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The REGION_ID is an abbreviated code that Google assigns
based on the region you select when you create your app. The code does not
correspond to a country or province, even though some region IDs may appear
similar to commonly used country and province codes. For apps created after
February 2020, REGION_ID.r is included in
App Engine URLs. For existing apps created before this date, the
region ID is optional in the URL.
You configure your App Engine app's settings in the app.yaml
This file specifies how URL paths correspond to request handlers and
The app.yaml file also contains information about your
app's code, such as the runtime and the latest version
in your app has its own app.yaml file, which acts as a descriptor for its
deployment. You must first create the app.yaml file for the default service
before you can create and deploy app.yaml files for additional services within
The YAML format supports comments. A line that begins with a pound (#)
character is ignored:
# This is a comment.
URL and file path patterns use POSIX extended regular expression
syntax, excluding collating
elements and collation classes. Back-references to grouped matches (e.g. \1)
are supported, as are these Perl extensions: \w \W \s \S \d \D.
Runtime and app elements
The recommended approach is to remove the application
element from your app.yaml file and instead, use a
command-line flag to specify your application ID:
When Google announces support for a new version of a
runtime environment's API, your deployed app will continue to use the
one for which it was written. To upgrade your app to a new version of
the API, you change this value and then redeploy your app to App
Engine. When you specify the 1
value, the latest supported runtime environment is used each time you
deploy that app (currently ).
At this time, App Engine has one version of the
python27 runtime environment:
When you use builtins in your app.yaml file,
any handlers that are defined by in the built-in
include.yaml file will supersede any handlers that you
define in your app.yaml file. However, if you include a
file that then uses builtins or includes,
the handlers are added by order of the include hierarchy. In other
words, the handlers of the "parent" include are added before the
builtins of the "child" includes, and so on.
For example, consider the following app.yaml, which uses
the built-in appstats handlers:
- url: /.*
- appstats: on
The resulting list of handlers is:
If the app.yaml uses an includes directive:
And the included.yaml file uses builtins:
- url: /.*
- appstats: on
The resultant list of handlers is now:
The order of placement of the builtins clause in a
.yaml file doesn't change the behavior.
Optional. Sets a global default cache period for all static
file handlers for an application. You can also configure a cache duration for specific static file
handlers. The value is a string of numbers and units, separated by
spaces, where units can be d for days, h for hours, m for minutes, and
s for seconds. For example, "4d 5h" sets cache expiration
to 4 days and 5 hours after the file is first requested. If omitted,
the production server sets the expiration to 10 minutes.
Served if a deadline is reached before there is a response from
The error_code is optional; if it's not specified, the given file
is the default error response for your app.
Each file entry indicates a static file that should be served in
place of the generic error response. If you specify a
file element without a corresponding
error_code element, the static file will be the default
error page for your app.
The custom error data must be less than 10 kilobytes.
A list of URL patterns and descriptions of how they should be handled.
App Engine can handle URLs by executing application code, or
by serving static files uploaded with the code, such as images, CSS,
The includes directive allows you to include the
configuration file for any library or service throughout your
application. For example, you might include a user administration
library as follows:
App Engine resolves the included path in the following order:
Absolute or relative path to the working directory. The specified
path resolves to a file.
Relative to the application's directory, which is also known as the
basepath. The basepath and path resolve to a file.
Relative to the file that included the current file. The location of
the referring file and the include path resolve to the included
If the include directive specifies a directory, then App
Engine looks in that directory for a file called
include.yaml. If the include directive is a file, then
that specific file is included. Using includes retrieves
only the following types of directives from the destination file (if
The following values are available depending on your
F1, F2, F4, F4_1G
Optionally use the automatic_scaling element to change default
settings for automatic scaling, such as minimum and maximum
number of instances, latency, and concurrent connections.
Note: If instance_class
is set to F2 or higher, you can optimize your instances
by setting max_concurrent_requests to a value higher than the
default value of 10. To determine the optimal value,
gradually increase it and monitor the performance of your
The Python 2.7 runtime includes some third-party
libraries. Some of these are available by default; others are only
available if configured. You can specify which version you want to use
by specifying the name and version values.
Note than when you specify latest, the SDK determines
the latest library version at deployment time. Once
deployed, the library version will not change. The only way to get a
different version of the library is to deploy again.
If you're developing an application that doesn't have users yet: you
don't need to track new versions. But if your application is being
actively used, beware: you might be surprised that your application
starts using a new not-backward-compatible library version.
To manage your app with the gcloud CLI, use the
service element instead.
Required. The name of the runtime environment that is used by your
app. For example, to specify Python 2.7, use:
Services were formerly known as Modules.
Supported only by the gcloud CLI or gcloud CLI-based
plugins, for example: gcloud app deploy.
Required if creating a
Optional for the default
service. Each service and each version must have a name. A name can
contain numbers, letters, and hyphens. The combined length of
VERSION-dot-SERVICE-dot-PROJECT_ID, where VERSION is the name of
your version, SERVICE is the name of your service, and PROJECT_ID
is your project ID, cannot be longer than 63 characters and cannot
start or end with a hyphen. Choose a unique name for each service
and each version. Don't reuse names between services and versions.
deploy command is backwards
compatible and supports existing app.yaml files that
include services declared as modules, for example:
Optional. The service_account element lets you specify a
user-managed service account as the identity for the version. The specified service account will be used when accessing other Google Cloud services and executing tasks.
The skip_files element specifies which files in the
application directory are not to be uploaded to App Engine.
The value is either a regular expression, or a list of regular
expressions. Any filename that matches any of the regular expressions
is omitted from the list of files to upload when the application is
uploaded. Filenames are relative to the project directory.
The default pattern excludes Emacs backup files with names of the form
#...# and ...~, .pyc and
.pyo files, files in an RCS revision control
directory, and Unix hidden files with names beginning with a dot
To extend the above regular expression list, copy and paste the above
list into your app.yaml and add your own regular
expressions. For example, to skip files whose names end in
.bak in addition to the default patterns, add an entry
like this for skip_files:
Note: The threadsafe directive is required for
Python 2.7 applications.
threadsafe: true requires that all script handlers be
WSGI ones. That is, each script must be specified in a
script: directive a using Python module
path, with package names separated by dots. The last component of a
script: directive using a Python module
path is the name of a global variable in the service: that variable
must be a WSGI app, and is usually called app by
The recommended approach is to remove the version
element from your app.yaml file and instead, use a
command-line flag to specify your version ID:
An identifier for the version of your application code that you deploy
to App Engine.
The version ID can contain lowercase letters, digits, and hyphens. It
cannot begin with the prefix ah- and the names
default and latest are reserved and cannot
Note: Version names should begin with a letter, to distinguish them
from numeric instances which are always specified by a number. This
avoids the ambiguity with URLs like
123-dot-my-service.uc.r.appspot.com, which can be interpreted
two ways: If version "123" exists, the target will be version "123"
of the given service. If that version does not exist, the target will
be instance number 123 of the default version of the service.
Configures your application to use a Serverless VPC Access
connector, enabling the application to send requests to internal
resources in your VPC network. For more information, see
Connecting to a VPC network.
String literal. Specify the fully-qualified name of your
Serverless VPC Access connector in quotes:
The handlers element is a required element in the
app.yaml configuration file. The element provides a list of URL
patterns and descriptions of how they should be handled. App Engine can
handle URLs by executing application code, or by serving static files uploaded
Patterns are evaluated in the order they appear in the app.yaml file, from
top to bottom. The first mapping whose pattern matches the URL is the one used
to handle the request.
The following table lists the subelements of the handlers element that control
the behavior for scripts, static files,
static directories, and other settings.
Optional. Boolean. By default, files declared in static file handlers
are uploaded as static data and are only served to end users. They
cannot be read by an application. If this field is set to true, the
files are also uploaded as code data so your application can read them.
Both uploads are charged against your code and static data storage resource quotas.
The length of time a static file served by this handler should be
cached by web proxies and browsers. The value is a string of
numbers and units, separated by spaces, where units can be
d for days, h for hours, m for
minutes, and s for seconds. For example,
"4d 5h" sets cache expiration to 4 days and 5 hours after
the file is first requested. If omitted, the application's
default_expiration is used. See Cache
expiration for more details.
Optional. You can set HTTP
headers for responses of your static file or directory
handlers. If you need to set HTTP headers
in your script handlers, you should instead do that in your app's
code. For information about which response headers influence caching,
- url: /images
X-Bar-Header: bar value
One important use of this feature is to support cross-origin resource
sharing (CORS), such as accessing files hosted by another
App Engine app.
For example, you could have a game app mygame.uc.r.appspot.com
that accesses assets hosted by myassets.uc.r.appspot.com.
XMLHttpRequest to myassets, it will not
succeed unless the handler for myassets returns an
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: response header containing
the value http://mygame.uc.r.appspot.com.
Here is how you would make your static file handler return that
required response header value:
Note: if you wanted to allow everyone to access your assets, you could
use the wildcard '*', instead of
Optional. If specified, all files served by this handler will be
served using the specified MIME type. If not specified, the MIME type
for a file will be derived from the file's filename extension.
If the same file is uploaded with multiple extensions, the resulting
extension can depend on the order in which the uploads occurred.
Optional. redirect_http_response_code is used with the
secure setting to set the HTTP response code returned
when performing a redirect required by how the secure
setting is configured.
redirect_http_response_code element has the following
When a user's request is redirected, the HTTP status code will be set
to the value of the redirect_http_response_code
parameter. If the parameter is not present, 302 will be returned.
Specifies the path to the script from the application root
# The root URL (/) is handled by the WSGI application named
# "app" in home.py. No other URLs match this pattern.
- url: /
# The URL /index.html is also handled by the home.py script.
- url: /index\.html
# A regular expression can map parts of the URL to the
# path of the script.
- url: /browse/(books|videos|tools)
# All other URLs use the WSGI application named in "app"
# in not_found.py.
- url: /.*
A script: directive must be a python import path, for
example, package.module.app that points to a WSGI
application. The last component of a script: directive
using a Python module path is the name of a global
variable in the module: that variable must be a WSGI app, and is
usually called app by convention.
Note: just like for a Python import statement, each
subdirectory that is a package must contain a file named __init__.py.
Optional. Any URL handler can use the secure setting,
including script handlers and
static file handlers. The secure element has the following
Both HTTP and HTTPS requests with URLs that match the handler
succeed without redirects. The application can examine the request
to determine which protocol was used, and respond accordingly. This
is the default when secure is not provided for a
Requests for a URL that match this handler that use HTTPS are
automatically redirected to the HTTP equivalent URL. When a user's
HTTPS request is redirected to be an HTTP request,
the query parameters are removed from the request. This prevents a
user from accidentally submitting query data over a non-secure
connection that was intended for a secure connection.
Requests for a URL that match this handler that do not use HTTPS are
automatically redirected to the HTTPS URL with the same path. Query
parameters are preserved for the redirect.
The development web server does not support HTTPS connections. It
ignores the secure parameter, so paths intended for use
with HTTPS can be tested using regular HTTP connections to the
development web server.
Google Accounts sign-in and sign-out are always performed using a
secure connection, unrelated to how the application's URLs are
Optional. The path to the directory containing the static files, from
the application root directory. Everything after the end of the
matched url pattern is appended to
static_dir to form the full path to the requested file.
Each file in the static directory is served using the MIME type that
corresponds with its filename extension unless overridden by the
directory's mime_type setting. All of the files in the
given directory are uploaded as static files, and
none of them can be run as scripts.
All files in this directory are uploaded with your app as static
files. App Engine stores and serves static files separately
from your app's files. Static files are not available in the app's
file system by default. This can be changed by setting the application_readable option to true.
# All URLs beginning with /stylesheets are treated as paths to
# static files in the stylesheets/ directory.
- url: /stylesheets
Optional. A static file pattern handler associates a URL pattern with
paths to static files uploaded with the application. The URL pattern
regular expression can define regular expression groupings to be used
in the construction of the file path. You can use this instead of
static_dir to map to specific files in a directory
structure without mapping the entire directory.
# All URLs ending in .gif .png or .jpg are treated as paths to
# static files in the static/ directory. The URL pattern is a
# regular expression, with a grouping that is inserted into the
# path to the file.
- url: /(.*\.(gif|png|jpg))$
App Engine stores and serves static files separately
from application files. Static files are not available in the
application's file system by default. This can be changed by setting
the application_readable option to true.
Static files cannot be the same as application code files.
If a static file path matches a path to a script used in a dynamic
handler, the script will not be available to the dynamic handler.
Optional. A regular expression that matches the file paths for all
files that will be referenced by this handler. This is necessary
because the handler cannot determine which files in your application
directory correspond with the given url and
static_files patterns. Static files are uploaded and
handled separately from application files. The example
above might use the following upload pattern:
Required element under handlers. The URL pattern, as a
regular expression. The expression can contain groupings that can be
referred to in the file path to the script with regular expression
back-references. For example,
/profile/(.*)/(.*) would match the URL
/profile/edit/manager and use
edit and manager as the first and second
The URL pattern has some differences in behavior when used with the
Uses a URL prefix. The regular express pattern should not contain
groupings when used with the static_dir element. All
URLs that begin with this prefix are handled by this handler, using
the portion of the URL after the prefix as part of the file path.
A static file pattern handler associates a URL pattern with paths to
static files uploaded with the application. The URL pattern regular
expression can define regular expression groupings to be used in the
construction of the file path. You can use this instead of
static_dir to map to specific files in a directory
structure without mapping the entire directory.
The elements in following table configure how your application scales. To learn
more about how App Engine apps scale, see
Optional. Applicable only for applications that use an
class of F1 or higher.
Specify this element to change default settings for automatic scaling,
such as setting minimum and maximum levels for number of instances,
latency, and concurrent connections for a service.
This element can contain the following elements:
Optional. Specify a value between 0 and 2147483647, where zero
disables the setting.
This parameter specifies the maximum number of instances for App
Engine to create for this module version. This is useful to limit
the costs of a module.
Optional. The minimum number of instances for App Engine to
create for this module version. These instances serve traffic when
requests arrive, and continue to serve traffic even when
additional instances are started up as required to handle traffic.
Specify a value from 0 to 1000. You can set
the parameter to the value 0 to allow scaling to 0 instances to
lower costs when no requests are being served. Note that you are
charged for the number of instances specified whether they are
receiving traffic or not.
Optional. The maximum number of idle instances that
App Engine should maintain for this version. Specify a
value from 1 to 1000. If not specified, the default value is automatic,
which means App Engine will manage
the number of idle instances.
Keep the following in mind:
A high maximum reduces the number of idle instances more
gradually when load levels return to normal after a spike. This
helps your application maintain steady performance through
fluctuations in request load, but also raises the number of idle
instances (and consequent running costs) during such periods of
A low maximum keeps running costs lower, but can degrade
performance in the face of volatile load levels.
Note: When settling back to normal levels after a
load spike, the number of idle instances can temporarily exceed
your specified maximum. However, you will not be charged for more
instances than the maximum number you've specified.
Optional: The number of additional instances to be kept running
and ready to serve traffic for this version.
App Engine calculates the number of instances necessary to
serve your current application traffic based on scaling
settings such as target_cpu_utilization and
target_throughput_utilization. Setting min_idle_instances
specifies the number of instances to
run in addition to this calculated number. For example,
if App Engine calculates that 5 instances
are necessary to serve traffic, and min_idle_instances
is set to 2, App Engine will run 7 instances (5, calculated
based on traffic, plus 2 additional per min_idle_instances).
Note that you are
charged for the number of instances specified whether they are
receiving traffic or not. Keep the following in mind:
A low minimum helps keep your running costs down during idle
periods, but means that fewer instances might be immediately
available to respond to a sudden load spike.
A high minimum allows you to prime the application for rapid
spikes in request load. App Engine keeps the minimum
number of instances running to serve incoming requests. You
are charged for the number of instances specified, whether or
not they are handling requests.
If you set a minimum number of idle instances, pending latency
will have less effect on your application's performance.
Optional. Specify a value between 0.5 and 0.95. The default is
This parameter specifies
the CPU usage threshold at which new instances will be
started to handle traffic, enabling you to balance between
performance and cost, with lower values increasing performance and
increasing cost, and higher values decreasing performance but
also decreasing cost. For example, a value of 0.7 means that new
instances will be started after CPU usage reaches 70 percent.
Optional. Specify a value from 0.5 to 0.95. The default is
Used with max_concurrent_requests to specify when
a new instance is started due to concurrent requests. When the
number of concurrent requests reaches a value equal to
target_throughput_utilization, the scheduler tries
to start a new instance.
Optional. The number of concurrent requests an automatic scaling
instance can accept before the scheduler spawns a new instance
Used with target_throughput_utilization to
specify when a new instance is started due to concurrent requests.
When the number of concurrent requests reaches a value equal to
target_throughput_utilization, the scheduler tries to
start a new instance.
We recommend you do not set max_concurrent_requests
to less than 10 unless you need single threading. A value
of less than 10 is likely to result in more instances being
created than you need for a threadsafe app, and that may lead to
If this setting is too high, you might experience increased API
latency. Note that the scheduler might spawn a new instance before
the actual maximum number of requests is reached.
The maximum amount of time that App Engine should allow a request
to wait in the pending queue before starting additional instances
to handle requests so that pending latency is reduced. When this
threshold is reached, it is a signal to scale up, and results in
an increase in the number of instances.
If not specified, the default value is automatic. This means
requests can remain in the pending queue for up to 10s, the maximum
pending request time limit, before new instance starts are triggered.
A low maximum means App Engine will start new instances
sooner for pending requests, improving performance but raising
A high maximum means users might wait longer for their requests
to be served (if there are pending requests and no idle
instances to serve them), but your application will cost less to
An optional element you can set to specify the minimum amount of
time that App Engine should allow a request to wait in the
pending queue before starting a new instance to handle it.
Specifying a value can lower running costs but increase the time
users must wait for their requests to be served.
For free apps, the default value is 500ms. For paid
apps, the default value is 0.
This element works together with the max_pending_latency
element to determine when App Engine creates new instances.
If pending requests are in the queue:
Less than the min_pending_latency you specify,
App Engine will not create new instances.
More than max_pending_latency, App Engine
will try to create a new instance.
Between the time specified by min_pending_latency
and max_pending_latency, App Engine will
try to reuse an existing instance. If no instances are able to
process the request before max_pending_latency,
App Engine will create a new instance.