Deploy your app to upload and run them on App Engine. When you deploy your apps, you create versions of those apps and their corresponding services in App Engine. You can deploy entire apps, including all the source code and configuration files, or you can deploy and update individual versions or configuration files.
Before you begin
Before you can deploy your app, you must have a Cloud Platform project and an App Engine application, see Managing Projects, Applications, and Billing for more information.
Setting up Maven (recommended)
To deploy your app using Maven, you must:
Set up, compile, and then build your project using Maven 3.3.9 or greater:
Download and install Java 7:
appcfg tool (alternative)
To deploy your app with the
appcfg tool, you
must download and install the App Engine SDK for
Deploying an app
To deploy your app to App Engine, you run
Maven (recommended) or the
command from within the root directory of your application.
Using Maven (recommended)
To deploy your app with Maven, run the following command from your project's top
level directory, where the
pom.xml file is located, for example:
You will be prompted for an authorization code in the terminal window and your web browser will launch with a consent screen which you must accept in order to be authorized. Follow the prompts to copy any codes from the browser to the command line.
Using appcfg (alternative)
To deploy your app, run the
appcfg command with the
update action and the
directory path of your WAR file, for example:
appengine-java-sdk\bin\appcfg.cmd [options] update [WAR_LOCATION]
Mac / Linux
./appengine-java-sdk/bin/appcfg.sh [options] update [WAR_LOCATION]
If you are using an HTTP proxy, include the
--proxy argument to tell
its address. If you use a different proxy for HTTPS, then also include the
--proxy_https argument. See the
appcfg command line
arguments for more
appengine-java-sdk\bin\appcfg.cmd --proxy=10.1.2.3 update [WAR_LOCATION]
Mac / Linux
./appengine-java-sdk/bin/appcfg.sh --proxy=10.1.2.3 update [WAR_LOCATION]
By default, the initial version that you deploy to a service is automatically configured to receive 100% of traffic. However, all subsequent versions that you deploy to the same service must be manually configured, otherwise they receive no traffic.
The tool automatically uses the application ID from your
appengine-web.xml file. However, many of our sample applications
appengine-web.xml file, as well as
Therefore, you must ensure that a Cloud Platform project ID is
specified for the application ID along with the version ID of your choice, for
appengine-java-sdk\bin\appcfg.cmd update -A [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] -V [YOUR_VERSION_ID] [WAR_LOCATION]
Mac / Linux
./appengine-java-sdk/bin/appcfg.sh update -A [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] -V [YOUR_VERSION_ID] [WAR_LOCATION]
Deploying multiple service applications
When your application is factored into multiple services, you can deploy and update individually targeted services or all the services simultaneously. Deploying updates to services can include updating individual configuration files or updating the source code in the corresponding versions.
For example, you can deploy and create two versions in App Engine, where each version runs in their own service. The first version serves as the frontend service and the other as the backend of your app. You can then deploy individual configuration files to update only the settings of a service. You can also choose to deploy a new version to a service in order to update the source code of the frontend, backend, or both simultaneously.
Requirements for multiple services
You use the same deployment commands for deploying and updating the multiple services of your application with the following requirements:
You must initially deploy a version of your app to the
defaultservice before you can create and deploy subsequent services.
You must specify the ID of your service in the
appengine-web.xmlconfiguration file of the corresponding version. To specify the service ID, you include the
module: [YOUR_SERVICE_ID]element definition in each configuration file. By default, excluding this element definition from your configuration file deploys the version to the
You must specify all the corresponding
appengine-web.xmlconfiguration files in your deployment command to simultaneously deploy multiple services. The `default` service must be listed first.
To deploy multiple services
From the root directory of the application where the configuration files are
located, you run the deployment command and specify the relative paths and file
names for each service's
appengine-java-sdk\bin\appcfg.cmd update [DEPLOYMENTS]
Mac / Linux
./appengine-java-sdk/bin/appcfg.sh update [DEPLOYMENTS]
[DEPLOYMENTS] is one or more configuration file's path and name. You
separate each configuration file that you specify with a single white space.
appengine-java-sdk\bin\appcfg.cmd update [WAR_LOCATION] [SERVICE1_WAR_LOCATION] [MOD2_WAR_LOCATION]
Mac / Linux
./appengine-java-sdk/bin/appcfg.sh update [WAR_LOCATION] [SERVICE1_WAR_LOCATION] [MOD2_WAR_LOCATION]
You will receive verification via the command line as each service is successfully deployed.
If your app's
file defines an index that doesn't yet exist, App Engine will create it after
you upload your app.
It can take a while for App Engine to create all the indexes. If your app is already configured to receive traffic, any query that requires one of the missing indexes will raise an exception until that index is built.
To avoid exceptions you must allow time for the indexes to build, for example:
You can deploy the new version of your app with a different version ID:
You can deploy the
index.xmlconfiguration file before you deploy the new version of your app:
The following are common error messages that you might encounter:
Command not found
If you did not create symlinks for the
dev_appserver.shtools when you installed the App Engine SDK, you might need to specify the full directory path to run the tool, for example:
 The first service (module) you upload to a new application must be the 'default' service (module)
Before you can deploy and create the multiple services of your application, you must first deploy and create the
defaultservice. For details about how to deploy a version to the
defaultservice, see Deploying multiple service applications.
Too Many Versions (403)
App Engine has a limit on the number of deployed versions of your application. These differ for free applications and deployed applications. You can use the Cloud Platform Console to delete an older version and then upload your latest code.
You do not have permission to modify this app (403)
This can occur when the account that you are authenticated as does not have permission to deploy to the application ID that is specified in your command or in your
appengine-web.xml. Check your application ID is accurate and matches the value of your Cloud Platform Console project ID. Next, check the project permissions in the console and verify that your account is listed with a sufficient permission level to allow for deploying apps. If the account permission and project ID appear correct, you can try to force a reauthentication of your SDK by removing the
.appcfg_oauth2_tokensfile from your home directory and retry the deployment commands.