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Outbound IP addresses for App Engine services

Outbound services, such as the URL Fetch, Sockets, and Mail APIs, make use of a large pool of IP addresses. The IP address ranges in this pool are subject to routine changes. In fact, two sequential API calls from the same application may appear to originate from two different IP addresses.

If you need to know the IP addresses associated with outbound traffic from your service, you can either find the current IP address ranges for your service, or set up a static IP address for your service.

IP addresses for App Engine services

The outbound addresses that App Engine uses falls within these IP address ranges.

  • Google publishes the complete list of IP ranges that it makes available to users on the internet in goog.json.

  • Google also publishes a list of global and regional external IP addresses ranges available for customer's Google Cloud resources in cloud.json.

The IP addresses used by Google APIs and services fit within the list of ranges computed by taking away all ranges in cloud.json from those in goog.json.

Set up a static outbound IP address

To set up a static IP address for your App Engine standard environment service, use Serverless VPC Access with Cloud Router and Cloud NAT. By using Serverless VPC Access, you can send egress traffic to your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network. By using a network address translation (NAT) gateway on your VPC, you can route the App Engine traffic through a dedicated IP address.

Routing your traffic through Cloud NAT does not cause an additional hop in your networking stack since the Cloud NAT gateway and the Cloud Router provide only a control plane and the packets do not pass through the Cloud NAT gateway or the Cloud Router.

The following steps show how to set up a static outbound IP address for your App Engine standard environment service.

  1. Make sure that you have the roles/compute.networkAdmin role or a custom role with the same permissions.

  2. Create a subnetwork (subnet) inside your VPC network for App Engine traffic. This ensures that other resources in your VPC network cannot use the static IP address.

    gcloud compute networks subnets create SUBNET_NAME \
        --range=RANGE \
        --network=NETWORK_NAME \
        --region=REGION

    In the command above, replace:

    • SUBNET_NAME with a name you want to give to the subnet.
    • RANGE with the IP range in CIDR format you want to assign to this subnet (e.g. 10.124.0.0/28)
    • NETWORK_NAME with the name of your VPC network.
    • REGION with the region of your App Engine service.
  3. Connect your App Engine service to the subnet.

    Follow the guide Connecting to a VPC network, and specify the name of the subnet you created in the previous step for the connector subnet.

  4. Create a new Cloud Router. Cloud Router is a necessary control plane component for Cloud NAT.

    gcloud compute routers create ROUTER_NAME \
        --network=NETWORK_NAME \
        --region=REGION

    In the command above, replace:

    • ROUTER_NAME with a name for the Cloud Router resource you want to create.
    • NETWORK_NAME with the name of your VPC network.
    • REGION with the region in which you want to create a NAT gateway.
  5. Reserve a static IP address.

    This is the address that your service will use to send outgoing traffic. A reserved IP address resource retains the underlying IP address when the resource it is associated with is deleted and re-created. This IP address counts towards the static IP address quotas in your Google Cloud project.

    gcloud compute addresses create ORIGIN_IP_NAME \
        --region=REGION

    In the command above, replace:

    • ORIGIN_IP_NAME with the name you want to assign to the IP address resource.
    • REGION with the region that will run the Cloud NAT router. Ideally the same region as your App Engine service to minimize latency and network costs.
  6. Create a Cloud NAT gateway and specify your IP address.

    Traffic originating from your subnet will go through this gateway and use the static IP address that you reserved in the previous step.

    gcloud compute routers nats create NAT_NAME \
        --router=ROUTER_NAME \
        --region=REGION \
        --nat-custom-subnet-ip-ranges=SUBNET_NAME \
        --nat-external-ip-pool=ORIGIN_IP_NAME
      

    In the command above, replace:

    • NAT_NAME with a name for the Cloud NAT gateway resource you want to create.
    • ROUTER_NAME with the name of your Cloud Router.
    • REGION with the region in which you want to create a NAT gateway.
    • ORIGIN_IP_NAME with the name of the reserved IP address resource you created in the previous step.
  7. Set the Serverless VPC Access egress setting to all-traffic.

    By default, App Engine services that use Serverless VPC Access only send internal traffic to your VPC network. In order to send traffic with external destinations to your VPC network so that it will have the static IP address that you specified, you must change the egress setting.

    Specify the egress setting in the app.yaml file for your service:

       vpc_access_connector:
         name: projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/REGION/connectors/CONNECTOR_NAME
         egress_setting: all-traffic
       

    Replace:

    • PROJECT_ID with your Cloud project ID.
    • REGION with the region your connector is in.
    • CONNECTOR_NAME with the name of your connector.

    Deploy the service:

     gcloud app deploy