Source code for google.appengine.api.datastore

#!/usr/bin/env python
#
# Copyright 2007 Google Inc.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
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# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
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"""The Python datastore API used by app developers.

Defines Entity, Query, and Iterator classes, as well as methods for all of the
datastore's calls. Also defines conversions between the Python classes and
their PB counterparts.

The datastore errors are defined in the datastore_errors module. That module is
only required to avoid circular imports. datastore imports datastore_types,
which needs BadValueError, so it can't be defined in datastore.
"""

















import heapq
import itertools
import logging
import os
import re
import sys
import threading
import traceback
from xml.sax import saxutils

from google.appengine.api import apiproxy_stub_map
from google.appengine.api import capabilities
from google.appengine.api import datastore_errors
from google.appengine.api import datastore_types
from google.appengine.datastore import datastore_pb
from google.appengine.datastore import datastore_query
from google.appengine.datastore import datastore_rpc
from google.appengine.datastore import entity_pb



MAX_ALLOWABLE_QUERIES = 30


MAXIMUM_RESULTS = 1000





DEFAULT_TRANSACTION_RETRIES = 3


READ_CAPABILITY = capabilities.CapabilitySet('datastore_v3')
WRITE_CAPABILITY = capabilities.CapabilitySet(
    'datastore_v3',
    capabilities=['write'])







_MAX_INDEXED_PROPERTIES = 20000


_MAX_ID_BATCH_SIZE = datastore_rpc._MAX_ID_BATCH_SIZE

Key = datastore_types.Key
typename = datastore_types.typename


STRONG_CONSISTENCY = datastore_rpc.Configuration.STRONG_CONSISTENCY
EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY = datastore_rpc.Configuration.EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY



_MAX_INT_32 = 2**31-1


[docs]def NormalizeAndTypeCheck(arg, types): """Normalizes and type checks the given argument. Args: arg: an instance or iterable of the given type(s) types: allowed type or tuple of types Returns: A (list, bool) tuple. The list is a normalized, shallow copy of the argument. The boolean is True if the argument was a sequence, False if it was a single object. Raises: AssertionError: types includes list or tuple. BadArgumentError: arg is not an instance or sequence of one of the given types. """ if not isinstance(types, (list, tuple)): types = (types,) assert list not in types and tuple not in types if isinstance(arg, types): return [arg], False else: if isinstance(arg, basestring): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Expected an instance or iterable of %s; received %s (a %s).' % (types, arg, typename(arg))) try: arg_list = list(arg) except TypeError: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Expected an instance or iterable of %s; received %s (a %s).' % (types, arg, typename(arg))) for val in arg_list: if not isinstance(val, types): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Expected one of %s; received %s (a %s).' % (types, val, typename(val))) return arg_list, True
[docs]def NormalizeAndTypeCheckKeys(keys): """Normalizes and type checks that the given argument is a valid key or keys. A wrapper around NormalizeAndTypeCheck() that accepts strings, Keys, and Entities, and normalizes to Keys. Args: keys: a Key or sequence of Keys Returns: A (list of Keys, bool) tuple. See NormalizeAndTypeCheck. Raises: BadArgumentError: arg is not an instance or sequence of one of the given types. """ keys, multiple = NormalizeAndTypeCheck(keys, (basestring, Entity, Key)) keys = [_GetCompleteKeyOrError(key) for key in keys] return (keys, multiple)
def _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs, convert_rpc=False, config_class=datastore_rpc.Configuration): """Get a Configuration object from the keyword arguments. This is purely an internal helper for the various public APIs below such as Get(). Args: kwargs: A dict containing the keyword arguments passed to a public API. convert_rpc: If the an rpc should be converted or passed on directly. config_class: The config class that should be generated. Returns: A UserRPC instance, or a Configuration instance, or None. Raises: TypeError if unexpected keyword arguments are present. """ if not kwargs: return None rpc = kwargs.pop('rpc', None) if rpc is not None: if not isinstance(rpc, apiproxy_stub_map.UserRPC): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'rpc= argument should be None or a UserRPC instance') if 'config' in kwargs: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Expected rpc= or config= argument but not both') if not convert_rpc: if kwargs: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Unexpected keyword arguments: %s' % ', '.join(kwargs)) return rpc read_policy = getattr(rpc, 'read_policy', None) kwargs['config'] = datastore_rpc.Configuration( deadline=rpc.deadline, read_policy=read_policy, config=_GetConnection().config) return config_class(**kwargs) class _BaseIndex(object): BUILDING, SERVING, DELETING, ERROR = range(4) ASCENDING = datastore_query.PropertyOrder.ASCENDING DESCENDING = datastore_query.PropertyOrder.DESCENDING def __init__(self, index_id, kind, has_ancestor, properties): """Construct a datastore index instance. Args: index_id: Required long; Uniquely identifies the index kind: Required string; Specifies the kind of the entities to index has_ancestor: Required boolean; indicates if the index supports a query that filters entities by the entity group parent properties: Required list of (string, int) tuples; The entity properties to index. First item in a tuple is the property name and the second item is the sorting direction (ASCENDING|DESCENDING). The order of the properties is based on the order in the index. """ argument_error = datastore_errors.BadArgumentError datastore_types.ValidateInteger(index_id, 'index_id', argument_error, zero_ok=True) datastore_types.ValidateString(kind, 'kind', argument_error, empty_ok=True) if not isinstance(properties, (list, tuple)): raise argument_error('properties must be a list or a tuple') for idx, index_property in enumerate(properties): if not isinstance(index_property, (list, tuple)): raise argument_error('property[%d] must be a list or a tuple' % idx) if len(index_property) != 2: raise argument_error('property[%d] length should be 2 but was %d' % (idx, len(index_property))) datastore_types.ValidateString(index_property[0], 'property name', argument_error) _BaseIndex.__ValidateEnum(index_property[1], (self.ASCENDING, self.DESCENDING), 'sort direction') self.__id = long(index_id) self.__kind = kind self.__has_ancestor = bool(has_ancestor) self.__properties = properties @staticmethod def __ValidateEnum(value, accepted_values, name='value', exception=datastore_errors.BadArgumentError): datastore_types.ValidateInteger(value, name, exception) if not value in accepted_values: raise exception('%s should be one of %s but was %d' % (name, str(accepted_values), value)) def _Id(self): """Returns the index id, a long.""" return self.__id def _Kind(self): """Returns the index kind, a string. Empty string ('') if none.""" return self.__kind def _HasAncestor(self): """Indicates if this is an ancestor index, a boolean.""" return self.__has_ancestor def _Properties(self): """Returns the index properties. a tuple of (index name as a string, [ASCENDING|DESCENDING]) tuples. """ return self.__properties def __eq__(self, other): return self.__id == other.__id def __ne__(self, other): return self.__id != other.__id def __hash__(self): return hash(self.__id)
[docs]class Index(_BaseIndex): """A datastore index.""" Id = _BaseIndex._Id Kind = _BaseIndex._Kind HasAncestor = _BaseIndex._HasAncestor Properties = _BaseIndex._Properties
[docs]class DatastoreAdapter(datastore_rpc.AbstractAdapter): """Adapter between datatypes defined here (Entity etc.) and protobufs. See the base class in datastore_rpc.py for more docs. """ index_state_mappings = { entity_pb.CompositeIndex.ERROR: Index.ERROR, entity_pb.CompositeIndex.DELETED: Index.DELETING, entity_pb.CompositeIndex.READ_WRITE: Index.SERVING, entity_pb.CompositeIndex.WRITE_ONLY: Index.BUILDING } index_direction_mappings = { entity_pb.Index_Property.ASCENDING: Index.ASCENDING, entity_pb.Index_Property.DESCENDING: Index.DESCENDING } def __init__(self, _id_resolver=None): super(DatastoreAdapter, self).__init__(_id_resolver)
[docs] def key_to_pb(self, key): return key._Key__reference
[docs] def pb_to_key(self, pb): return Key._FromPb(pb)
[docs] def entity_to_pb(self, entity): return entity._ToPb()
[docs] def pb_to_entity(self, pb): return Entity._FromPb(pb)
[docs] def pb_to_index(self, pb): index_def = pb.definition() properties = [(property.name().decode('utf-8'), DatastoreAdapter.index_direction_mappings.get(property.direction())) for property in index_def.property_list()] index = Index(pb.id(), index_def.entity_type().decode('utf-8'), index_def.ancestor(), properties) state = DatastoreAdapter.index_state_mappings.get(pb.state()) return index, state
_adapter = DatastoreAdapter() _thread_local = threading.local() _ENV_KEY = '__DATASTORE_CONNECTION_INITIALIZED__' def __InitConnection(): """Internal method to make sure the connection state has been initialized.""" if os.getenv(_ENV_KEY) and hasattr(_thread_local, 'connection_stack'): return def CreateConnection(adapter=None, _id_resolver=None, _api_version=datastore_rpc._DATASTORE_V3): if _id_resolver: adapter = DatastoreAdapter(_id_resolver=_id_resolver) return datastore_rpc.Connection(adapter=adapter, _api_version=_api_version) _thread_local.connection_stack = [ datastore_rpc._CreateDefaultConnection(CreateConnection, adapter=_adapter) ] os.environ[_ENV_KEY] = '1' def _GetConnection(): """Internal method to retrieve a datastore connection local to the thread.""" __InitConnection() return _thread_local.connection_stack[-1] def _SetConnection(connection): """Internal method to replace the current thread local connection.""" __InitConnection() _thread_local.connection_stack[-1] = connection def _PushConnection(new_connection): """Internal method to save the current connection and sets a new one. Args: new_connection: The connection to set. """ __InitConnection() _thread_local.connection_stack.append(new_connection) def _PopConnection(): """Internal method to restores the previous connection. Returns: The current connection. """ assert len(_thread_local.connection_stack) >= 2 return _thread_local.connection_stack.pop() def _MakeSyncCall(service, call, request, response, config=None): """The APIProxy entry point for a synchronous API call. Args: service: For backwards compatibility, must be 'datastore_v3'. call: String representing which function to call. request: Protocol buffer for the request. response: Protocol buffer for the response. config: Optional Configuration to use for this request. Returns: Response protocol buffer. Caller should always use returned value which may or may not be same as passed in 'response'. Raises: apiproxy_errors.Error or a subclass. """ conn = _GetConnection() if isinstance(request, datastore_pb.Query): conn._set_request_read_policy(request, config) conn._set_request_transaction(request) rpc = conn._make_rpc_call(config, call, request, response) conn.check_rpc_success(rpc) return response
[docs]def CreateRPC(service='datastore_v3', deadline=None, callback=None, read_policy=None): """Create an rpc for use in configuring datastore calls. NOTE: This functions exists for backwards compatibility. Please use CreateConfig() instead. NOTE: the latter uses 'on_completion', which is a function taking an argument, wherease CreateRPC uses 'callback' which is a function without arguments. Args: service: Optional string; for backwards compatibility, must be 'datastore_v3'. deadline: Optional int or float, deadline for calls in seconds. callback: Optional callable, a callback triggered when this rpc completes; takes no arguments. read_policy: Optional read policy; set to EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY to enable eventually consistent reads (i.e. reads that may be satisfied from an older version of the datastore in some cases). The default read policy may have to wait until in-flight transactions are committed. Returns: A UserRPC instance. """ assert service == 'datastore_v3' conn = _GetConnection() config = None if deadline is not None: config = datastore_rpc.Configuration(deadline=deadline) rpc = conn._create_rpc(config) rpc.callback = callback if read_policy is not None: rpc.read_policy = read_policy return rpc
[docs]def CreateConfig(**kwds): """Create a Configuration object for use in configuring datastore calls. This configuration can be passed to most datastore calls using the 'config=...' argument. Args: deadline: Optional deadline; default None (which means the system default deadline will be used, typically 5 seconds). on_completion: Optional callback function; default None. If specified, it will be called with a UserRPC object as argument when an RPC completes. read_policy: Optional read policy; set to EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY to enable eventually consistent reads (i.e. reads that may be satisfied from an older version of the datastore in some cases). The default read policy may have to wait until in-flight transactions are committed. **kwds: Other keyword arguments as long as they are supported by datastore_rpc.Configuration(). Returns: A datastore_rpc.Configuration instance. """ return datastore_rpc.Configuration(**kwds)
[docs]def CreateTransactionOptions(**kwds): """Create a configuration object for use in configuring transactions. This configuration can be passed as run_in_transaction_option's first argument. Args: deadline: Optional deadline; default None (which means the system default deadline will be used, typically 5 seconds). on_completion: Optional callback function; default None. If specified, it will be called with a UserRPC object as argument when an RPC completes. xg: set to true to allow cross-group transactions (high replication datastore only) retries: set the number of retries for a transaction **kwds: Other keyword arguments as long as they are supported by datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions(). Returns: A datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions instance. """ return datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions(**kwds)
[docs]def PutAsync(entities, **kwargs): """Asynchronously store one or more entities in the datastore. Identical to datastore.Put() except returns an asynchronous object. Call get_result() on the return value to block on the call and get the results. """ extra_hook = kwargs.pop('extra_hook', None) config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs) if getattr(config, 'read_policy', None) == EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY: raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'read_policy is only supported on read operations.') entities, multiple = NormalizeAndTypeCheck(entities, Entity) for entity in entities: if entity.is_projection(): raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'Cannot put a partial entity: %s' % entity) if not entity.kind() or not entity.app(): raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'App and kind must not be empty, in entity: %s' % entity) def local_extra_hook(keys): num_keys = len(keys) num_entities = len(entities) if num_keys != num_entities: raise datastore_errors.InternalError( 'Put accepted %d entities but returned %d keys.' % (num_entities, num_keys)) for entity, key in zip(entities, keys): if entity._Entity__key._Key__reference != key._Key__reference: assert not entity._Entity__key.has_id_or_name() entity._Entity__key._Key__reference.CopyFrom(key._Key__reference) if multiple: result = keys else: result = keys[0] if extra_hook: return extra_hook(result) return result return _GetConnection().async_put(config, entities, local_extra_hook)
[docs]def Put(entities, **kwargs): """Store one or more entities in the datastore. The entities may be new or previously existing. For new entities, Put() will fill in the app id and key assigned by the datastore. If the argument is a single Entity, a single Key will be returned. If the argument is a list of Entity, a list of Keys will be returned. Args: entities: Entity or list of Entities config: Optional Configuration to use for this request, must be specified as a keyword argument. Returns: Key or list of Keys Raises: TransactionFailedError, if the Put could not be committed. """ return PutAsync(entities, **kwargs).get_result()
[docs]def GetAsync(keys, **kwargs): """Asynchronously retrieves one or more entities from the datastore. Identical to datastore.Get() except returns an asynchronous object. Call get_result() on the return value to block on the call and get the results. """ extra_hook = kwargs.pop('extra_hook', None) config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs) keys, multiple = NormalizeAndTypeCheckKeys(keys) def local_extra_hook(entities): if multiple: result = entities else: if entities[0] is None: raise datastore_errors.EntityNotFoundError() result = entities[0] if extra_hook: return extra_hook(result) return result return _GetConnection().async_get(config, keys, local_extra_hook)
[docs]def Get(keys, **kwargs): """Retrieves one or more entities from the datastore. Retrieves the entity or entities with the given key(s) from the datastore and returns them as fully populated Entity objects, as defined below. If there is an error, raises a subclass of datastore_errors.Error. If keys is a single key or string, an Entity will be returned, or EntityNotFoundError will be raised if no existing entity matches the key. However, if keys is a list or tuple, a list of entities will be returned that corresponds to the sequence of keys. It will include entities for keys that were found and None placeholders for keys that were not found. Args: keys: Key or string or list of Keys or strings config: Optional Configuration to use for this request, must be specified as a keyword argument. Returns: Entity or list of Entity objects """ return GetAsync(keys, **kwargs).get_result()
[docs]def GetIndexesAsync(**kwargs): """Asynchronously retrieves the application indexes and their states. Identical to GetIndexes() except returns an asynchronous object. Call get_result() on the return value to block on the call and get the results. """ extra_hook = kwargs.pop('extra_hook', None) config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs) def local_extra_hook(result): if extra_hook: return extra_hook(result) return result return _GetConnection().async_get_indexes(config, local_extra_hook)
[docs]def GetIndexes(**kwargs): """Retrieves the application indexes and their states. Args: config: Optional Configuration to use for this request, must be specified as a keyword argument. Returns: A list of (Index, Index.[BUILDING|SERVING|DELETING|ERROR]) tuples. An index can be in the following states: Index.BUILDING: Index is being built and therefore can not serve queries Index.SERVING: Index is ready to service queries Index.DELETING: Index is being deleted Index.ERROR: Index encounted an error in the BUILDING state """ return GetIndexesAsync(**kwargs).get_result()
[docs]def DeleteAsync(keys, **kwargs): """Asynchronously deletes one or more entities from the datastore. Identical to datastore.Delete() except returns an asynchronous object. Call get_result() on the return value to block on the call. """ config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs) if getattr(config, 'read_policy', None) == EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY: raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'read_policy is only supported on read operations.') keys, _ = NormalizeAndTypeCheckKeys(keys) return _GetConnection().async_delete(config, keys)
[docs]def Delete(keys, **kwargs): """Deletes one or more entities from the datastore. Use with care! Deletes the given entity(ies) from the datastore. You can only delete entities from your app. If there is an error, raises a subclass of datastore_errors.Error. Args: # the primary key(s) of the entity(ies) to delete keys: Key or string or list of Keys or strings config: Optional Configuration to use for this request, must be specified as a keyword argument. Raises: TransactionFailedError, if the Delete could not be committed. """ return DeleteAsync(keys, **kwargs).get_result()
[docs]class Entity(dict): """A datastore entity. Includes read-only accessors for app id, kind, and primary key. Also provides dictionary-style access to properties. """ __projection = False def __init__(self, kind, parent=None, _app=None, name=None, id=None, unindexed_properties=[], namespace=None, **kwds): """Constructor. Takes the kind and transaction root, which cannot be changed after the entity is constructed, and an optional parent. Raises BadArgumentError or BadKeyError if kind is invalid or parent is not an existing Entity or Key in the datastore. Args: # this entity's kind kind: string # if provided, this entity's parent. Its key must be complete. parent: Entity or Key # if provided, this entity's name. name: string # if provided, this entity's id. id: integer # if provided, a sequence of property names that should not be indexed # by the built-in single property indices. unindexed_properties: list or tuple of strings namespace: string # if provided, overrides the default namespace_manager setting. """ ref = entity_pb.Reference() _app = datastore_types.ResolveAppId(_app) ref.set_app(_app) _namespace = kwds.pop('_namespace', None) if kwds: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Excess keyword arguments ' + repr(kwds)) if namespace is None: namespace = _namespace elif _namespace is not None: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( "Must not set both _namespace and namespace parameters.") datastore_types.ValidateString(kind, 'kind', datastore_errors.BadArgumentError) if parent is not None: parent = _GetCompleteKeyOrError(parent) if _app != parent.app(): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( " %s doesn't match parent's app %s" % (_app, parent.app())) if namespace is None: namespace = parent.namespace() elif namespace != parent.namespace(): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( " %s doesn't match parent's namespace %s" % (namespace, parent.namespace())) ref.CopyFrom(parent._Key__reference) namespace = datastore_types.ResolveNamespace(namespace) datastore_types.SetNamespace(ref, namespace) last_path = ref.mutable_path().add_element() last_path.set_type(kind.encode('utf-8')) if name is not None and id is not None: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( "Cannot set both name and id on an Entity") if name is not None: datastore_types.ValidateString(name, 'name') last_path.set_name(name.encode('utf-8')) if id is not None: datastore_types.ValidateInteger(id, 'id') last_path.set_id(id) self.set_unindexed_properties(unindexed_properties) self.__key = Key._FromPb(ref)
[docs] def app(self): """Returns the name of the application that created this entity, a string or None if not set. """ return self.__key.app()
[docs] def namespace(self): """Returns the namespace of this entity, a string or None.""" return self.__key.namespace()
[docs] def kind(self): """Returns this entity's kind, a string.""" return self.__key.kind()
[docs] def is_saved(self): """Returns if this entity has been saved to the datastore.""" last_path = self.__key._Key__reference.path().element_list()[-1] return ((last_path.has_name() ^ last_path.has_id()) and self.__key.has_id_or_name())
[docs] def is_projection(self): """Returns if this entity is a projection from full entity. Projected entities: - may not contain all properties from the original entity; - only contain single values for lists; - may not contain values with the same type as the original entity. """ return self.__projection
[docs] def key(self): """Returns this entity's primary key, a Key instance.""" return self.__key
[docs] def parent(self): """Returns this entity's parent, as a Key. If this entity has no parent, returns None. """ return self.key().parent()
[docs] def entity_group(self): """Returns this entity's entity group as a Key. Note that the returned Key will be incomplete if this is a a root entity and its key is incomplete. """ return self.key().entity_group()
[docs] def unindexed_properties(self): """Returns this entity's unindexed properties, as a frozenset of strings.""" return getattr(self, '_Entity__unindexed_properties', [])
[docs] def set_unindexed_properties(self, unindexed_properties): unindexed_properties, multiple = NormalizeAndTypeCheck(unindexed_properties, basestring) if not multiple: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'unindexed_properties must be a sequence; received %s (a %s).' % (unindexed_properties, typename(unindexed_properties))) for prop in unindexed_properties: datastore_types.ValidateProperty(prop, None) self.__unindexed_properties = frozenset(unindexed_properties)
def __setitem__(self, name, value): """Implements the [] operator. Used to set property value(s). If the property name is the empty string or not a string, raises BadPropertyError. If the value is not a supported type, raises BadValueError. """ datastore_types.ValidateProperty(name, value) dict.__setitem__(self, name, value)
[docs] def setdefault(self, name, value): """If the property exists, returns its value. Otherwise sets it to value. If the property name is the empty string or not a string, raises BadPropertyError. If the value is not a supported type, raises BadValueError. """ datastore_types.ValidateProperty(name, value) return dict.setdefault(self, name, value)
[docs] def update(self, other): """Updates this entity's properties from the values in other. If any property name is the empty string or not a string, raises BadPropertyError. If any value is not a supported type, raises BadValueError. """ for name, value in other.items(): self.__setitem__(name, value)
[docs] def copy(self): """The copy method is not supported. """ raise NotImplementedError('Entity does not support the copy() method.')
[docs] def ToXml(self): """Returns an XML representation of this entity. Atom and gd:namespace properties are converted to XML according to their respective schemas. For more information, see: http://www.atomenabled.org/developers/syndication/ http://code.google.com/apis/gdata/common-elements.html This is *not* optimized. It shouldn't be used anywhere near code that's performance-critical. """ xml = u'<entity kind=%s' % saxutils.quoteattr(self.kind()) if self.__key.has_id_or_name(): xml += ' key=%s' % saxutils.quoteattr(str(self.__key)) xml += '>' if self.__key.has_id_or_name(): xml += '\n <key>%s</key>' % self.__key.ToTagUri() properties = self.keys() if properties: properties.sort() xml += '\n ' + '\n '.join(self._PropertiesToXml(properties)) xml += '\n</entity>\n' return xml
def _PropertiesToXml(self, properties): """ Returns a list of the XML representations of each of the given properties. Ignores properties that don't exist in this entity. Arg: properties: string or list of strings Returns: list of strings """ xml_properties = [] for propname in properties: if not self.has_key(propname): continue propname_xml = saxutils.quoteattr(propname) values = self[propname] if isinstance(values, list) and not values: continue if not isinstance(values, list): values = [values] proptype = datastore_types.PropertyTypeName(values[0]) proptype_xml = saxutils.quoteattr(proptype) escaped_values = self._XmlEscapeValues(propname) open_tag = u'<property name=%s type=%s>' % (propname_xml, proptype_xml) close_tag = u'</property>' xml_properties += [open_tag + val + close_tag for val in escaped_values] return xml_properties def _XmlEscapeValues(self, property): """ Returns a list of the XML-escaped string values for the given property. Raises an AssertionError if the property doesn't exist. Arg: property: string Returns: list of strings """ assert self.has_key(property) xml = [] values = self[property] if not isinstance(values, list): values = [values] for val in values: if hasattr(val, 'ToXml'): xml.append(val.ToXml()) else: if val is None: xml.append('') else: xml.append(saxutils.escape(unicode(val))) return xml
[docs] def ToPb(self): """Converts this Entity to its protocol buffer representation. Returns: entity_pb.Entity """ return self._ToPb(False)
def _ToPb(self, mark_key_as_saved=True): """Converts this Entity to its protocol buffer representation. Not intended to be used by application developers. Returns: entity_pb.Entity """ pb = entity_pb.EntityProto() pb.mutable_key().CopyFrom(self.key()._ToPb()) last_path = pb.key().path().element_list()[-1] if mark_key_as_saved and last_path.has_name() and last_path.has_id(): last_path.clear_id() group = pb.mutable_entity_group() if self.__key.has_id_or_name(): root = pb.key().path().element(0) group.add_element().CopyFrom(root) properties = self.items() properties.sort() for (name, values) in properties: properties = datastore_types.ToPropertyPb(name, values) if not isinstance(properties, list): properties = [properties] for prop in properties: if ((prop.has_meaning() and prop.meaning() in datastore_types._RAW_PROPERTY_MEANINGS) or name in self.unindexed_properties()): pb.raw_property_list().append(prop) else: pb.property_list().append(prop) if pb.property_size() > _MAX_INDEXED_PROPERTIES: raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'Too many indexed properties for entity %r.' % self.key()) return pb @staticmethod
[docs] def FromPb(pb, validate_reserved_properties=True, default_kind='<not specified>'): """Static factory method. Returns the Entity representation of the given protocol buffer (datastore_pb.Entity). Args: pb: datastore_pb.Entity or str encoding of a datastore_pb.Entity validate_reserved_properties: deprecated default_kind: str, the kind to use if the pb has no key. Returns: Entity: the Entity representation of pb """ if isinstance(pb, str): real_pb = entity_pb.EntityProto() real_pb.ParsePartialFromString(pb) pb = real_pb return Entity._FromPb( pb, require_valid_key=False, default_kind=default_kind)
@staticmethod def _FromPb(pb, require_valid_key=True, default_kind='<not specified>'): """Static factory method. Returns the Entity representation of the given protocol buffer (datastore_pb.Entity). Not intended to be used by application developers. The Entity PB's key must be complete. If it isn't, an AssertionError is raised. Args: # a protocol buffer Entity pb: datastore_pb.Entity default_kind: str, the kind to use if the pb has no key. Returns: # the Entity representation of the argument Entity """ if not pb.key().path().element_size(): pb.mutable_key().CopyFrom(Key.from_path(default_kind, 0)._ToPb()) last_path = pb.key().path().element_list()[-1] if require_valid_key: assert last_path.has_id() ^ last_path.has_name() if last_path.has_id(): assert last_path.id() != 0 else: assert last_path.has_name() assert last_path.name() unindexed_properties = [unicode(p.name(), 'utf-8') for p in pb.raw_property_list()] if pb.key().has_name_space(): namespace = pb.key().name_space() else: namespace = '' e = Entity(unicode(last_path.type(), 'utf-8'), unindexed_properties=unindexed_properties, _app=pb.key().app(), namespace=namespace) ref = e.__key._Key__reference ref.CopyFrom(pb.key()) temporary_values = {} for prop_list in (pb.property_list(), pb.raw_property_list()): for prop in prop_list: if prop.meaning() == entity_pb.Property.INDEX_VALUE: e.__projection = True try: value = datastore_types.FromPropertyPb(prop) except (AssertionError, AttributeError, TypeError, ValueError), e: raise datastore_errors.Error( 'Property %s is corrupt in the datastore:\n%s' % (prop.name(), traceback.format_exc())) multiple = prop.multiple() if multiple: value = [value] name = prop.name() cur_value = temporary_values.get(name) if cur_value is None: temporary_values[name] = value elif not multiple or not isinstance(cur_value, list): raise datastore_errors.Error( 'Property %s is corrupt in the datastore; it has multiple ' 'values, but is not marked as multiply valued.' % name) else: cur_value.extend(value) for name, value in temporary_values.iteritems(): decoded_name = unicode(name, 'utf-8') datastore_types.ValidateReadProperty(decoded_name, value) dict.__setitem__(e, decoded_name, value) return e
[docs]class Query(dict): """A datastore query. (Instead of this, consider using appengine.ext.gql.Query! It provides a query language interface on top of the same functionality.) Queries are used to retrieve entities that match certain criteria, including app id, kind, and property filters. Results may also be sorted by properties. App id and kind are required. Only entities from the given app, of the given type, are returned. If an ancestor is set, with Ancestor(), only entities with that ancestor are returned. Property filters are used to provide criteria based on individual property values. A filter compares a specific property in each entity to a given value or list of possible values. An entity is returned if its property values match *all* of the query's filters. In other words, filters are combined with AND, not OR. If an entity does not have a value for a property used in a filter, it is not returned. Property filters map filter strings of the form '<property name> <operator>' to filter values. Use dictionary accessors to set property filters, like so: > query = Query('Person') > query['name ='] = 'Ryan' > query['age >='] = 21 This query returns all Person entities where the name property is 'Ryan' and the age property is at least 21. Another way to build this query is: > query = Query('Person') > query.update({'name =': 'Ryan', 'age >=': 21}) The supported operators are =, >, <, >=, and <=. Only one inequality filter may be used per query. Any number of equals filters may be used in a single Query. A filter value may be a list or tuple of values. This is interpreted as multiple filters with the same filter string and different values, all ANDed together. For example, this query returns everyone with the tags "google" and "app engine": > Query('Person', {'tag =': ('google', 'app engine')}) Result entities can be returned in different orders. Use the Order() method to specify properties that results will be sorted by, and in which direction. Note that filters and orderings may be provided at any time before the query is run. When the query is fully specified, Run() runs the query and returns an iterator. The query results can be accessed through the iterator. A query object may be reused after it's been run. Its filters and orderings can be changed to create a modified query. If you know how many result entities you need, use Get() to fetch them: > query = Query('Person', {'age >': 21}) > for person in query.Get(4): > print 'I have four pints left. Have one on me, %s!' % person['name'] If you don't know how many results you need, or if you need them all, you can get an iterator over the results by calling Run(): > for person in Query('Person', {'age >': 21}).Run(): > print 'Have a pint on me, %s!' % person['name'] Get() is more efficient than Run(), so use Get() whenever possible. Finally, the Count() method returns the number of result entities matched by the query. The returned count is cached; successive Count() calls will not re-scan the datastore unless the query is changed. """ ASCENDING = datastore_query.PropertyOrder.ASCENDING DESCENDING = datastore_query.PropertyOrder.DESCENDING ORDER_FIRST = datastore_query.QueryOptions.ORDER_FIRST ANCESTOR_FIRST = datastore_query.QueryOptions.ANCESTOR_FIRST FILTER_FIRST = datastore_query.QueryOptions.FILTER_FIRST OPERATORS = {'==': datastore_query.PropertyFilter._OPERATORS['=']} OPERATORS.update(datastore_query.PropertyFilter._OPERATORS) INEQUALITY_OPERATORS = datastore_query.PropertyFilter._INEQUALITY_OPERATORS UPPERBOUND_INEQUALITY_OPERATORS = frozenset(['<', '<=']) FILTER_REGEX = re.compile( '^\s*([^\s]+)(\s+(%s)\s*)?$' % '|'.join(OPERATORS), re.IGNORECASE | re.UNICODE) __kind = None __app = None __namespace = None __orderings = None __ancestor_pb = None __distinct = False __group_by = None __index_list_source = None __cursor_source = None __compiled_query_source = None __filter_order = None __filter_counter = 0 __inequality_prop = None __inequality_count = 0 def __init__(self, kind=None, filters={}, _app=None, keys_only=False, compile=True, cursor=None, namespace=None, end_cursor=None, projection=None, distinct=None, _namespace=None): """Constructor. Raises BadArgumentError if kind is not a string. Raises BadValueError or BadFilterError if filters is not a dictionary of valid filters. Args: namespace: string, the namespace to query. kind: string, the kind of entities to query, or None. filters: dict, initial set of filters. keys_only: boolean, if keys should be returned instead of entities. projection: iterable of property names to project. distinct: boolean, if projection should be distinct. compile: boolean, if the query should generate cursors. cursor: datastore_query.Cursor, the start cursor to use. end_cursor: datastore_query.Cursor, the end cursor to use. _namespace: deprecated, use namespace instead. """ if namespace is None: namespace = _namespace elif _namespace is not None: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( "Must not set both _namespace and namespace parameters.") if kind is not None: datastore_types.ValidateString(kind, 'kind', datastore_errors.BadArgumentError) self.__kind = kind self.__orderings = [] self.__filter_order = {} self.update(filters) self.__app = datastore_types.ResolveAppId(_app) self.__namespace = datastore_types.ResolveNamespace(namespace) self.__query_options = datastore_query.QueryOptions( keys_only=keys_only, produce_cursors=compile, start_cursor=cursor, end_cursor=end_cursor, projection=projection) if distinct: if not self.__query_options.projection: raise datastore_errors.BadQueryError( 'cannot specify distinct without a projection') self.__distinct = True self.__group_by = self.__query_options.projection
[docs] def Order(self, *orderings): """Specify how the query results should be sorted. Result entities will be sorted by the first property argument, then by the second, and so on. For example, this: > query = Query('Person') > query.Order('bday', ('age', Query.DESCENDING)) sorts everyone in order of their birthday, starting with January 1. People with the same birthday are sorted by age, oldest to youngest. The direction for each sort property may be provided; if omitted, it defaults to ascending. Order() may be called multiple times. Each call resets the sort order from scratch. If an inequality filter exists in this Query it must be the first property passed to Order. Any number of sort orders may be used after the inequality filter property. Without inequality filters, any number of filters with different orders may be specified. Entities with multiple values for an order property are sorted by their lowest value. Note that a sort order implies an existence filter! In other words, Entities without the sort order property are filtered out, and *not* included in the query results. If the sort order property has different types in different entities - ie, if bob['id'] is an int and fred['id'] is a string - the entities will be grouped first by the property type, then sorted within type. No attempt is made to compare property values across types. Raises BadArgumentError if any argument is of the wrong format. Args: # the properties to sort by, in sort order. each argument may be either a # string or (string, direction) 2-tuple. Returns: # this query Query """ orderings = list(orderings) for (order, i) in zip(orderings, range(len(orderings))): if not (isinstance(order, basestring) or (isinstance(order, tuple) and len(order) in [2, 3])): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Order() expects strings or 2- or 3-tuples; received %s (a %s). ' % (order, typename(order))) if isinstance(order, basestring): order = (order,) datastore_types.ValidateString(order[0], 'sort order property', datastore_errors.BadArgumentError) property = order[0] direction = order[-1] if direction not in (Query.ASCENDING, Query.DESCENDING): if len(order) == 3: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Order() expects Query.ASCENDING or DESCENDING; received %s' % str(direction)) direction = Query.ASCENDING if (self.__kind is None and (property != datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY or direction != Query.ASCENDING)): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Only %s ascending orders are supported on kindless queries' % datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY) orderings[i] = (property, direction) if (orderings and self.__inequality_prop and orderings[0][0] != self.__inequality_prop): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'First ordering property must be the same as inequality filter ' 'property, if specified for this query; received %s, expected %s' % (orderings[0][0], self.__inequality_prop)) self.__orderings = orderings return self
[docs] def Hint(self, hint): """Sets a hint for how this query should run. The query hint gives us information about how best to execute your query. Currently, we can only do one index scan, so the query hint should be used to indicates which index we should scan against. Use FILTER_FIRST if your first filter will only match a few results. In this case, it will be most efficient to scan against the index for this property, load the results into memory, and apply the remaining filters and sort orders there. Similarly, use ANCESTOR_FIRST if the query's ancestor only has a few descendants. In this case, it will be most efficient to scan all entities below the ancestor and load them into memory first. Use ORDER_FIRST if the query has a sort order and the result set is large or you only plan to fetch the first few results. In that case, we shouldn't try to load all of the results into memory; instead, we should scan the index for this property, which is in sorted order. Note that hints are currently ignored in the v3 datastore! Arg: one of datastore.Query.[ORDER_FIRST, ANCESTOR_FIRST, FILTER_FIRST] Returns: # this query Query """ if hint is not self.__query_options.hint: self.__query_options = datastore_query.QueryOptions( hint=hint, config=self.__query_options) return self
[docs] def Ancestor(self, ancestor): """Sets an ancestor for this query. This restricts the query to only return result entities that are descended from a given entity. In other words, all of the results will have the ancestor as their parent, or parent's parent, or etc. Raises BadArgumentError or BadKeyError if parent is not an existing Entity or Key in the datastore. Args: # the key must be complete ancestor: Entity or Key Returns: # this query Query """ self.__ancestor_pb = _GetCompleteKeyOrError(ancestor)._ToPb() return self
[docs] def IsKeysOnly(self): """Returns True if this query is keys only, false otherwise.""" return self.__query_options.keys_only
[docs] def GetQueryOptions(self): """Returns a datastore_query.QueryOptions for the current instance.""" return self.__query_options
[docs] def GetQuery(self): """Returns a datastore_query.Query for the current instance.""" return datastore_query.Query(app=self.__app, namespace=self.__namespace, kind=self.__kind, ancestor=self.__ancestor_pb, filter_predicate=self.GetFilterPredicate(), order=self.GetOrder(), group_by=self.__group_by)
[docs] def GetOrder(self): """Gets a datastore_query.Order for the current instance. Returns: datastore_query.Order or None if there are no sort orders set on the current Query. """ orders = [datastore_query.PropertyOrder(property, direction) for property, direction in self.__orderings] if orders: return datastore_query.CompositeOrder(orders) return None
[docs] def GetFilterPredicate(self): """Returns a datastore_query.FilterPredicate for the current instance. Returns: datastore_query.FilterPredicate or None if no filters are set on the current Query. """ ordered_filters = [(i, f) for f, i in self.__filter_order.iteritems()] ordered_filters.sort() property_filters = [] for _, filter_str in ordered_filters: if filter_str not in self: continue values = self[filter_str] match = self._CheckFilter(filter_str, values) name = match.group(1) op = match.group(3) if op is None or op == '==': op = '=' property_filters.append(datastore_query.make_filter(name, op, values)) if property_filters: return datastore_query.CompositeFilter( datastore_query.CompositeFilter.AND, property_filters) return None
[docs] def GetDistinct(self): """Returns True if the current instance is distinct. Returns: A boolean indicating if the distinct flag is set. """ return self.__distinct
[docs] def GetIndexList(self): """Get the index list from the last run of this query. Returns: A list of indexes used by the last run of this query. Raises: AssertionError: The query has not yet been run. """ index_list_function = self.__index_list_source if index_list_function: return index_list_function() raise AssertionError('No index list available because this query has not ' 'been executed')
[docs] def GetCursor(self): """Get the cursor from the last run of this query. The source of this cursor varies depending on what the last call was: - Run: A cursor that points immediately after the last result pulled off the returned iterator. - Get: A cursor that points immediately after the last result in the returned list. - Count: A cursor that points immediately after the last result counted. Returns: A datastore_query.Cursor object that can be used in subsequent query requests. Raises: AssertionError: The query has not yet been run or cannot be compiled. """ cursor_function = self.__cursor_source if cursor_function: cursor = cursor_function() if cursor: return cursor raise AssertionError('No cursor available, either this query has not ' 'been executed or there is no compilation ' 'available for this kind of query')
[docs] def GetBatcher(self, config=None): """Runs this query and returns a datastore_query.Batcher. This is not intended to be used by application developers. Use Get() instead! Args: config: Optional Configuration to use for this request. Returns: # an iterator that provides access to the query results Iterator """ query_options = self.GetQueryOptions().merge(config) if self.__distinct and query_options.projection != self.__group_by: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'cannot override projection when distinct is set') return self.GetQuery().run(_GetConnection(), query_options)
[docs] def Run(self, **kwargs): """Runs this query. If a filter string is invalid, raises BadFilterError. If a filter value is invalid, raises BadValueError. If an IN filter is provided, and a sort order on another property is provided, raises BadQueryError. If you know in advance how many results you want, use limit=#. It's more efficient. Args: kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions(). Returns: # an iterator that provides access to the query results Iterator """ config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs, convert_rpc=True, config_class=datastore_query.QueryOptions) itr = Iterator(self.GetBatcher(config=config)) self.__index_list_source = itr.GetIndexList self.__cursor_source = itr.cursor self.__compiled_query_source = itr._compiled_query return itr
[docs] def Get(self, limit, offset=0, **kwargs): """Deprecated, use list(Run(...)) instead. Args: limit: int or long representing the maximum number of entities to return. offset: int or long representing the number of entities to skip kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions(). Returns: # a list of entities [Entity, ...] """ if limit is None: kwargs.setdefault('batch_size', _MAX_INT_32) return list(self.Run(limit=limit, offset=offset, **kwargs))
[docs] def Count(self, limit=1000, **kwargs): """Returns the number of entities that this query matches. Args: limit, a number or None. If there are more results than this, stop short and just return this number. Providing this argument makes the count operation more efficient. config: Optional Configuration to use for this request. Returns: The number of results. """ original_offset = kwargs.pop('offset', 0) if limit is None: offset = _MAX_INT_32 else: offset = min(limit + original_offset, _MAX_INT_32) kwargs['limit'] = 0 kwargs['offset'] = offset config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs, convert_rpc=True, config_class=datastore_query.QueryOptions) batch = self.GetBatcher(config=config).next() self.__index_list_source = ( lambda: [index for index, state in batch.index_list]) self.__cursor_source = lambda: batch.cursor(0) self.__compiled_query_source = lambda: batch._compiled_query return max(0, batch.skipped_results - original_offset)
def __iter__(self): raise NotImplementedError( 'Query objects should not be used as iterators. Call Run() first.') def __getstate__(self): state = self.__dict__.copy() state['_Query__index_list_source'] = None state['_Query__cursor_source'] = None state['_Query__compiled_query_source'] = None return state def __setstate__(self, state): if '_Query__query_options' not in state: state['_Query__query_options'] = datastore_query.QueryOptions( keys_only=state.pop('_Query__keys_only'), produce_cursors=state.pop('_Query__compile'), start_cursor=state.pop('_Query__cursor'), end_cursor=state.pop('_Query__end_cursor')) self.__dict__ = state def __setitem__(self, filter, value): """Implements the [] operator. Used to set filters. If the filter string is empty or not a string, raises BadFilterError. If the value is not a supported type, raises BadValueError. """ if isinstance(value, tuple): value = list(value) datastore_types.ValidateProperty(' ', value) match = self._CheckFilter(filter, value) property = match.group(1) operator = match.group(3) dict.__setitem__(self, filter, value) if (operator in self.INEQUALITY_OPERATORS and property != datastore_types._UNAPPLIED_LOG_TIMESTAMP_SPECIAL_PROPERTY): if self.__inequality_prop is None: self.__inequality_prop = property else: assert self.__inequality_prop == property self.__inequality_count += 1 if filter not in self.__filter_order: self.__filter_order[filter] = self.__filter_counter self.__filter_counter += 1
[docs] def setdefault(self, filter, value): """If the filter exists, returns its value. Otherwise sets it to value. If the property name is the empty string or not a string, raises BadPropertyError. If the value is not a supported type, raises BadValueError. """ datastore_types.ValidateProperty(' ', value) self._CheckFilter(filter, value) return dict.setdefault(self, filter, value)
def __delitem__(self, filter): """Implements the del [] operator. Used to remove filters. """ dict.__delitem__(self, filter) del self.__filter_order[filter] match = Query.FILTER_REGEX.match(filter) property = match.group(1) operator = match.group(3) if operator in self.INEQUALITY_OPERATORS: assert self.__inequality_count >= 1 assert property == self.__inequality_prop self.__inequality_count -= 1 if self.__inequality_count == 0: self.__inequality_prop = None
[docs] def update(self, other): """Updates this query's filters from the ones in other. If any filter string is invalid, raises BadFilterError. If any value is not a supported type, raises BadValueError. """ for filter, value in other.items(): self.__setitem__(filter, value)
[docs] def copy(self): """The copy method is not supported. """ raise NotImplementedError('Query does not support the copy() method.')
def _CheckFilter(self, filter, values): """Type check a filter string and list of values. Raises BadFilterError if the filter string is empty, not a string, or invalid. Raises BadValueError if the value type is not supported. Args: filter: String containing the filter text. values: List of associated filter values. Returns: re.MatchObject (never None) that matches the 'filter'. Group 1 is the property name, group 3 is the operator. (Group 2 is unused.) """ if isinstance(values, list) and not values: raise datastore_errors.BadValueError("Cannot filter on []") try: match = Query.FILTER_REGEX.match(filter) if not match: raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( 'Could not parse filter string: %s' % str(filter)) except TypeError: raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( 'Could not parse filter string: %s' % str(filter)) property = match.group(1) operator = match.group(3) if operator is None: operator = '=' if isinstance(values, tuple): values = list(values) elif not isinstance(values, list): values = [values] if isinstance(values[0], datastore_types._RAW_PROPERTY_TYPES): raise datastore_errors.BadValueError( 'Filtering on %s properties is not supported.' % typename(values[0])) if (operator in self.INEQUALITY_OPERATORS and property != datastore_types._UNAPPLIED_LOG_TIMESTAMP_SPECIAL_PROPERTY): if self.__inequality_prop and property != self.__inequality_prop: raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( 'Only one property per query may have inequality filters (%s).' % ', '.join(self.INEQUALITY_OPERATORS)) elif len(self.__orderings) >= 1 and self.__orderings[0][0] != property: raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( 'Inequality operators (%s) must be on the same property as the ' 'first sort order, if any sort orders are supplied' % ', '.join(self.INEQUALITY_OPERATORS)) if (self.__kind is None and property != datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY and property != datastore_types._UNAPPLIED_LOG_TIMESTAMP_SPECIAL_PROPERTY): raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( 'Only %s filters are allowed on kindless queries.' % datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY) if property == datastore_types._UNAPPLIED_LOG_TIMESTAMP_SPECIAL_PROPERTY: if self.__kind: raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( 'Only kindless queries can have %s filters.' % datastore_types._UNAPPLIED_LOG_TIMESTAMP_SPECIAL_PROPERTY) if not operator in self.UPPERBOUND_INEQUALITY_OPERATORS: raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( 'Only %s operators are supported with %s filters.' % ( self.UPPERBOUND_INEQUALITY_OPERATORS, datastore_types._UNAPPLIED_LOG_TIMESTAMP_SPECIAL_PROPERTY)) if property in datastore_types._SPECIAL_PROPERTIES: if property == datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY: for value in values: if not isinstance(value, Key): raise datastore_errors.BadFilterError( '%s filter value must be a Key; received %s (a %s)' % (datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY, value, typename(value))) return match def _Run(self, limit=None, offset=None, prefetch_count=None, next_count=None, **kwargs): """Deprecated, use Run() instead.""" return self.Run(limit=limit, offset=offset, prefetch_size=prefetch_count, batch_size=next_count, **kwargs) def _ToPb(self, limit=None, offset=None, count=None): query_options = datastore_query.QueryOptions( config=self.GetQueryOptions(), limit=limit, offset=offset, batch_size=count) return self.GetQuery()._to_pb(_GetConnection(), query_options) def _GetCompiledQuery(self): """Returns the internal-only pb representation of the last query run. Do not use. Raises: AssertionError: Query not compiled or not yet executed. """ compiled_query_function = self.__compiled_query_source if compiled_query_function: compiled_query = compiled_query_function() if compiled_query: return compiled_query raise AssertionError('No compiled query available, either this query has ' 'not been executed or there is no compilation ' 'available for this kind of query') GetCompiledQuery = _GetCompiledQuery GetCompiledCursor = GetCursor
[docs]def AllocateIdsAsync(model_key, size=None, **kwargs): """Asynchronously allocates a range of IDs. Identical to datastore.AllocateIds() except returns an asynchronous object. Call get_result() on the return value to block on the call and get the results. """ max = kwargs.pop('max', None) config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs) if getattr(config, 'read_policy', None) == EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY: raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'read_policy is only supported on read operations.') keys, _ = NormalizeAndTypeCheckKeys(model_key) if len(keys) > 1: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Cannot allocate IDs for more than one model key at a time') rpc = _GetConnection().async_allocate_ids(config, keys[0], size, max) return rpc
[docs]def AllocateIds(model_key, size=None, **kwargs): """Allocates a range of IDs of size or with max for the given key. Allocates a range of IDs in the datastore such that those IDs will not be automatically assigned to new entities. You can only allocate IDs for model keys from your app. If there is an error, raises a subclass of datastore_errors.Error. Either size or max must be provided but not both. If size is provided then a range of the given size is returned. If max is provided then the largest range of ids that are safe to use with an upper bound of max is returned (can be an empty range). Max should only be provided if you have an existing numeric id range that you want to reserve, e.g. bulk loading entities that already have IDs. If you don't care about which IDs you receive, use size instead. Args: model_key: Key or string to serve as a model specifying the ID sequence in which to allocate IDs size: integer, number of IDs to allocate. max: integer, upper bound of the range of IDs to allocate. config: Optional Configuration to use for this request. Returns: (start, end) of the allocated range, inclusive. """ return AllocateIdsAsync(model_key, size, **kwargs).get_result()
[docs]class MultiQuery(Query): """Class representing a query which requires multiple datastore queries. This class is actually a subclass of datastore.Query as it is intended to act like a normal Query object (supporting the same interface). Does not support keys only queries, since it needs whole entities in order to merge sort them. (That's not true if there are no sort orders, or if the sort order is on __key__, but allowing keys only queries in those cases, but not in others, would be confusing.) """ def __init__(self, bound_queries, orderings): if len(bound_queries) > MAX_ALLOWABLE_QUERIES: raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Cannot satisfy query -- too many subqueries (max: %d, got %d).' ' Probable cause: too many IN/!= filters in query.' % (MAX_ALLOWABLE_QUERIES, len(bound_queries))) projection = (bound_queries and bound_queries[0].GetQueryOptions().projection) for query in bound_queries: if projection != query.GetQueryOptions().projection: raise datastore_errors.BadQueryError( 'All queries must have the same projection.') if query.IsKeysOnly(): raise datastore_errors.BadQueryError( 'MultiQuery does not support keys_only.') self.__projection = projection self.__bound_queries = bound_queries self.__orderings = orderings self.__compile = False def __str__(self): res = 'MultiQuery: ' for query in self.__bound_queries: res = '%s %s' % (res, str(query)) return res
[docs] def Get(self, limit, offset=0, **kwargs): """Deprecated, use list(Run(...)) instead. Args: limit: int or long representing the maximum number of entities to return. offset: int or long representing the number of entities to skip kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions(). Returns: A list of entities with at most "limit" entries (less if the query completes before reading limit values). """ if limit is None: kwargs.setdefault('batch_size', _MAX_INT_32) return list(self.Run(limit=limit, offset=offset, **kwargs))
[docs] class SortOrderEntity(object): """Allow entity comparisons using provided orderings. The iterator passed to the constructor is eventually consumed via calls to GetNext(), which generate new SortOrderEntity s with the same orderings. """ def __init__(self, entity_iterator, orderings): """Ctor. Args: entity_iterator: an iterator of entities which will be wrapped. orderings: an iterable of (identifier, order) pairs. order should be either Query.ASCENDING or Query.DESCENDING. """ self.__entity_iterator = entity_iterator self.__entity = None self.__min_max_value_cache = {} try: self.__entity = entity_iterator.next() except StopIteration: pass else: self.__orderings = orderings def __str__(self): return str(self.__entity)
[docs] def GetEntity(self): """Gets the wrapped entity.""" return self.__entity
[docs] def GetNext(self): """Wrap and return the next entity. The entity is retrieved from the iterator given at construction time. """ return MultiQuery.SortOrderEntity(self.__entity_iterator, self.__orderings)
[docs] def CmpProperties(self, that): """Compare two entities and return their relative order. Compares self to that based on the current sort orderings and the key orders between them. Returns negative, 0, or positive depending on whether self is less, equal to, or greater than that. This comparison returns as if all values were to be placed in ascending order (highest value last). Only uses the sort orderings to compare (ignores keys). Args: that: SortOrderEntity Returns: Negative if self < that Zero if self == that Positive if self > that """ if not self.__entity: return cmp(self.__entity, that.__entity) for (identifier, order) in self.__orderings: value1 = self.__GetValueForId(self, identifier, order) value2 = self.__GetValueForId(that, identifier, order) result = cmp(value1, value2) if order == Query.DESCENDING: result = -result if result: return result return 0
def __GetValueForId(self, sort_order_entity, identifier, sort_order): value = _GetPropertyValue(sort_order_entity.__entity, identifier) if isinstance(value, list): entity_key = sort_order_entity.__entity.key() if (entity_key, identifier) in self.__min_max_value_cache: value = self.__min_max_value_cache[(entity_key, identifier)] elif sort_order == Query.DESCENDING: value = min(value) else: value = max(value) self.__min_max_value_cache[(entity_key, identifier)] = value return value def __cmp__(self, that): """Compare self to that w.r.t. values defined in the sort order. Compare an entity with another, using sort-order first, then the key order to break ties. This can be used in a heap to have faster min-value lookup. Args: that: other entity to compare to Returns: negative: if self is less than that in sort order zero: if self is equal to that in sort order positive: if self is greater than that in sort order """ property_compare = self.CmpProperties(that) if property_compare: return property_compare else: return cmp(self.__entity.key(), that.__entity.key())
def _ExtractBounds(self, config): """This function extracts the range of results to consider. Since MultiQuery dedupes in memory, we must apply the offset and limit in memory. The results that should be considered are results[lower_bound:upper_bound]. We also pass the offset=0 and limit=upper_bound to the base queries to optimize performance. Args: config: The base datastore_query.QueryOptions. Returns: a tuple consisting of the lower_bound and upper_bound to impose in memory and the config to use with each bound query. The upper_bound may be None. """ if config is None: return 0, None, None lower_bound = config.offset or 0 upper_bound = config.limit if lower_bound: if upper_bound is not None: upper_bound = min(lower_bound + upper_bound, _MAX_INT_32) config = datastore_query.QueryOptions(offset=0, limit=upper_bound, config=config) return lower_bound, upper_bound, config def __GetProjectionOverride(self, config): """Returns a tuple of (original projection, projeciton override). If projection is None, there is no projection. If override is None, projection is sufficent for this query. """ projection = datastore_query.QueryOptions.projection(config) if projection is None: projection = self.__projection else: projection = projection if not projection: return None, None override = set() for prop, _ in self.__orderings: if prop not in projection: override.add(prop) if not override: return projection, None return projection, projection + tuple(override)
[docs] def Run(self, **kwargs): """Return an iterable output with all results in order. Merge sort the results. First create a list of iterators, then walk though them and yield results in order. Args: kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions(). Returns: An iterator for the result set. """ config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs, convert_rpc=True, config_class=datastore_query.QueryOptions) if config and config.keys_only: raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'keys only queries are not supported by multi-query.') lower_bound, upper_bound, config = self._ExtractBounds(config) projection, override = self.__GetProjectionOverride(config) if override: config = datastore_query.QueryOptions(projection=override, config=config) results = [] count = 1 log_level = logging.DEBUG - 1 for bound_query in self.__bound_queries: logging.log(log_level, 'Running query #%i' % count) results.append(bound_query.Run(config=config)) count += 1 def GetDedupeKey(sort_order_entity): if projection: return (sort_order_entity.GetEntity().key(), frozenset(sort_order_entity.GetEntity().iteritems())) else: return sort_order_entity.GetEntity().key() def IterateResults(results): """Iterator function to return all results in sorted order. Iterate over the array of results, yielding the next element, in sorted order. This function is destructive (results will be empty when the operation is complete). Args: results: list of result iterators to merge and iterate through Yields: The next result in sorted order. """ result_heap = [] for result in results: heap_value = MultiQuery.SortOrderEntity(result, self.__orderings) if heap_value.GetEntity(): heapq.heappush(result_heap, heap_value) used_keys = set() while result_heap: if upper_bound is not None and len(used_keys) >= upper_bound: break top_result = heapq.heappop(result_heap) dedupe_key = GetDedupeKey(top_result) if dedupe_key not in used_keys: result = top_result.GetEntity() if override: for key in result.keys(): if key not in projection: del result[key] yield result else: pass used_keys.add(dedupe_key) results_to_push = [] while result_heap: next = heapq.heappop(result_heap) if dedupe_key != GetDedupeKey(next): results_to_push.append(next) break else: results_to_push.append(next.GetNext()) results_to_push.append(top_result.GetNext()) for popped_result in results_to_push: if popped_result.GetEntity(): heapq.heappush(result_heap, popped_result) it = IterateResults(results) try: for _ in xrange(lower_bound): it.next() except StopIteration: pass return it
[docs] def Count(self, limit=1000, **kwargs): """Return the number of matched entities for this query. Will return the de-duplicated count of results. Will call the more efficient Get() function if a limit is given. Args: limit: maximum number of entries to count (for any result > limit, return limit). config: Optional Configuration to use for this request. Returns: count of the number of entries returned. """ kwargs['limit'] = limit config = _GetConfigFromKwargs(kwargs, convert_rpc=True, config_class=datastore_query.QueryOptions) projection, override = self.__GetProjectionOverride(config) if not projection: config = datastore_query.QueryOptions(keys_only=True, config=config) elif override: config = datastore_query.QueryOptions(projection=override, config=config) lower_bound, upper_bound, config = self._ExtractBounds(config) used_keys = set() for bound_query in self.__bound_queries: for result in bound_query.Run(config=config): if projection: dedupe_key = (result.key(), tuple(result.iteritems())) else: dedupe_key = result used_keys.add(dedupe_key) if upper_bound and len(used_keys) >= upper_bound: return upper_bound - lower_bound return max(0, len(used_keys) - lower_bound)
[docs] def GetIndexList(self): raise AssertionError('No index_list available for a MultiQuery (queries ' 'using "IN" or "!=" operators)')
[docs] def GetCursor(self): raise AssertionError('No cursor available for a MultiQuery (queries ' 'using "IN" or "!=" operators)')
def _GetCompiledQuery(self): """Internal only, do not use.""" raise AssertionError('No compilation available for a MultiQuery (queries ' 'using "IN" or "!=" operators)') def __setitem__(self, query_filter, value): """Add a new filter by setting it on all subqueries. If any of the setting operations raise an exception, the ones that succeeded are undone and the exception is propagated upward. Args: query_filter: a string of the form "property operand". value: the value that the given property is compared against. """ saved_items = [] for index, query in enumerate(self.__bound_queries): saved_items.append(query.get(query_filter, None)) try: query[query_filter] = value except: for q, old_value in itertools.izip(self.__bound_queries[:index], saved_items): if old_value is not None: q[query_filter] = old_value else: del q[query_filter] raise def __delitem__(self, query_filter): """Delete a filter by deleting it from all subqueries. If a KeyError is raised during the attempt, it is ignored, unless every subquery raised a KeyError. If any other exception is raised, any deletes will be rolled back. Args: query_filter: the filter to delete. Raises: KeyError: No subquery had an entry containing query_filter. """ subquery_count = len(self.__bound_queries) keyerror_count = 0 saved_items = [] for index, query in enumerate(self.__bound_queries): try: saved_items.append(query.get(query_filter, None)) del query[query_filter] except KeyError: keyerror_count += 1 except: for q, old_value in itertools.izip(self.__bound_queries[:index], saved_items): if old_value is not None: q[query_filter] = old_value raise if keyerror_count == subquery_count: raise KeyError(query_filter) def __iter__(self): return iter(self.__bound_queries) GetCompiledCursor = GetCursor GetCompiledQuery = _GetCompiledQuery
[docs]def RunInTransaction(function, *args, **kwargs): """Runs a function inside a datastore transaction. Runs the user-provided function inside transaction, retries default number of times. Args: function: a function to be run inside the transaction on all remaining arguments *args: positional arguments for function. **kwargs: keyword arguments for function. Returns: the function's return value, if any Raises: TransactionFailedError, if the transaction could not be committed. """ return RunInTransactionOptions(None, function, *args, **kwargs)
[docs]def RunInTransactionCustomRetries(retries, function, *args, **kwargs): """Runs a function inside a datastore transaction. Runs the user-provided function inside transaction, with a specified number of retries. Args: retries: number of retries (not counting the initial try) function: a function to be run inside the transaction on all remaining arguments *args: positional arguments for function. **kwargs: keyword arguments for function. Returns: the function's return value, if any Raises: TransactionFailedError, if the transaction could not be committed. """ options = datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions(retries=retries) return RunInTransactionOptions(options, function, *args, **kwargs)
[docs]def RunInTransactionOptions(options, function, *args, **kwargs): """Runs a function inside a datastore transaction. Runs the user-provided function inside a full-featured, ACID datastore transaction. Every Put, Get, and Delete call in the function is made within the transaction. All entities involved in these calls must belong to the same entity group. Queries are supported as long as they specify an ancestor belonging to the same entity group. The trailing arguments are passed to the function as positional arguments. If the function returns a value, that value will be returned by RunInTransaction. Otherwise, it will return None. The function may raise any exception to roll back the transaction instead of committing it. If this happens, the transaction will be rolled back and the exception will be re-raised up to RunInTransaction's caller. If you want to roll back intentionally, but don't have an appropriate exception to raise, you can raise an instance of datastore_errors.Rollback. It will cause a rollback, but will *not* be re-raised up to the caller. The function may be run more than once, so it should be idempotent. It should avoid side effects, and it shouldn't have *any* side effects that aren't safe to occur multiple times. This includes modifying the arguments, since they persist across invocations of the function. However, this doesn't include Put, Get, and Delete calls, of course. Example usage: > def decrement(key, amount=1): > counter = datastore.Get(key) > counter['count'] -= amount > if counter['count'] < 0: # don't let the counter go negative > raise datastore_errors.Rollback() > datastore.Put(counter) > > counter = datastore.Query('Counter', {'name': 'foo'}) > datastore.RunInTransaction(decrement, counter.key(), amount=5) Transactions satisfy the traditional ACID properties. They are: - Atomic. All of a transaction's operations are executed or none of them are. - Consistent. The datastore's state is consistent before and after a transaction, whether it committed or rolled back. Invariants such as "every entity has a primary key" are preserved. - Isolated. Transactions operate on a snapshot of the datastore. Other datastore operations do not see intermediated effects of the transaction; they only see its effects after it has committed. - Durable. On commit, all writes are persisted to the datastore. Nested transactions are not supported. Args: options: TransactionOptions specifying options (number of retries, etc) for this transaction function: a function to be run inside the transaction on all remaining arguments *args: positional arguments for function. **kwargs: keyword arguments for function. Returns: the function's return value, if any Raises: TransactionFailedError, if the transaction could not be committed. """ options = datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions(options) if IsInTransaction(): if options.propagation in (None, datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.NESTED): raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'Nested transactions are not supported.') elif options.propagation is datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.INDEPENDENT: txn_connection = _PopConnection() try: return RunInTransactionOptions(options, function, *args, **kwargs) finally: _PushConnection(txn_connection) return function(*args, **kwargs) if options.propagation is datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.MANDATORY: raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError('Requires an existing transaction.') retries = options.retries if retries is None: retries = DEFAULT_TRANSACTION_RETRIES conn = _GetConnection() _PushConnection(None) try: for _ in range(0, retries + 1): _SetConnection(conn.new_transaction(options)) ok, result = _DoOneTry(function, args, kwargs) if ok: return result finally: _PopConnection() raise datastore_errors.TransactionFailedError( 'The transaction could not be committed. Please try again.')
def _DoOneTry(function, args, kwargs): """Helper to call a function in a transaction, once. Args: function: The function to call. *args: Tuple of positional arguments. **kwargs: Dict of keyword arguments. """ try: result = function(*args, **kwargs) except: original_exception = sys.exc_info() try: _GetConnection().rollback() except Exception: logging.exception('Exception sending Rollback:') type, value, trace = original_exception if isinstance(value, datastore_errors.Rollback): return True, None else: raise type, value, trace else: if _GetConnection().commit(): return True, result else: logging.warning('Transaction collision. Retrying... %s', '') return False, None def _MaybeSetupTransaction(request, keys): """Begin a transaction, if necessary, and populate it in the request. This API exists for internal backwards compatibility, primarily with api/taskqueue/taskqueue.py. Args: request: A protobuf with a mutable_transaction() method. keys: Unused. Returns: A transaction if we're inside a transaction, otherwise None """ return _GetConnection()._set_request_transaction(request)
[docs]def IsInTransaction(): """Determine whether already running in transaction. Returns: True if already running in transaction, else False. """ return isinstance(_GetConnection(), datastore_rpc.TransactionalConnection)
[docs]def Transactional(_func=None, **kwargs): """A decorator that makes sure a function is run in a transaction. Defaults propagation to datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.ALLOWED, which means any existing transaction will be used in place of creating a new one. WARNING: Reading from the datastore while in a transaction will not see any changes made in the same transaction. If the function being decorated relies on seeing all changes made in the calling scoope, set propagation=datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.NESTED. Args: _func: do not use. **kwargs: TransactionOptions configuration options. Returns: A wrapper for the given function that creates a new transaction if needed. """ if _func is not None: return Transactional()(_func) if not kwargs.pop('require_new', None): kwargs.setdefault('propagation', datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.ALLOWED) options = datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions(**kwargs) def outer_wrapper(func): def inner_wrapper(*args, **kwds): return RunInTransactionOptions(options, func, *args, **kwds) return inner_wrapper return outer_wrapper
@datastore_rpc._positional(1)
[docs]def NonTransactional(_func=None, allow_existing=True): """A decorator that insures a function is run outside a transaction. If there is an existing transaction (and allow_existing=True), the existing transaction is paused while the function is executed. Args: _func: do not use allow_existing: If false, throw an exception if called from within a transaction Returns: A wrapper for the decorated function that ensures it runs outside a transaction. """ if _func is not None: return NonTransactional()(_func) def outer_wrapper(func): def inner_wrapper(*args, **kwds): if not IsInTransaction(): return func(*args, **kwds) if not allow_existing: raise datastore_errors.BadRequestError( 'Function cannot be called from within a transaction.') txn_connection = _PopConnection() try: return func(*args, **kwds) finally: _PushConnection(txn_connection) return inner_wrapper return outer_wrapper
def _GetCompleteKeyOrError(arg): """Expects an Entity or a Key, and returns the corresponding Key. Raises BadArgumentError or BadKeyError if arg is a different type or is incomplete. Args: arg: Entity or Key Returns: Key """ if isinstance(arg, Key): key = arg elif isinstance(arg, basestring): key = Key(arg) elif isinstance(arg, Entity): key = arg.key() elif not isinstance(arg, Key): raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError( 'Expects argument to be an Entity or Key; received %s (a %s).' % (arg, typename(arg))) assert isinstance(key, Key) if not key.has_id_or_name(): raise datastore_errors.BadKeyError('Key %r is not complete.' % key) return key def _GetPropertyValue(entity, property): """Returns an entity's value for a given property name. Handles special properties like __key__ as well as normal properties. Args: entity: datastore.Entity property: str; the property name Returns: property value. For __key__, a datastore_types.Key. Raises: KeyError, if the entity does not have the given property. """ if property in datastore_types._SPECIAL_PROPERTIES: if property == datastore_types._UNAPPLIED_LOG_TIMESTAMP_SPECIAL_PROPERTY: raise KeyError(property) assert property == datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY return entity.key() else: return entity[property] def _AddOrAppend(dictionary, key, value): """Adds the value to the existing values in the dictionary, if any. If dictionary[key] doesn't exist, sets dictionary[key] to value. If dictionary[key] is not a list, sets dictionary[key] to [old_value, value]. If dictionary[key] is a list, appends value to that list. Args: dictionary: a dict key, value: anything """ if key in dictionary: existing_value = dictionary[key] if isinstance(existing_value, list): existing_value.append(value) else: dictionary[key] = [existing_value, value] else: dictionary[key] = value
[docs]class Iterator(datastore_query.ResultsIterator): """Thin wrapper of datastore_query.ResultsIterator. Deprecated, do not use, only for backwards compatability. """ def _Next(self, count=None): if count is None: count = 20 result = [] for r in self: if len(result) >= count: break result.append(r) return result
[docs] def GetCompiledCursor(self, query): return self.cursor()
[docs] def GetIndexList(self): """Returns the list of indexes used to perform the query.""" tuple_index_list = super(Iterator, self).index_list() return [index for index, state in tuple_index_list]
_Get = _Next index_list = GetIndexList
DatastoreRPC = apiproxy_stub_map.UserRPC GetRpcFromKwargs = _GetConfigFromKwargs _CurrentTransactionKey = IsInTransaction _ToDatastoreError = datastore_rpc._ToDatastoreError _DatastoreExceptionFromErrorCodeAndDetail = datastore_rpc._DatastoreExceptionFromErrorCodeAndDetail

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