Setting Up LAMP on Compute Engine
Contributed by Google employees.
This page shows you how to set up a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack on a Compute Engine virtual machine instance. The instructions in this tutorial are for Debian 10 or Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, but much of the information is also applicable to other Linux distributions.
Alternatively, you can use options from the Cloud Marketplace to deploy a LAMP stack automatically.
- Create a virtual machine instance.
- Connect to your instance using SSH.
- Deploy the LAMP stack on your instance.
- Transfer files.
- Set up DNS mapping.
This tutorial uses billable components of Google Cloud, including Compute Engine.
Use the pricing calculator to generate a cost estimate based on your projected usage.
Creating a virtual machine instance
- In the Cloud Console, go to the VM Instances page.
- Click Create instance.
- In the Name field, enter
- In the Machine configuration section, select e2-micro for Machine type.
- In the Boot disk section, click Change.
- In the Boot disk window, perform the following steps in the Public images tab:
- In the Operating system menu, ensure that Debian is selected.
- In the Version menu, ensure that Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster) is selected.
- Click Select.
- In the Firewall section, select Allow HTTP traffic and Allow HTTPS traffic.
- Click Create.
If you want to use a different operating system, click the Change button for the Boot disk, and select the operating system and version that you want.
Give the instance a few seconds to start up.
Deploying the LAMP stack on Compute Engine
In this section, you configure the LAMP stack.
Connect to your instance
You can connect directly to your instance using SSH from
Cloud Console or using the
gcloud compute ssh command, which is
part of the Cloud SDK.
This tutorial demonstrates the steps in the Cloud Console.
In the Cloud Console, go to the VM instances page.
In the list of virtual machine instances, click the SSH button in the row of the instance to which you want to connect.
Make a note of the IP address of your VM instance.
You can see this address in the External IP column.
Install Apache and PHP on your instance
By creating an instance, you already have the Linux part of LAMP. In this section, you install Apache and PHP.
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install apache2 php libapache2-mod-php
Test Apache and PHP
Get the external IP address of your instance from the VM instances page in the Cloud Console.
In a browser, enter your external IP address to verify that Apache is running:
You should see the Apache test page. Make sure that you don't use the
httpsprotocol specifier, because HTTPS is not configured.
To create a test file in the default web server root at
/var/www/html/, follow the instructions in the PHP documentation. Example number 2 is the simplest example.
You can write the code to the file from the command line by using a statement like the following:
sudo sh -c 'echo "[YOUR_PHP_CODE]" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php'
[YOUR_PHP_CODE]with the code that you want to write out.
sudo sh -c 'echo "<?php phpinfo(); ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php'
Browse to the test file to verify that Apache and PHP are working together:
You should see the standard PHP page that provides information about your current Apache environment.
If the page failed to load (
HTTP 404), verify the following:
- In the Cloud Console, HTTP traffic is allowed for your instance.
- The URL uses
httpwith the correct IP address and filename.
Install MariaDB on your instance
Install MariaDB and related PHP components:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install mariadb-server php php-mysql
Check MariaDB server statuses
Run the following command to check whether the MariaDB database server is running:
sudo systemctl status mariadb
mariadb service is not running, then start the service with the following command:
sudo systemctl start mariadb
You can also use the
mysql client connect to the database server:
mysql_secure_installation command to improve the security of your
installation. This performs steps such as setting the root user password if
it is not yet set, removing the anonymous user, restricting root user access to
the local machine, and removing the test database.
Optional: Use phpMyAdmin for database administration
You can use phpMyAdmin to administer your database through a UI.
sudo apt-get install php-bz2 php-gd php-curl # this command is only needed for Debian 10 sudo apt-get install -t buster-backports php-twig sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
During the installation, configure phpMyAdmin as follows:
- Use the spacebar to select apache2 and the tab key to move the cursor.
- Select Yes to use
dbconfig-commonfor database setup.
- Enter a password for the phpMyAdmin application, and make a note of the password.
After installation, complete the configuration:
Uncomment the following line in your server's
php.inifile by removing the leading
Include the phpMyAdmin configuration in your
apache2.conffile by adding the following line:
sudo systemctl restart apache2
Browse to phpMyAdmin:
You should see the phpMyAdmin login page.
Log in by using the
phpmyadminusername and the password that you created when you installed phpMyAdmin.
To prevent unauthorized access to your instance, take steps to secure your phpMyAdmin installation, such as by serving phpMyAdmin only over HTTPS or using an authentication proxy.
There are several ways to transfer files to your VM instance that runs your web server,
including FTP and the
gcloud command. For full details, see
Transferring files to Linux instances.
This tutorial uses the
gcloud command, which is part of the Cloud SDK.
The following example copies a file from your workstation to the home directory on the instance:
gcloud compute scp [LOCAL_FILE_PATH] root@lamp-tutorial:/var/www/html
[LOCAL_FILE_PATH] with the path to the file on your workstation.
You can also copy files from an instance to your local workstation by reversing the source and destination variables. The following example copies a file from your instance to your workstation:
gcloud compute scp lamp-tutorial:/var/www/html [LOCAL_FILE_PATH]
[LOCAL_FILE_PATH] with the path where you want to put the file on your workstation.
Setting up DNS
After you have set up your software stack and transferred your files, you might want to map your own domain name to your site. If you want complete control of your own DNS system, you can use Google Cloud DNS to serve as your domain name service (DNS) provider. If you need instructions that are specific to Cloud DNS, see the quickstart.
This tutorial walks you through the scenario of setting up DNS through a third-party provider, such as your domain registrar.
If you have an existing DNS provider that you want to use, you need to create a couple of records
with that provider. This tutorial assumes that you are mapping
to point to your website hosted on Compute Engine.
example.com domain name, create an
A record with your DNS provider. For the
CNAME record for
www to point it to the
example.com domain. The
A record maps a hostname
to an IP address. The
CNAME record creates an alias for the
A record. This lesson assumes you want
www.example.com to map to the same IP address.
- Get your external IP address for your instance. You can look up the IP address on the VM instances page in the Cloud Console.
- Sign in to your provider's DNS management interface and find the domain that you want to manage. Refer to your DNS provider's documentation for specific steps.
- Create an
Arecord and set the value to your external IP address. The name or host field can be set to
@, which represents the naked domain. For more information on completing various DNS tasks, see the Google Apps support page.
CNAMErecord, set the name to
www, and set the value to
@or to your hostname followed by a period:
For help creating the
Arecord with various providers, read the Google Apps support page.
If appropriate for your provider, increment the serial number in your
SOArecord to reflect that changes have been made so that your records will propagate.
Verify your DNS changes
If your domain name registrar, such as Google Domains, is also your DNS provider, you're probably all set. If you use separate providers for registration and DNS, make sure that your domain name registrar has the correct name servers associated with your domain.
After making your DNS changes, the record updates will take some time to propagate depending on your time-to-live (TTL) values in your zone. If this is a new hostname, the changes should go into effect quickly because the DNS resolvers will not have cached previous values and will contact the DNS provider to get the necessary information to route requests.
After you've finished this tutorial, you can clean up the resources that you created on Google Cloud so that you won't be billed for them in the future. The following sections describe how to delete or turn off these resources.
Deleting the project
The easiest way to eliminate billing is to delete the project you created for the tutorial. If you don't want to delete the project, delete the individual instances, as described in the next section.
Warning: Deleting a project has the following consequences:
- If you used an existing project, you'll also delete any other work you've done in the project.
- You can't reuse the project ID of a deleted project. If you created a custom project ID that you plan to use in the future, you should delete the resources inside the project instead. This ensures that URLs that use the project ID, such as an appspot.com URL, remain available.
If you are exploring multiple tutorials and quickstarts, reusing projects instead of deleting them prevents you from exceeding project quota limits.
To delete the project:
- In the Cloud Console, go to the Projects page.
- Click the checkbox next to the project you want to delete.
- Click the Delete button at the top of the page.
- In the dialog, type the project ID, and then click Shut down to delete the project.
To delete a Compute Engine instance:
- In the Cloud Console, go to the VM Instances page.
- Click the checkbox next to the instance you want to delete.
- Click the Delete button at the top of the page.
- By default, the web server document root is owned by the
rootuser. You might want to configure your document root for another user or change the directory location in the Apache configuration file. For Debian and Ubuntu, the web server document root is at
/var/www/html, and the Apache configuration file is at
- Learn more about serving websites on Google Cloud.
- Try out other Google Cloud features for yourself. Have a look at those tutorials.