Grant view access

Authorize and grant access to a view.

Documentation pages that include this code sample

To view the code sample used in context, see the following documentation:

Code sample

Go

Before trying this sample, follow the Go setup instructions in the BigQuery Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Go API reference documentation.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	"cloud.google.com/go/bigquery"
)

// updateViewDelegated demonstrates the setup of an authorized view, which allows access to a view's results
// without the caller having direct access to the underlying source data.
func updateViewDelegated(projectID, srcDatasetID, viewDatasetID, viewID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// srcDatasetID := "sourcedata"
	// viewDatasetID := "views"
	// viewID := "myview"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := bigquery.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("bigquery.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	srcDataset := client.Dataset(srcDatasetID)
	viewDataset := client.Dataset(viewDatasetID)
	view := viewDataset.Table(viewID)

	// First, we'll add a group to the ACL for the dataset containing the view.  This will allow users within
	// that group to query the view, but they must have direct access to any tables referenced by the view.
	vMeta, err := viewDataset.Metadata(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	vUpdateMeta := bigquery.DatasetMetadataToUpdate{
		Access: append(vMeta.Access, &bigquery.AccessEntry{
			Role:       bigquery.ReaderRole,
			EntityType: bigquery.GroupEmailEntity,
			Entity:     "example-analyst-group@google.com",
		}),
	}
	if _, err := viewDataset.Update(ctx, vUpdateMeta, vMeta.ETag); err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// Now, we'll authorize a specific view against a source dataset, delegating access enforcement.
	// Once this has been completed, members of the group previously added to the view dataset's ACL
	// no longer require access to the source dataset to successfully query the view.
	srcMeta, err := srcDataset.Metadata(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	srcUpdateMeta := bigquery.DatasetMetadataToUpdate{
		Access: append(srcMeta.Access, &bigquery.AccessEntry{
			EntityType: bigquery.ViewEntity,
			View:       view,
		}),
	}
	if _, err := srcDataset.Update(ctx, srcUpdateMeta, srcMeta.ETag); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return nil
}

Java

Before trying this sample, follow the Java setup instructions in the BigQuery Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Java API reference documentation.

import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Acl;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQuery;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryException;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryOptions;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Dataset;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.DatasetId;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Table;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

// Sample to grant view access on dataset
public class GrantViewAccess {

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String srcDatasetId = "MY_DATASET_ID";
    String viewDatasetId = "MY_VIEW_DATASET_ID";
    String viewId = "MY_VIEW_ID";
    grantViewAccess(srcDatasetId, viewDatasetId, viewId);
  }

  public static void grantViewAccess(String srcDatasetId, String viewDatasetId, String viewId) {
    try {
      // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
      // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
      BigQuery bigquery = BigQueryOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

      Dataset srcDataset = bigquery.getDataset(DatasetId.of(srcDatasetId));
      Dataset viewDataset = bigquery.getDataset(DatasetId.of(viewDatasetId));
      Table view = viewDataset.get(viewId);
      // First, we'll add a group to the ACL for the dataset containing the view. This will allow
      // users within that group to query the view, but they must have direct access to any tables
      // referenced by the view.
      List<Acl> viewAcl = new ArrayList<>(viewDataset.getAcl());
      viewAcl.add(Acl.of(new Acl.Group("example-analyst-group@google.com"), Acl.Role.READER));
      viewDataset.toBuilder().setAcl(viewAcl).build().update();
      // Now, we'll authorize a specific view against a source dataset, delegating access
      // enforcement. Once this has been completed, members of the group previously added to the
      // view dataset's ACL no longer require access to the source dataset to successfully query the
      // view
      List<Acl> srcAcl = new ArrayList<>(srcDataset.getAcl());
      srcAcl.add(Acl.of(new Acl.View(view.getTableId())));
      srcDataset.toBuilder().setAcl(srcAcl).build().update();
      System.out.println("Grant view access successfully");
    } catch (BigQueryException e) {
      System.out.println("Grant view access was not success. \n" + e.toString());
    }
  }
}

Python

Before trying this sample, follow the Python setup instructions in the BigQuery Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Python API reference documentation.

from google.cloud import bigquery

client = bigquery.Client()

# To use a view, the analyst requires ACLs to both the view and the source
# table. Create an authorized view to allow an analyst to use a view
# without direct access permissions to the source table.
view_dataset_id = "my-project.my_view_dataset"
# Make an API request to get the view dataset ACLs.
view_dataset = client.get_dataset(view_dataset_id)

analyst_group_email = "data_analysts@example.com"
access_entries = view_dataset.access_entries
access_entries.append(
    bigquery.AccessEntry("READER", "groupByEmail", analyst_group_email)
)
view_dataset.access_entries = access_entries

# Make an API request to update the ACLs property of the view dataset.
view_dataset = client.update_dataset(view_dataset, ["access_entries"])
print(f"Access to view: {view_dataset.access_entries}")

# Group members of "data_analysts@example.com" now have access to the view,
# but they require access to the source table to use it. To remove this
# restriction, authorize the view to access the source dataset.
source_dataset_id = "my-project.my_source_dataset"
# Make an API request to set the source dataset ACLs.
source_dataset = client.get_dataset(source_dataset_id)

view_reference = {
    "projectId": "my-project",
    "datasetId": "my_view_dataset",
    "tableId": "my_authorized_view",
}
access_entries = source_dataset.access_entries
access_entries.append(bigquery.AccessEntry(None, "view", view_reference))
source_dataset.access_entries = access_entries

# Make an API request to update the ACLs property of the source dataset.
source_dataset = client.update_dataset(source_dataset, ["access_entries"])
print(f"Access to source: {source_dataset.access_entries}")