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Memcache 示例

本页面介绍了 memcache 用法的 Python 代码示例。Memcache 是一个高性能的分布式内存对象缓存系统,可让您快速访问缓存数据。如需详细了解 Memcache,请参阅 Memcache 概览

Memcache 模式

Memcache 通常与以下模式配合使用:

  • 应用接收来自用户或应用的查询。
  • 应用检查满足该查询所需的数据是否在 memcache 中。
    • 如果数据在 memcache 中,则应用会使用该数据。
    • 如果数据不在 memcache 中,则应用会查询数据存储区并将结果存储在 memcache 中以用于将来的请求。

以下伪代码表示一个典型的 memcache 请求:

def get_data():
    data = memcache.get('key')
    if data is not None:
        return data
    else:
        data = query_for_data()
        memcache.add('key', data, 60)
    return data

Ndb 在内部使用 memcache 加速查询。不过,如果您希望,则还可以明确添加 memcache 调用来进一步控制加速查询。

缓存数据

以下示例演示了使用 Python API 在 Memcache 中设置值的几种方式。

# Add a value if it doesn't exist in the cache
# with a cache expiration of 1 hour.
memcache.add(key="weather_USA_98105", value="raining", time=3600)

# Set several values, overwriting any existing values for these keys.
memcache.set_multi(
    {"USA_98115": "cloudy", "USA_94105": "foggy", "USA_94043": "sunny"},
    key_prefix="weather_",
    time=3600
)

# Atomically increment an integer value.
memcache.set(key="counter", value=0)
memcache.incr("counter")
memcache.incr("counter")
memcache.incr("counter")

如需详细了解 add()set_multi()set() 方法,请参阅 Memcache Python API 文档

修改 guestbook.py 以使用 Memcache

入门指南中的留言板应用会根据每个请求来查询数据存储区(通过 ndb,因此它已在某种程度上受益于 memcache 加速)。您可以在查询数据存储区之前,修改留言板应用以明确使用 memcache。

首先,我们将导入 Memcache 模块,并创建方法以在运行查询前检查 Memcache。

def get_greetings(self, guestbook_name):
    """
    get_greetings()
    Checks the cache to see if there are cached greetings.
    If not, call render_greetings and set the cache

    Args:
      guestbook_name: Guestbook entity group key (string).

    Returns:
      A string of HTML containing greetings.
    """
    greetings = memcache.get('{}:greetings'.format(guestbook_name))
    if greetings is None:
        greetings = self.render_greetings(guestbook_name)
        try:
            added = memcache.add(
                '{}:greetings'.format(guestbook_name), greetings, 10)
            if not added:
                logging.error('Memcache set failed.')
        except ValueError:
            logging.error('Memcache set failed - data larger than 1MB')
    return greetings

接下来,我们将分开页面 HTML 的查询和创建过程。如果缓存未命中,我们将调用此方法来查询数据存储区并构建将在 Memcache 中存储的 HTML 字符串。

def render_greetings(self, guestbook_name):
    """
    render_greetings()
    Queries the database for greetings, iterate through the
    results and create the HTML.

    Args:
      guestbook_name: Guestbook entity group key (string).

    Returns:
      A string of HTML containing greetings
    """
    greetings = ndb.gql('SELECT * '
                        'FROM Greeting '
                        'WHERE ANCESTOR IS :1 '
                        'ORDER BY date DESC LIMIT 10',
                        guestbook_key(guestbook_name))
    output = cStringIO.StringIO()
    for greeting in greetings:
        if greeting.author:
            output.write('<b>{}</b> wrote:'.format(greeting.author))
        else:
            output.write('An anonymous person wrote:')
        output.write('<blockquote>{}</blockquote>'.format(
            cgi.escape(greeting.content)))
    return output.getvalue()

最后,我们将更新 MainPage 处理程序,以调用 get_greetings() 方法并显示有关缓存命中或未命中的次数的一些统计信息。


import cgi
import cStringIO
import logging
import urllib

from google.appengine.api import memcache
from google.appengine.api import users
from google.appengine.ext import ndb

import webapp2

class Greeting(ndb.Model):
    """Models an individual Guestbook entry with author, content, and date."""
    author = ndb.StringProperty()
    content = ndb.StringProperty()
    date = ndb.DateTimeProperty(auto_now_add=True)

def guestbook_key(guestbook_name=None):
    """Constructs a Datastore key for a Guestbook entity with guestbook_name"""
    return ndb.Key('Guestbook', guestbook_name or 'default_guestbook')

class MainPage(webapp2.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.response.out.write('<html><body>')
        guestbook_name = self.request.get('guestbook_name')

        greetings = self.get_greetings(guestbook_name)
        stats = memcache.get_stats()

        self.response.write('<b>Cache Hits:{}</b><br>'.format(stats['hits']))
        self.response.write('<b>Cache Misses:{}</b><br><br>'.format(
                            stats['misses']))
        self.response.write(greetings)

        self.response.write("""
          <form action="/sign?{}" method="post">
            <div><textarea name="content" rows="3" cols="60"></textarea></div>
            <div><input type="submit" value="Sign Guestbook"></div>
          </form>
          <hr>
          <form>Guestbook name: <input value="{}" name="guestbook_name">
          <input type="submit" value="switch"></form>
        </body>
      </html>""".format(urllib.urlencode({'guestbook_name': guestbook_name}),
                        cgi.escape(guestbook_name)))

    def get_greetings(self, guestbook_name):
        """
        get_greetings()
        Checks the cache to see if there are cached greetings.
        If not, call render_greetings and set the cache

        Args:
          guestbook_name: Guestbook entity group key (string).

        Returns:
          A string of HTML containing greetings.
        """
        greetings = memcache.get('{}:greetings'.format(guestbook_name))
        if greetings is None:
            greetings = self.render_greetings(guestbook_name)
            try:
                added = memcache.add(
                    '{}:greetings'.format(guestbook_name), greetings, 10)
                if not added:
                    logging.error('Memcache set failed.')
            except ValueError:
                logging.error('Memcache set failed - data larger than 1MB')
        return greetings

    def render_greetings(self, guestbook_name):
        """
        render_greetings()
        Queries the database for greetings, iterate through the
        results and create the HTML.

        Args:
          guestbook_name: Guestbook entity group key (string).

        Returns:
          A string of HTML containing greetings
        """
        greetings = ndb.gql('SELECT * '
                            'FROM Greeting '
                            'WHERE ANCESTOR IS :1 '
                            'ORDER BY date DESC LIMIT 10',
                            guestbook_key(guestbook_name))
        output = cStringIO.StringIO()
        for greeting in greetings:
            if greeting.author:
                output.write('<b>{}</b> wrote:'.format(greeting.author))
            else:
                output.write('An anonymous person wrote:')
            output.write('<blockquote>{}</blockquote>'.format(
                cgi.escape(greeting.content)))
        return output.getvalue()

class Guestbook(webapp2.RequestHandler):
    def post(self):
        # We set the same parent key on the 'Greeting' to ensure each greeting
        # is in the same entity group. Queries across the single entity group
        # are strongly consistent. However, the write rate to a single entity
        # group is limited to ~1/second.
        guestbook_name = self.request.get('guestbook_name')
        greeting = Greeting(parent=guestbook_key(guestbook_name))

        if users.get_current_user():
            greeting.author = users.get_current_user().nickname()

        greeting.content = self.request.get('content')
        greeting.put()
        memcache.delete('{}:greetings'.format(guestbook_name))
        self.redirect('/?' +
                      urllib.urlencode({'guestbook_name': guestbook_name}))

app = webapp2.WSGIApplication([('/', MainPage),
                               ('/sign', Guestbook)],
                              debug=True)