig": {
      "machineType": "projects/example-project/zones/us-central1-a/machineTypes/n1-standard-2",
      "diskSizeGb": 50
    },
    "softwareConfig": {
      "schedulerCount": 1
    },
    "databaseConfig": {
      "machineType": "db-n1-standard-2"
    },
    "webServerConfig": {
      "machineType": "composer-n1-webserver-2"
    }
  }
}

Terraform

When you create an environment, following fields control environment scale and performance parameters:

  • node_count in the node_config block specifies the number of nodes in your environment.

    Node count is the number of Google Kubernetes Engine nodes in the environment's GKE cluster. By default, environments have 3 nodes.

    You can change this value after you create your environment.

  • disk_size_gb in the node_config block specifies the disk size for environment VMs.

    The disk size, in GB, for environment nodes. Each node in your environment has this amount of disk space. Select a larger disk size if you expect to store a large volume of data in folders that are synchronized with environment VMs. For example, in the /data folder of your environment's bucket.

    The minimum size is 20 GB. The default size is 100 GB. You cannot change this parameter after you create an environment.

  • machine_type in the node_config block specifies the machine type for node VMs. When you specify this field, also provide a Compute Engine zone for your environment VMs in the zone field.

    The machine type for nodes is Compute Engine machine type used for cluster instances. This parameter determines the number of CPUs and the amount of memory for your environment. The default machine type is n1-standard-1.

    To change this value after you create your environment, you must manually reconfigure the environment cluster.

  • machine_type in the database_config block specifies the machine type for the Cloud SQL instance.

    This parameter determines the machine type for the Cloud SQL instance that runs the Airflow database. The default Cloud SQL machine type is db-n1-standard-2.

  • machine_type in the web_server_config block specifies the machine type for the Airflow web server instance.

    This parameter determines the machine type for the Compute Engine instance that runs the Airflow web server.

    The default web server machine type is composer-n1-webserver-2.

  • It is not possible to specify the number of schedulers using Terraform.

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"

  config {

    node_config {
      node_count = NODE_COUNT
      disk_size_gb = DISK_SIZE
      machine_type = "NODE_MACHINE_TYPE"
      zone = "NODE_ZONE"
    }

    database_config {
      machine_type = "SQL_MACHINE_TYPE"
    }

    web_server_config {
      machine_type = "WS_MACHINE_TYPE"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"

  config {

    node_config {
      node_count = 4
      disk_size_gb = 100
      zone = "us-central1-a"
      machine_type = "n1-standard-2"
    }

    database_config {
      machine_type = "db-n1-standard-2"
    }

    web_server_config {
      machine_type = "composer-n1-webserver-2"
    }
  }
}

Step 5. (Optional) Configure your environment's networking

Networking parameters depend on the type of environment that you want to create:

  • For a Public IP environment, use the default networking parameters.

  • For a Private IP environment, you must do additional networking setup in your project and then create an environment. For the required steps, see Configuring a Private IP Cloud Composer environment.

    For a Private IP environment, you need to know:

    • Your VPC network ID
    • Your VPC subnetwork ID
    • Two secondary IP ranges in your VPC subnetwork:

      • Secondary IP range for pods
      • Secondary IP range for services
    • Three IP ranges for the components of the environment:

      • IP range for the GKE control plane
      • IP range for the Airflow web server instance
      • IP range for the Cloud SQL instance
  • For a Shared VPC environment, you must do additional networking setup for the host project, then create a Public or a Private IP environment in a service project. Follow the instructions on the Configuring Shared VPC page.

    For a Shared VPC environment, you need to know:

    • Your host project VPC network ID
    • Your host project VPC subnetwork ID
    • Two secondary IP ranges in your host project VPC subnetwork:

      • Secondary IP range for pods
      • Secondary IP range for services

    When creating a Public IP Shared VPC environment, you still need to specify your host project VPC network, subnetwork, and secondary IP ranges for pods and services.

  • To create a VPC SC environment, you must create a service perimeter and then create Private IP environments inside this perimeter. Follow the instructions outlined in Configuring VPC Service Controls.

Console

To create a Private IP environment:

  1. Make sure that your networking is configured for the type of environment that you want to create.

  2. Expand the Networking, Airflow config overrides, and additional features item.

  3. In the Network configuration section, select the Enable VPC-native (using alias-IP) checkbox.

  4. In the Network drop-down list, select your VPC network ID.

  5. In the Subnetwork drop-down list, select your VPC subnetwork ID.

  6. In the Pod IP Address Allocation section, specify the secondary IP range for pods. You can use an existing secondary range in your VPC network, or specify a new one in the CIDR notation.

  7. In the Service IP Address Allocation section, specify the secondary IP range for services. You can use an existing secondary range in your VPC network, or specify a new one in the CIDR notation.

  8. In the Private IP section, select the Enable private IP checkbox.

  9. In the GKE cluster master private IP section, specify an IP range for the GKE control plane:

    • To use the default IP range for the region where your environment is located, select Default IP range.

    • To specify a custom IP range, select Custom IP range and enter a range in the CIDR notation in the GKE cluster master private IP field.

  10. Select the level access for the GKE control plane. The control plane has two endpoints. One endpoint is private, for use by cluster nodes and VMs. Another endpoit is public. You can specify the level of access for the public endpoint:

    • To enable access to the public endpoint from authorized networks, select the Access master endpoint using its external IP address checkbox.

      Using this option sets the level of access for the control plane to "Public endpoint access enabled, authorized networks enabled". This provides restricted access to the control plane from authorized networks. By default, no source IP addresses are specified. You can add authorized networks to the custer.

    • To disable access to the public endpoint from authorized networks, clear the Access master endpoint using its external IP address checkbox.

      Using this option sets the level of access for the control plane to "Public endpoint access disabled". This prevents all internet access to the control plane.

  11. In the Web Server private IP section, specify an IP range for the Airflow web server instance.

  12. In the Cloud SQL private IP section, specify an IP range for the Cloud SQL instance.

gcloud

Make sure that your networking is configured for the type of environment that you want to create.

When you create an environment, the following arguments control the networking parameters. If you omit a parameter, the default value is used.

  • --enable-ip-alias enables VPC Native using alias IP addresses.

    This parameter is required when using --enable-private-environment or when configuring secondary ranges for pods and services.

  • --enable-private-environment enables a Private IP environment.

  • --network specifies your VPC network ID.

  • --subnetwork specifies your VPC subnetwork ID.

  • --cluster-secondary-range-name or --cluster-ipv4-cidr configures the the secondary range for pods.

  • --services-secondary-range-name or--services-ipv4-cidr to configure the secondary range for services.

  • --master-ipv4-cidr specifies a range for the GKE control plane.

  • --web-server-ipv4-cidr specifies a range for the Airflow web server instance.
  • --cloud-sql-ipv4-cidr specifies a range for the Cloud SQL instance.

  • --enable-private-endpoint controls the level access for the GKE control plane. The control plane has two endpoints. One endpoint is private, for use by cluster nodes and VMs. Another endpoit is public. You can specify the level of access for the public endpoint:

    • To enable access to the public endpoint from authorized networks, omit the --enable-private-endpoint argument.

      Using this option sets the level of access for the control plane to "Public endpoint access enabled, authorized networks enabled". This provides restricted access to the control plane from authorized networks. By default, no source IP addresses are specified. You can add authorized networks to the custer.

    • To disable access to the public endpoint from authorized networks, specify the --enable-private-endpoint argument.

      Using this option sets the level of access for the control plane to "Public endpoint access disabled". This prevents all internet access to the control plane.

  gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
      --location LOCATION \
      --enable-ip-alias \
      --enable-private-environment \
      --network NETWORK_ID \
      --subnetwork SUBNETWORK_ID \
      --cluster-ipv4-cidr PODS_RANGE \
      --services-ipv4-cidr SERVICES_RANGE \
      --master-ipv4-cidr CONTROL_PLANE_RANGE \
      --web-server-ipv4-cidr WEB_SERVER_RANGE \ 
      --cloud-sql-ipv4-cidr SQL_RANGE

Replace:

  • NETWORK_ID with your VPC network ID.
  • SUBNETWORK_ID with your VPC subnetwork ID.
  • PODS_RANGE with the secondary range for pods.
  • SERVICES_RANGE with the secondary range for services.
  • CONTROL_PLANE_RANGE with the secondary range for the GKE control plane.

  • WEB_SERVER_RANGE with the secondary range for the Airflow web server instance.

  • SQL_RANGE with the range for the Cloud SQL instance.

Step 6. (Optional) Configure web server network access

The Airflow web server access parameters do not depend on the type of your environment. Instead, you can configure web server access separately. For example, a Private IP environment can still have the Airflow UI accessible from the internet.

Console

On the Create environment page, in the Web server configuration section:

  • To provide access to Airfow from the internet to the authorized users, select Allow access from all IP addresses.

  • To restrict access only to specific IP ranges, select Allow access only from specific IP addresses . In the IP range field, specify an IP range in the CIDR notation. In the Description field, specify an optional description for this range.

gcloud

When you create an environment, following arguments control web server access level:

  • --web-server-allow-all provides access to Airfow from the internet to authorized users. This is the default option.

  • --web-server-allow-ip restricts access only to specific source IP ranges. To specify several IP ranges, use this argument multiple times.

gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION \
    --web-server-allow-ip ip_range=WS_IP_RANGE,description=WS_RANGE_DESCRIPTION

Replace:

  • WS_IP_RANGE with the IP range, in the CIDR notation, that can access Airflow UI.
  • WS_RANGE_DESCRIPTION with the description of the IP range.

Example:

gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
    --location us-central1 \
    --web-server-allow-ip ip_range=192.0.2.0/24,description="office net 1" \
    --web-server-allow-ip ip_range=192.0.4.0/24,description="office net 3"

API

When you create an environment, in the Environment > EnvironmentConfig resource, specify web server access parameters.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "config": {
    "webServerNetworkAccessControl": {
      "allowedIpRanges": [
        {
          "value": "WS_IP_RANGE",
          "description": "WS_RANGE_DESCRIPTION"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • WS_IP_RANGE with the IP range, in the CIDR notation, that can access Airflow UI.
  • WS_RANGE_DESCRIPTION with the description of the IP range.

Example:


// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "config": {
    "webServerNetworkAccessControl": {
      "allowedIpRanges": [
        {
          "value": "192.0.2.0/24",
          "description": "office net 1"
        },
        {
          "value": "192.0.4.0/24",
          "description": "office net 3"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

Terraform

When you create an environment, the allowed_ip_range block in the web_server_network_access_control block contains IP ranges that can access web server.

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"

  config {

    web_server_network_access_control {

      allowed_ip_range {
        value = "WS_IP_RANGE"
        description = "WS_RANGE_DESCRIPTION"
      }

    }

  }
}

Replace:

  • WS_IP_RANGE with the IP range, in the CIDR notation, that can access Airflow UI.
  • WS_RANGE_DESCRIPTION with the description of the IP range.

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"

  config {

    web_server_network_access_control {
      allowed_ip_range {
        value = "192.0.2.0/24"
        description = "office net 1"
      },
      allowed_ip_range {
        value = "192.0.4.0/24"
        description = "office net 3"
      }

    }
}

Step 7. (Optional) Specify Airflow configuration overrides and environment variables

You can set up Airflow configuration overrides and environment variables when you create an environment. As an alternative, you can do it later, after your environment is created.

Some Airflow configuration options are blocked and you cannot override them.

For the list of available Airflow configuration options, see Configuration reference for Airflow 2 and Airflow 1.10.*

To specify Airflow configuration overrides and environment variables:

Console

On the Create environment page:

  1. Expand the Networking, Airflow config overrides, and additional features item.

  2. In the Environment variables section, click Add environment variable.

  3. Enter the Name and Value for the environment variable.

  4. In the Airflow configuration overrides section, click Add Airflow configuration override.

  5. Enter the Section, Key, and Value for the configuration option override.

    For example:

    Section Key Value
    webserver dag_orientation TB

gcloud

When you create an environment, following arguments control environment variables and Airflow configuration overrides:

  • --env-variables specifies a comma-separated list of environment variables.

    Variable names may contain upper and lowercase letters, digits, and underscores, but they may not begin with a digit.

  • --airflow-configs specifies a comma-separated list of keys and values for Airflow configuration overrides.

gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION \
    --env-variables ENV_VARS \
    --airflow-configs CONFIG_OVERRIDES

Replace:

  • ENV_VARS with a list of comma-separated NAME=VALUE pairs for environment variables.
  • CONFIG_OVERRIDES with a list of comma-separated SECTION-KEY=VALUE pairs for configuration overrides. Separate the name of the configuration section with a - symbol, followed by the key name. For example: core-dags_are_paused_at_creation.

Example:

gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
    --location us-central1 \
    --env-variables SENDGRID_MAIL_FROM=user@example.com,SENDGRID_API_KEY=example-key \
    --airflow-configs core-dags_are_paused_at_creation=True,webserver-dag_orientation=TB

API

When you create an environment, in the Environment > EnvironmentConfig resource, specify environment variables and Airflow configuration overrides.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "config": {
    "softwareConfig": {
      "airflowConfigOverrides": {
        "SECTION-KEY": "OVERRIDE_VALUE"
      },
      "envVariables": {
        "VAR_NAME": "VAR_VALUE",
      }
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • SECTION with the section in the configuration file where the Airflow configuration option is located.
  • KEY with the name of the Airflow configuration option.
  • OVERRIDE_VALUE with a value of the Airflow configuration option.
  • VAR_NAME with the name of the environment variable.
  • VAR_VALUE with the value of the environment variable.

Example:

// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "config": {
    "softwareConfig": {
      "airflowConfigOverrides": {
        "core-dags_are_paused_at_creation": "True",
        "webserver-dag_orientation": "TB"
      },
      "envVariables": {
        "SENDGRID_MAIL_FROM": "user@example.com",
        "SENDGRID_API_KEY": "example-key"
      }
    }
  }
}

Terraform

When you create an environment, following blocks control environment variables and Airflow configuration overrides:

  • env_variables block in the software_config block specifies environment variables.

Variable names may contain upper and lowercase letters, digits, and underscores, but they may not begin with a digit.

  • airflow_config_overrides block in the software_config block specifies Airflow configuration overrides.
resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"

  config {

    software_config {

      airflow_config_overrides = {
        SECTION-KEY = "OVERRIDE_VALUE"
      }

      env_variables = {
        VAR_NAME = "VAR_VALUE"
      }
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • SECTION with the section in the configuration file where the Airflow configuration option is located.
  • KEY with the name of the Airflow configuration option.
  • OVERRIDE_VALUE with a value of the Airflow configuration option.
  • VAR_NAME with the name of the environment variable.
  • VAR_VALUE with the value of the environment variable.

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"

  config {

    software_config {

      airflow_config_overrides = {
        core-dags_are_paused_at_creation = "True"
        webserver-dag_orientation = "TB"
      }

      env_variables = {
        SENDGRID_MAIL_FROM = "user@example.com"
        SENDGRID_API_KEY = "example-key"
      }
    }
  }
}

Step 8. (Optional) Specify maintenance windows

To define maintenance windows for your environment:

Console

On the Create environment page:

  1. Expand the Networking, Airflow config overrides, and additional features item.

  2. In the Maintenance windows section, select the Set custom time for maintenance windows checkbox.

  3. In the Timezone drop-down list, choose a time zone for maintenance windows.

  4. Set Start time, Days, and Length, so that combined time for the specified schedule is at least 12 hours in a 7-day rolling window. For example, a period of 4 hours every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday provides the required amount of time.

gcloud

The following arguments define maintenance windows parameters:

  • --maintenance-window-start sets the start time of a maintenance window.
  • --maintenance-window-end sets the end time of a maintenance window.
  • --maintenance-window-recurrence sets the maintenance window recurrence.
gcloud beta composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION \
    --maintenance-window-start 'DATETIME_START' \
    --maintenance-window-end 'DATETIME_END' \
    --maintenance-window-recurrence 'MAINTENANCE_RECURRENCE'

Replace:

  • ENVIRONMENT_NAME with the name of the environment.
  • DATETIME_START with the start date and time in the date/time input format. Only the specified time of the day is used, the specified date is ignored.
  • DATETIME_END with the end date and time in the date/time input format. Only the specified time of the day is used, the specified date is ignored. The specified date and time must be after the start date.
  • MAINTENANCE_RECURRENCE with an RFC 5545 RRULE for maintenance windows recurrence. Cloud Composer supports two formats:

  • The FREQ=DAILY format specifies a daily recurrence.

  • The FREQ=WEEKLY;BYDAY=SU,MO,TU,WE,TH,FR,SA format specifies a recurrence on selected days of the week.

The following example specifies a 6-hour maintenance window between 01:00 and 07:00 (UTC) on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. The 1 January, 2021 date is ignored.

gcloud beta composer environments create example-environment \
  --location us-central1 \
  --maintenance-window-start '2021-01-01T01:00:00Z' \
  --maintenance-window-end '2021-01-01T07:00:00Z' \
  --maintenance-window-recurrence 'FREQ=WEEKLY;BYDAY=SU,WE,SA'

API

When you create an environment, in the Environment > EnvironmentConfig resource, specify maintenance windows parameters:

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "config": {
    "maintenanceWindow": {
        "startTime": "DATETIME_START",
        "endTime": "DATETIME_END",
        "recurrence": "MAINTENANCE_RECURRENCE"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • DATETIME_START with the start date and time in the date/time input format. Only the specified time of the day is used, the specified date is ignored.
  • DATETIME_END with the end date and time in the date/time input format. Only the specified time of the day is used, the specified date is ignored. The specified date and time must be after the start date.
  • MAINTENANCE_RECURRENCE with an RFC 5545 RRULE for maintenance windows recurrence. Cloud Composer supports two formats:

  • The FREQ=DAILY format specifies a daily recurrence.

  • The FREQ=WEEKLY;BYDAY=SU,MO,TU,WE,TH,FR,SA format specifies a recurrence on selected days of the week.

The following example specifies a 6-hour maintenance window between 01:00 and 07:00 (UTC) on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. The 1 January, 2021 date is ignored.

Example:


// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1beta1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "config": {
    "maintenanceWindow": {
        "startTime": "2021-01-01T01:00:00Z",
        "endTime": "2021-01-01T07:00:00Z",
        "recurrence": "FREQ=WEEKLY;BYDAY=SU,WE,SA"
    }
  }
}

Terraform

It is not possible to specify maintenance windows using Terraform. You can create an environment using Terraform, then specify maintenance windows using Google Cloud Console or gcloud.

Step 9. (Optional) Specify environment labels

You can assign labels to your environments to break down billing costs based on these labels.

Console

On the Create environment page:

  1. Expand the Networking, Airflow config overrides, and additional features item.

  2. In the Labels section, click Add label.

  3. In Key and Value fields, specify key and value pairs for the environment labels.

gcloud

When you create an environment, the --labels argument specifies a comma-separated list of keys and values with environment labels.

gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION \
    --labels LABELS

Replace:

  • LABELS with a list of comma-separated KEY=VALUE pairs for environment labels.

Example:

gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
    --location us-central1 \
    --labels owner=engineering-team,env=production

API

When you create an environment, in the Environment resource, specify labels for your environment.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "labels": {
    "LABEL_KEY": "LABEL_VALUE"
  }
}

Replace:

  • LABEL_KEY with a key of the environment label.
  • LABEL_VALUE with a value of the environment label.

Example:


// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "labels": {
    "owner": "engineering-team",
    "env": "production"
  }
}

Terraform

When you create an environment, specify labels in the labels block ( outside of the config block).

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"

  labels = {
    LABEL_KEY = "LABEL_VALUE"
  }

}

Replace:

  • LABEL_KEY with a key of the environment label.
  • LABEL_VALUE with a value of the environment label.

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"

  labels = {
    owner = "engineering-team"
    env = "production"
  }

}

Step 10. (Optional) Configure data encryption (CMEK)

By default, data in your environment is encrypted with a key provided by Google.

To use customer-managed encryption keys (CMEK) to encrypt data in your environment, follow the instructions outlined in Using customer-managed encryption keys.

Step 11. (Optional) Configure other parameters

Other parameters include:

  • Zone for your environment nodes

    Compute Engine zone in which to deploy cluster nodes. In this parameter, you can select a specific zone in the location of your environment.

    By default, a random zone is selected automatically.

  • OAuth scopes

    OAuth scopes are a set of Google API scopes to be made available on all node VMs. If empty, defaults to https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform.

    If you specify custom OAuth scopes, include https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform in the list of specified scopes.

  • Node VM tags

    The list of tags applied to all node VMs. Tags are used to identify valid sources or targets for network firewalls. Each tag within the list must comply with RFC 1035.

  • Python version

    If your environment uses Airflow 1.10.* and earlier Airlfow versions, you can make your environment use Python 2. The default Python version is Python 3. For more information about Python 2 support in Cloud Composer, see Supported Python versions.

Console

On the Create environment page:

  1. In the Node configuration section:

    • In the Zone drop-down list, select a zone for your environment nodes.

      You cannot change zone later.

    • In the OAuth Scopes field, specify OAuth scopes for node VMs.

      You cannot change OAuth scopes later.

    • In the Tags field, specify instance tags for node VMs.

      You cannot change tags later.

    • In the Python version field, choose the version of Python.

      You cannot change the Python version later.

gcloud

When you create an environment, following arguments control miscellaneous parameters of your environment:

  • --zone specifies a Compute Engine zone for your environment VMs.

  • --oauth-scopes specifies a comma-separted list of OAuth scopes.

  • --tags specifies a comma-separated list of instance tags applied to all node VMs.

  • --python-version specifies the version of Python.

gcloud composer environments create ENVIRONMENT_NAME \
    --location LOCATION \
    --zone ZONE \
    --oauth-scopes OAUTH_SCOPES \
    --tags TAGS \
    --python-version PYTHON_VERSION

Replace:

  • ZONE with the name of the Compute Engine zone.
  • OAUTH_SCOPES with a comma-separated list of OAuth scopes.
  • TAGS with a comma-separated list of instance tags.
  • PYTHON_VERSION with the Python version (3 or 2).

Example:

gcloud composer environments create example-environment \
    --location us-central1 \
    --zone us-central1-a \
    --oauth-scopes https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery  \
    --tags group1,production \
    --python-version 3

API

When you create an environment, in the Environment > EnvironmentConfig resource, specify miscellaneous parameters of your environment.

{
  "name": "projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/LOCATION/environments/ENVIRONMENT_NAME",
  "config": {
    "nodeConfig": {
      "location": "projects/PROJECT_ID/zones/ZONE",
      "oauthScopes": [
        "OAUTH_SCOPE"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "TAG"
      ]
    },
    "softwareConfig": {
        "pythonVersion": "PYTHON_VERSION"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • ZONE with the name of the Compute Engine zone.
  • OAUTH_SCOPE with an OAuth scope. To specify additional scopes, add the https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform scope, followed by the additional scope items. scopes.
  • TAG with an instance tag.
  • PYTHON_VERSION with the Python version (3 or 2).

Example:

// POST https://composer.googleapis.com/v1/{parent=projects/*/locations/*}/environments

{
  "name": "projects/example-project/locations/us-central1/environments/example-environment",
  "config": {
    "nodeConfig": {
      "location": "projects/example-project/zones/us-central1-a",
      "oauthScopes": [
        "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform",
        "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "group1",
        "production"
      ]
    },
    "softwareConfig": {
        "pythonVersion": "3"
    }
  }
}

Terraform

When you create an environment, following fields control miscellaneous parameters of your environment:

  • zone field in the node_config block specifies a Compute Engine zone for your environment VMs.

  • oauth_scopes field in the node_config block specifies a comma-separated list of OAuth scopes.

  • tags field in the node_config block specifies a comma-separated list of instance tags applied to all node VMs.

  • python_version field in the software_config block specifies the version of Python.

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "ENVIRONMENT_NAME"
  region = "LOCATION"

  config {

    node_config {
      zone = "ZONE"
      oauth_scopes = "[OAUTH_SCOPES]"
      tags = "TAGS"
    }

    software_config {
      python_version = "PYTHON_VERSION"
    }
  }
}

Replace:

  • ZONE with the name of the Compute Engine zone.
  • OAUTH_SCOPES with a comma-separated list of OAuth scopes.
  • TAGS with a comma-separated list of instance tags.
  • PYTHON_VERSION with the Python version (3 or 2).

Example:

resource "google_composer_environment" "example" {
  name = "example-environment"
  region = "us-central1"

  config {
    node_config {
      zone = "us-central1-a"
      oauth_scopes = "[https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery]"
      tags = "[group1,production]"
    }
    software_config {
      python_version = "3"
    }
  }
}

Step 12. (Optional) Enforce Beta API usage

You can explicitly make your environment use beta Cloud Composer API, even if your environment does not have any preview features. If you do so, your environment is created using the v1beta1 service endpoint.

Console

On the Create environment page:

  1. Expand the Networking, Airflow config overrides, and additional features item.

  2. In the Beta API section, select the Enforce the usage of Beta API checkbox.

gcloud

Create your environment using the gcloud beta composer command.

API

Create your environment using the v1beta1 service endpoint.

Terraform

The Terraform provider for Cloud Composer uses beta API by default.

What's next